Japanese management Western management Kaizen Innovation Process-oriented way of Result-oriented thinking thinking
Why Use Kaizen?• 1. To solve problems (without already knowing the solution)• 2. To eliminate waste (Muda) • Transportation, Inventory, Motion, Waiting, Over-production, Over-processing, Defects• 3. Create ownership and empowerment• 4. Support lean thinking
Definition of kaizenHistory of Kaizen goes back to 1950’s when Toyota implemented qualitycircles leading to the development of Toyota’s unique ‘Toyota Production System’and is now used throughout the world KAI ZEN To modify, to change Think, make good, make better = KAIZEN “Kaizen” is a Japanese term that means small, incremental, continuous improvement
Continuous ImprovementIs the continuous elimination of wasteCommon Causes of Waste : Layout (distance) Inconsistent performance Long setup time measures Ineffective production Incapable processes planning Poor maintenance Lack of workplace Poor work methods organization Lack of training Poor supply quality/reliability
Seven Types of Waste Overproduction Build more than required, before required. Waiting Stop build to look for parts, tools, material, information Transportation/Moving Moving material, parts, tooling Transferring product between locations, into/out of racks Process Inefficiencies Unnecessary operations, too many inspections, not building to customer spec Inventories/Storage Excess raw material, excess WIP Unnecessary Motions Walking, climbing, bending, searching, identifying Defective products Low Yields, mistakes leading to large reworks, sorting, inspection
Over -ProcessingTaiichi Ohno’s 7 Wastes Over - Production TEN CALL IT How do you spell that? PLEASE! TWENTY? …22 TO BE ON THE SAFE SIDE! Defects / Rejects / Re-work Motion KODAK OPERATING SYSTEM KODAK OPERATING SYSTEM Inventory KODAK OPERATING SYSTEM $ $$ $ $ $ Transportation KODAK OPERATING SYSTEM $ $ $ $ Waiting $ $ KODAK OPERATING SYSTEM KODAK OPERATING SYSTEM KODAK OPERATING SYSTEM
Great attention paid to customer requirements and needs •Efficient stock control methods help •Flexible working reduce costs and practices and improve cash-flow •Leadership seen as help empowerment – vital. increase efficiency, Ability to communicate a clear vision, take people reduce costs and•Fundamental principles and along with the vision – improve motivationoften characterised as ‘lean to think about where theproduction’ – reducingbe in company needs to waste,zero10, 15 and 20 years 5, defects, high qualitydelivery,•Punctuality in all aspects –control measures at all stages timesupply, manufacture, etc.
Kaizen has three major components:1. Perceptiveness: All Kaizen projects are based on identified problems.2. Idea development: This stage requires more than one person to provide better innovative ideas; therefore, forming a Kaizen focus team for the identified problem is very important. In this team-assembly process, one key is putting employees who work in the problem area together in order to interact in this innovative team3. Decision, implementation, and effect: Kaizen is only valuable if and when it is implemented. In the decision-making process, the team identifies what appears to be the best solution, and the team is also responsible for evaluating the effect of the Kaizen process
The steps of this approach aresummarized as follows:1. Identify a problem.2. Form a team.3. Gather information from internal and external customers, and determine goals for the project.4. Review the current situation or process.5. Brainstorm and consider seven possible alternatives.6. Decide the three best alternatives of the seven.7. Simulate and evaluate these alternatives before implementation.8. Present the idea and suggestions to managers.9. Physically implement the Kaizen results and take account of the effects.
Kaizen Cycle Start Here Do It Again Document Celebrate Reality Identify Waste Make this the Standard Plan Counter- measures Measure Results Reality Kaizen Verify Check Change Make Changes
KaizenEvaluate- Baseline Process Performance- Establish TargetDecide-Compare solutions- ChooseAct-Communicate- Implement improvement- Control To eliminate wasteMeasure- Validate improvement- Standardize- Update ProceduresFocus- Eliminate Waste 5S- Seek Incremental Process ChangesSummary- Common Sense Approach based onObservation- Applicable to all types of processes- Defined improvement strategy- Typical Projects 1 week
The 5-S ProgramSeiri • segregate and discard • get rid of what is not neededSeiton • arrange and identify for ease of use • a place for everything and everything in its placeSeiso • Clean Daily • clean work place enhances quality
The 5-S ProgramSeiketsu • Revisit frequently • revisit the first 3 steps to maintain workplace safety and effectivenessShitsuki • Motivate to sustain • promote adherence through visual performance measurement tools