This slide provides an overview of the research lecture.
Understanding the difference between primary and secondary research is an important concept. One example of primary research is when you create a survey instrument and collect your own data. Secondary research usually comes in the form of published findings or research reports. Primary SourcesPrimary sources are original materials. They are from the time period involved and have not been filtered through interpretation. Diaries Interviews (legal proceedings, personal, telephone, e-mail) , Letters, Original Documents (i.e. birth certificate or a trial transcript), Patents, Photographs, Proceedings of Meetings, Conferences and Symposia, Survey Research (such as market surveys and public opinion polls), Works of Literature Secondary SourcesSecondary sources are accounts written after the fact with the benefit of hindsight. They are interpretations and evaluations of primary sources. Secondary sources are not evidence, but rather commentary on and discussion of evidence. Biographies, Commentaries, Dissertations, Indexes, Abstracts, Bibliographies (used to locate primary & secondary sources), Journal Articles, Monographs Tertiary SourcesTertiary sources consist of information which is a distillation and collection of primary and secondary sources. Almanacs Encyclopedias Fact books
Other search engines or meta search engines: Dogpile, Mamma, AltaVista. Directories include the Librarians Index to the Internet, MeL, IPL (Internet Public Library).
Introductory slide for the next section of the lecture.
Click on 360 Search to search multiple databases (Lexis/Nexis, Proquest, Marketresearch.com, MeL, NetLibrary). Proquest, Lexis/Nexis and MeL are the most heavily used databases. NetLibrary includes only books, no articles.The additional databases are focused on specific content areas:BizMiner – market research reports or financial reports for specific industries. Can sort by state or city.Hoovers – company information. Provides more in depth information than you will find in the Hoovers information available via Proquest (more financial information). CountryWatch – country information (geography, political outlook, social outlook, etc) on the 192 countries recognized by the United Nations. DON’T FORGET to check out the Research Guides (Cleary Research Wiki: http://resources.cleary.edu), the Library Blog (http://clearylibrarian.wordpress.com), and remember there is a NoodleTools link (http://www.noodletools.com) as well.
Independent links to the wiki, blog, and Noodletools (you don’t have to link through the Cleary Online Library).
1 Internet Searching Jane Ellen Innes Cleary University Library firstname.lastname@example.org Sep 2011
What we are covering What is research? Critical thinking Internet searching (search engines, strategies, tips) Cleary’s proprietary databases Proquest, Lexis/Nexis/Mel Others Evaluating information 2
What is Research? Primary versus secondary research Writing process stage 2: collecting How does research benefit your papers? Credibility Professionalism Where to begin 3
Critical Thinking What is critical thinking and why is it important? Critical Thinking Taking what you know, combining with what you learn to reach new conclusion Start with broad concepts and narrow 4
5 Better searching with critical thinking Who is interested in what you are looking for? Learn about your topic as you search Get information from search summaries Increase your topic specific vocabulary as you search
Topic Worksheet A Topic Worksheet is linked at the bottom of this lesson page. Created by Joe Barker, Teaching Library, UC Berkeley Use search engines to increase your vocabulary on your topic. Take the information you learn from general Internet searches and search the Cleary Online Library. 6
What are Search Engines? Large databases Full text of web pages Use keywords matching words in pages you want Built by computer robot programs No selectivity, no evaluation for reliability Each is different - Minimal standardization All accept “quotes” to search as phrase Good ones assume AND between words 4/26/10 8
How do you measure a search engine’s value? Size, freshness & unique pages How comprehensive are they? Ranking of results What order are results displayed in? Default search mode effectiveness Intuitive and easy to use? Advanced search options Can you perform complex searches Can you limit by date, type of site, etc? Overall convenience and usefulness Do you get junk or good stuff? 9
How to get the best results from search engines Match words in pages - FULL TEXT Be as specific as you can search on distinctive words - fallujah put “phrases in quotes”“collateral damage” scan your question for good search terms Start with one or two words or phrases add as needed to focus results 4/26/10 10
4/26/10 12 Meta Search Engines Meta Search Engines search multiple sites and retrieve combined results. Meta Search Engines Explained (thanks UC Berkeley) Multiple Search Engines, Meta Search Engines, or Metacrawlers(SearchEngineShowdown)
Choosing the Best Search Engine Check NoodleTools (yes, NoodleTools): Search Engine Advice UC Berkeley Recommendations Search Engine Recommendations Subject Directory Recommendations 10 Best Search Engines of 2011 (About.com) 4/26/10 13
4/26/10 14 Get a second opinion Statistics say no search engine has it all Only about 60% of pages in Google are also in other search engines Only 50% of pages in any search engine database are also found in all others Use another search engine Search Engine Showdown - http://www.searchengineshowdown.com/
Alternative beyond Google AskX - http://www.askx.com Bing - http://www.bing.com/ Exalead (http://www.exalead.com/search) Create your customized launching page with Exalead 4/26/10 15
Need a quick fact? Answers.com - http://answers.com Yahoo Answers: http://answers.yahoo.com Askville - http://askville.amazon.com/Index.do Use with caution; some are more reliable than others. 4/26/10 16
4/26/10 17 Statistics Sources Nation Master - http://www.nationmaster.com State Master - http://www.statemaster.com Source for state, national and international statistics Cool tool for presenting graphical information Data from WHO, World Ban, CIA World Factbook, World Resources Institute, etc.
4/26/10 18 Scholarly Sources Some resources require fees – good for reviewing reference lists of similar topics Google Scholar - http://scholar.google.com/ InfoMine - http://infomine.ucr.edu/ What’s the difference between a scholarly source and a magazine?(courtesy of Univ. Central Florida Libraries)
Cleary Online Libraries Login information Databases and focus areas Proquest Basic search, topic search, publication search Lexis Nexis Updated format makes searching easy MeL Other, topic specific databases (marketresearch.com, Hoover, NetLibrary) 4/26/10 19
Cleary Online Library Login Information 4/26/10 20
This is the opening screen of the online library. If you click on the ? Icon you’ll find more information about each database. Sep 2010 21
Additional Resources Cleary Research Wiki http://resources.cleary.edu Cleary Library Blog http://clearylibrarian.wordpress.com NoodleTools http://www.noodletools.com 4/26/10 28
Remember Check the Cleary Research Wiki for information on conducting research The more you research, the better you get at it Be patient and don’t always assume that the FIRST article you find is the best. 4/26/10 29
EVALUATING INFORMATION If you are using material that you’ve found via the Cleary Library, there is no need for further evaluation. If you’ve found some great information on the Internet . . . You need to investigate a little further. . . 4/26/10 30
Evaluating Information Why Evaluate What You Find on the Web? Anyone can put up a Web page about anything for pennies in minutes Many pages not kept up-to-date No quality control 4/26/10 31
4/26/10 32 Evaluating Information Wikipedia: Good place to start but NOT a definitive source. DO NOT cite in your reference list Citizendium (signed Wiki) http://en.citizendium.org/wiki/Main_Page
4/26/10 33 Ask yourself Credentials for the subject matter ? “About us” “Philosophy” “Background” “Biography” Is it recent or current enough ? Look for “last updated” date - usually at bottom Why it the page put on the Web? Inform, explain, persuade, sell, entice, share, disclose? Parody or satire? Is it appropriate for your purpose?