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  1. 1. “A STUDY ON JOB SATISFACTION OF EMPLOYEES IN TTK HEALTHCARE LIMITED”<br />A Group project submitted to the <br />UNIVERSITY OF MADRAS<br />In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of<br />BACHELOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION<br />Group project report submitted by<br />K.JEGATHEESAN (NG70689)<br />B.ANANDKUMAR (NG70687)<br />M.S.RANJITH (NG70694)<br />Under the guidance of<br />Mrs.R.ANURADHA. M.COM, M.phil.<br />Lecturer, Department of Business Studies<br />Department of business studies<br />Hindustan College of Arts and Science<br />(Affiliated to University of Madras)<br />Padur, Kelambakkam-603103.April -2010<br />CERTIFICATE<br />This is to certify that this project was done under my guidance and the project entitled “A STUDY ON JOB SATISFACTION OF EMPLOYEES IN TTK HEALTHCARE LIMITED, CHENNAI” is a Bonafide work submitted by Mr.Jegatheesan.K, Mr.Ranjith.M.S, and Mr.B.Anand Kumar in partial fulfillment of the requirement of the U.G degree course in Business Administration for the academic year 2007 – 2010. This is the original work of the candidates.<br /> GUIDEHOD<br /> Mrs.R.AnuradhaMrs. K. Malarvizhi<br />,M.Phil. M.Com.,M.B.A.,M.Phil.,,B.Ed<br />PRINCIPAL<br />Dr. V.J.Philip<br />M.Sc.,Ph.d,B.D.<br />EXTERNAL EXAMINERINTERNAL EXAMINER<br />DECLARATION<br />We, Mr.Jegatheesan.K. Mr.Ranjith.M.S, and Mr.B.Anand Kumar are bonafide Students of the Department of Business Studies, Hindustan College of Arts & Science Affiliated to Madras University. We would like to declare that the group project report entitled “A STUDY ON JOB SATISFACTION OF EMPLOYEES IN TTK HEALTHCARE LIMITED CHENNAI” has been compiled by us in partial fulfillment of Bachelor of Business Administration for the academic period 2007-2010. This is our original work.<br />SIGNATURE OF THE STUDENT<br />K.JEGATHEESANB.ANAND KUMAR<br /> (NG70689)(NG70687)<br />M.S. RANJITH<br /> (NG70694)<br />PLACE: CHENNAI<br />DATE :<br />CONTENTS<br /><ul><li>CHAPTERSTITLE PAGE NO.List of TablesList of ChartsIntroductionHuman Resource ManagementObjectives of the studyNeed of the studyScope of the studyLimitation of the studyProfiles and Methodology Industry profileCompany profileResearch methodologyReview of literatureJob satisfactionData Analysis and InterpretationFindings, suggestions and conclusionsFindingsSuggestionsConclusionsAnnexureQuestionnaire Bibliography</li></ul>List of Tables<br />Table NoDetailsPage No4.1Job Satisfaction of Employees4.2 Job Security to Employees 4.3Employees are Happy with Pay Benefits4.4Satisfaction of Social Security Benefits 4.5Fellow Employees are Fully Co-operative4.6Working Environment is Conducive4.7Enough Promotional Opportunities4.8Facilities of Training are Available4.9 Scope for Participation in Decision Making4.10Better Human Relation between Employees is Possible4.11Employees are Satisfied with their present Position in the Company4.12Employees are Recognized by Concern4.13Job Satisfaction Techniques are Effective4.14Opportunity to Develop the Skills4.15Reduction of Labour Turnover is possible through Job Satisfaction4.16Spearman’s Rank Correlation between Working Environment and Better Human Relationship4.17Correlation Coefficient between Position of Employees and Pay Benefits<br />List of Charts<br />Chart No.DetailsPage No4.1Job Satisfaction of Employees4.2 Job Security to Employees 4.3Employees are Happy with Pay Benefits4.4Satisfaction of Social Security Benefits 4.5Fellow Employees are Fully Co-operative4.6Working Environment is Conducive4.7Enough Promotional Opportunities4.8Facilities of Training are Available4.9 Scope for Participation in Decision Making4.10Better Human Relation between Employees is Possible4.11Employees are Satisfied with their present Position in the Company4.12Employees are Recognized by Concern4.13Job Satisfaction Techniques are Effective4.14Opportunity to Develop the Skills4.15Reduction of Labour Turnover is possible through Job Satisfaction67<br />CHAPTER-I<br />INTRODUCTION<br />The Human Resources (HR) Division within the Academy of Management is dedicated to a better understanding of how work organizations can perform more effectively by better management of their human resources. That is, we are interested in understanding, identifying, and improving the effectiveness of HR practices (whether in the U.S. or in other countries) in the various functions and activities carried out as part of HR, and determining the optimal fit between these practices and organizational strategies, cultures, and performance. Major topics include acquisition, allocation, development, utilization, maintenance, and evaluation of humans as resources in work organizations. The emphasis is on the study of the employment relationship at the individual, group, organizational, societal, and cross-cultural levels of analysis, and the impact of this relationship on outcomes critical to the organization and its applicants, both present and past employees, and their representatives.<br />As one of the Academy of Management's largest divisions with over 2600 members, we serve as a gathering place for academics and practitioners to create networks aimed at discovering and disseminated state-of-the-art HR knowledge. To learn more about the division, its activities, its governance, and how you can get involved, please click on one of the buttons on the side. They create the impression that people are merely commodities, like office machines or vehicles, despite assurances to the contrary.<br />Human Resource Management, though a new nomenclature as a field of study in today’s context, existed in some form with the evolution of human organizations. However, its systematic study started with the development of the field of management in the beginning of 20th century. It has followed the development pattern of management. This has evolved out of different terms such as personnel management, personnel administration, staff management, manpower management, labour relations industrial relations, industrial relations sand lately some experts have coined new term knowledge management. In each label, the scope and emphasis of functions relevant to managing human resources’ have changed to some degree. However, in the present context, two terms personnel management and human resource management are used quite frequently with more emphasis being placed on latter.<br />In a general way, human resources are the people and their characteristics at work either at the national level or organizational level. For example , megginson has defined human resources as follows: From the national point of view, human resource are the knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and attitudes obtained in the population; whereas from the view point of individual enterprise, they represent the total of the inherent abilities, acquired knowledge and skills as exemplified in the talents and aptitudes of its employees. Jucious has called these resources as human factor which refers to a whole consisting of interrelated, interdependent, and interacting physiological, psychological, sociological and ethical components. Sumatra ghosal, professor of strategic leadership and considered as management guru, has termed human resource as human capital consisting of three types of capital- intellectual capital, social capital and emotional capital. Intellectual capital consists of specialized knowledge, tacit knowledge and skills, cognitive complexity and learning capacity; social capital consists of network of relationships, sociability and trustworthiness; and emotional capital consists of self confidence, ambition and courage, risk taking ability and resilience.<br />Since an organization performs a number of functions to achieve its objectives, it requires human resources of different types which may be categorized on the basis of functional areas like production, marketing, finance, etc. or organizational hierarchy or the levels at which these resources are put. Thus, human resources across the functional areas may be arranged into top management, middle management, supervisory management.<br />The Human Resources Management (HRM) function includes a variety of activities, and key among them is deciding what staffing needs you have and whether to use independent contractors or hire employees to fill these needs, recruiting and training the best employees, ensuring they are high performers, dealing with performance issues, and ensuring your personnel and management practices conform to various regulations. Activities also include managing your approach to employee benefits and compensation, employee records and personnel policies. Usually small businesses (for-profit or nonprofit) have to carry out these activities themselves because they can't yet afford part- or full-time help. However, they should always ensure that employees have -- and are aware of -- personnel policies which conform to current regulations. These policies are often in the form of employee manuals, which all employees have.<br />Some people distinguish a difference between HRM (a major management activity) and HRD (Human Resource Development, a profession). Those people might include HRM in HRD, explaining that HRD includes the broader range of activities to develop personnel inside of organizations, e.g., career development, training, organization development, etc.<br />There is a long-standing argument about where Human Resource-related functions should be organized into large organizations, e.g., " should Human Resource be in the Organization Development department or the other way around?" <br />The Human Resource Management function and Human Resource Development profession have undergone tremendous change over the past 20-30 years. Many years ago, large organizations looked to the " Personnel Department," mostly to manage the paperwork around hiring and paying people. More recently, organizations consider the " Human Resource Department" as playing a major role in staffing, training and helping to manage people so that people and the organization are performing at maximum capability in a highly fulfilling manner.<br />Recently, the phrase " Talent Management" is being used to refer the activities to attract, develop and retain employees. Some people and organizations use the phrase to refer especially to talented and/or high-potential employees. The phrase often is used interchangeably with the field of Human Resource Management although as the field of talent management matures, it's very likely there will be an increasing number of people who will strongly disagree about the interchange of these fields. Job satisfaction is one of the important factors which have drawn attention of managers in the organization as well as academicians. Various studies have been conducted to find out the factor which determines job satisfaction and the way it influence productivity in the organization. Though there is no conclusive evidence that job satisfaction affects productivity directly because productivity depends on many variables, it is still a prime concern for managers.<br /> Job satisfaction is the mental feeling of favorableness which an individual has about his job. Durbin’s has defined job satisfaction in terms of pleasure and contentment when he says that: Job satisfaction is the amount of pleasure or contentment association with a job. If you like your job intensely, you will experience high job satisfaction .if you dislike your job intensely, you will experience job dissatisfaction.<br /> Job satisfaction in regards to one’s feeling or state of mind regarding nature of their work. Job can be influenced by variety of factors like quality of one’s relationship with their supervisor, quality of physical environment in which they work, degree of fulfillment in their work, etc. Positive attitude towards job are equivalent to job satisfaction where as negative attitude towards job has been defined variously from time to time. In short job satisfaction is a person’s attitude towards job. Job satisfaction is an attitude which results from balancing & summation of many specific likes and dislikes experienced in connection with the job- their evaluation may rest largely upon one’s success or failure in the achievement of personal objective and upon perceived combination of the job and combination towards these ends.<br />Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, a motivation theory, laid the foundation for job satisfaction theory. This theory explains that people seek to satisfy five specific needs in life – physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, self-esteem needs, and self-actualization. This model served as a good basis from which early researchers could develop job satisfaction theories.<br />Job Satisfaction can be an important indicator of how employees feel about their jobs and a predictor of work behaviors such as organizational citizenship, absenteeism, and turnover. Further, job satisfaction can partially mediate the relationship of personality variables and deviant work behaviors.<br />OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY<br />To study employees perception on job satisfaction.<br />To know co-workers relationship within the organisation.<br />To understand the working environment of the organization. <br />To analyze job satisfaction level of employees.<br />To suggest measure to improve job satisfaction in TTK Healthcare limited.<br />SCOPE OF THE STUDY<br />The study is conducted in TTK Healthcare Limited to find out the job satisfaction of employees for the period of one month Dec 2009 to Jan 2010. Around 50 employees were surveyed through questionnaire to identify the employee job satisfaction level. The study covered area of research and development, quality analysis development, liquid oral manufacturing and packaging Department in TTK Healthcare Limited. We approached respondent with primary data i.e. questionnaire with multiple choice method and ranking method questions relating to pay benefits, working environment, quality of relationship with their superior, degree of fulfillment in their work etc, to study the job satisfaction of employees in ttk healthcare limited.<br />NEED FOR THE STUDY<br />Job satisfaction of employees plays a most important role in Human Resource Department. An attempt is made to study employee’s satisfaction level in TTK Healthcare LTD. Every organization take their maximum effort to fulfill the needs of their employee, which in turn will reduce labour turnover, absenteeism reduce grievances etc. This study is conducted to know how far employees are satisfied with their working environment, working hours, pay benefits etc., which will be very helpful to the organization for identifying the area of dissatisfaction of job and measures to overcome it. <br />LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY<br /><ul><li>Lack of interest among employees who refuse and hesitate to give detailed feedback.
  2. 2. Since the primary data were collected, the survey is subjected to bias.
  3. 3. The sample of 50 respondents will not provide a overall and complete picture about the organization.
  4. 4. The research not widen the study, where the research was carried out for short span of time</li></ul>CHAPTER-II<br />PROFILES AND METHODOLOGY<br />INDUSTRY PROFILE<br />Healthcare industry in the country, which comprises hospital and allied sectors, is projected to grow 23 per cent per annum to touch US$ 77 billion by 2012 from the current estimated size of US$ 35 billion, according to a Yes Bank and ASSOCHAM report. The sector has registered a growth of 9.3 per cent between 2000-2009, comparable to the sectoral growth rate of other emerging economies such as China, Brazil and Mexico. According to the report, the growth in the sector would be driven by healthcare facilities, private and public sector, medical diagnostic and path labs and the medical insurance sector.<br />Healthcare facilities, inclusive of public and private hospitals, the core sector, around which the healthcare sector is centered, would continue to contribute over 70 per cent of the total sector and touch a figure of US$ 54.7 billion by 2012.Adds a FICCI-Ernst and Young report, India needs an investment of US$ 14.4 billion in the healthcare sector by 2025, to increase its bed density to at least two per thousand population. <br />According to a latest report by McKinsey, driven by strong local demand, Indian healthcare market is expected to continue growing close to previously projected rates of 10 to 12 per cent. With average household consumption expected to increase by more than seven per cent per annum, the annual healthcare expenditure is projected to grow at 10 per cent and also the number of insured is likely to jump from 100 million to 220 million.<br />Investments in HealthCare: The sector has been attracting huge investments from domestic players as well as financial investors and private equity (PE) firms. Funds such as ICICI Ventures, IFC, Ashmore and Apax Partners invested about US$ 450 million in the first six months of 2008-09 compared with US$ 125 million in the same period a year ago, according to an analysis carried out by Feedback Ventures. Feedback Ventures expects PE funds to invest at least US$ 1 billion in the healthcare sector in the next five years. According to a Venture Intelligence study, 12 per cent of the US$ 77 million venture capital investments in the July-September 2009 quarter were in the healthcare sector.<br />As part of its ‘Healthymagination’ initiative, GE will spend US$ 3 billion over the next six years on research and development, provide US$ 2 billion of financing over the next six years to drive healthcare information technology and health in rural and underserved areas, and invest US$ 1 billion in partnerships, content and services. <br />The government, along with participation from the private sector, is planning to invest US$ 1 billion to US$ 2 billion in an effort to make India one of the top five global pharmaceutical innovation hubs by 2020. <br />The Ajay Primal Group-owned private equity (PE) firm, India Venture Advisors, will launch its second US$ 150 million healthcare fund next year.<br />Leading international clinic chain Asclepius International is gearing up for a foray into the Indian healthcare market. As part of the 2.3 billion euro group’s strategy to enter the sub-continent, Asklepios is mulling the launch of a US$ 100 to US$ 200 million fund. Gulf-based healthcare group Dr Moopen is investing over US$ 200 million for setting up hospitals and eye-care centers across India. Healthcare major, Fortis Hospitals plans to invest US$ 55 million, to expand its facilities pan-India.<br />Government Initiative: The Government launched the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) in 2005. It aims to provide quality healthcare for all and increase the expenditure on healthcare from 0.9 per cent of GDP to 2-3 per cent of GDP by 2012.During the 2009 interim budget; the government allocated US$ 2.42 billion for NRHM. The Tamil Nadu government has allocated US$ 698.16 million for health and family care for the year 2009-10, up from US$ 564.34 million a year ago. The increased budget includes creating a mega blood bank—Asia’s largest—in Chennai and upgrading several hospitals, besides launching a new insurance scheme. The government has announced a US$ 63.2 million initiative to promote domestic manufacture of medical devices such as stents, catheters, heart valves and orthopedic implants that will lead to lower prices of this critical equipment.<br />COMPANY PROFILE<br />TTK Health Ltd is a member of the TTK Group of Companies, a highly successful and diverse multi-product, multi-unit manufacturing and marketing organization with a sales turnover of Rs.500 crores.<br />The origin of the TTK Group dates back to 1908 when Mr.T.T.Krishnamachari house, to market the products of lever brothers. From this venture’ the company expanded its activities into the marketing of internationally well known branded products such as Cadbury’s chocolates Woodward’s Gripe water, Kiwi Boot Polish, flit insecticides, Beecham’s Toiletries, Morton’ sweets and cosmetics from cheese borough – Ponds. In course of time the group gradually extended its marketing activity into manufacturing and today produces a range of leading brands such as the Woodward’s Gripe Water, Prestige Pressure Cooker and Pressure Pan, Kohinoor Condoms, Kiwi S hoe Polish, Tantex Hosiery etc.<br />Some of the prominent companies of the TTK Group are TTK Healthcare Ltd ,manufactures of ethical pharmaceuticals; TTK Prestige Limited, manufactures of the prestige range of house ware; TTK LIG Limited, manufactures of the Kohinoor range of condoms; TTK Healthcare Ltd (Printing Division) manufactures of maps, atlases, guidebooks and industrial grades of Paper; TT Industries and Textiles Limited, manufactures of Tantex hosiery and consumables for Textile Mills; KIWI TTK Limited manufactures of the Kiwi range of shoe care products and household cleansers.<br />TTK health care Ltd was incorporated on May 21, 1958 as orient Pharma Private limited and began its activities by distributing Woodward’s gripe water in India. In 1981, the company name was changed to TTK Pharma Pvt Ltd and in 1986, the company went public with linked issue of Equity shares and debentures which was oversubscribed 53 times.The company has since then broadened its activities and today has manufacturing facilities at three centre’s employing over 1500 people.<br />The company is managed by a highly professional and experienced Board of Directors.<br />Starting with Woodward’s Gripe water TTK healthcare has been gradually extending its product range up to the sophisticated, high technology product like heart valves and a range of biomedical devices. The company derives its strength from the diverse expertise available within the group in areas such as polymers, precision engineering, latex, pharmaceuticals, foods and nutrition.<br />Indian medicine division: The Indian medicine division of TTK healthcare was established in 1975 with the objectives of developing and marketing unique herbal formulation based on ancient Ayurvedic systems of medicine. Every herbal formulation undergoes stringent analysis and clinical trials wide range of products for men, women and children’s are produced by this division. These include products of illness for which there are no known allopathic alternatives. With the herbal market growing fast, both in India and abroad, the success of this division is ensured.<br />Woodward’s division: TTK healthcare started operations with Woodward’s gripe water, a product establish internationally for over years, first marketing it in 1948 and then starting its manufacture in 1961. Other products such as special pediatrics nutritional supplements and a range of pediatrics formulations will be launched shortly.<br />Animal welfare division: TTK healthcare produces a range of products for livestock and poultry such as antibiotics, vitamins feed supplements, etc. The pet care range launched by TTK healthcare marks a breakthrough in the veterinary products market. Pet care products for household pets have also been introduced like herbal skin oils, calcium supplements, soaps and shampoos ,etc.<br />Consumer products division: TTK healthcare markets arrange of consumer products manufactured by its group companies. These products include the Kohinoor range of condoms and the kiwi range of shoe care products and household cleansers.<br />Foods division: In the mid 1980s, TTK healthcare set up a unit with Italian machinery to produce extruded food products. Products in this range include snack foods like rice sevai, fryums and vadams.<br />Exports: TTK healthcare’s thrust on exports has paid rich dividends. Blood bags and blood transfusion sets are exported to UK, Egypt and Germany. Antibiotics bulk drugs are exported to Germany and Nigeria. Herbal products are exported to USA, Singapore and Malaysia while Woodward’s gripe is exported to the Caribbean countries. Fryums and snacks pellet are exported to the Middle East; Srilanka and Singapore. Exports are expected to grow significantly in the immediate future with TTK healthcare establishing marketing tie-ups in Mexico, USA and Canada.<br />TTK healthcare has identified a growing export market in turnkey projects for bulk drugs. The Germany has already set up a turnkey project in Bangladesh for the manufacture of sulphamethaoxazole and trimethroprim. Negotiations are on with the state government of Kiev. Pakistan and Nigeria for setting up turnkey bulk projects and up gradation of existing facilities. Discussions are also on with Egypt and Indonesia for setting up turnkey blood bag manufacturing plant.<br />Research and development: The research and development centre of TTK healthcare was established in 1975to develop a range of proprietary medicines. The laboratory has been approved by the ministry of science and technology, government of India. The centre has been recognized for conducting doctoral research by academic institution.<br />TTK healthcare is actively involved in setting up a fully fledged research facility at Bangalore to develop the technology for the manufacture of a wide range of bio-medical devices.Extensive multicentre trials are conducted in respect of all products in the clinicare, Indian medicine and modern medicine divisions. Only after the products are proven, are they launched commercially.<br />OVERSEAS COLLABORATION: The TTK group has collaborated with a number of established foreign collaborations including<br /><ul><li>London international group, UK.
  5. 5. Kali-chemie, West Germany.
  6. 6. Nicholas kiwi, a division of Sara lee, USA.
  7. 7. Hatu-Ico, Spain.
  8. 8. Green cross medical corporation, Korea.
  9. 9. Korea Green cross medical corporation, Korea.
  10. 10. Dong-a pharm, Korea.</li></ul>TTK PHARMA LIMITED has been renamed as TTK HELTHCARE LIMITED since 26th October 1999.<br />Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. Research Methodology comprises of two words, research and methodology.<br />Research Design<br /> Research design can be thought of as the structure of research -- it is the " glue" that holds all of the elements in a research project together. Descriptive research design is used in present study.<br /> Data collection method<br />The data collected for the study consists of both primary and secondary data. Primary Data is collected through personal interview in the form of questionnaire. Secondary Data was collected from various journals, books, magazines and internet.<br /> Sample size & techniques<br />Sample size refers to the total number of respondents targeted for collecting the data for the researcher.<br />The sampling size of our study is 50 respondents and this sampling size was selected on the basis of convenience sample.<br />Sampling Area<br />The study is conducted from employees of TTK Healthcare Ltd. <br />Statistical tool used for study:<br />1. Spearman rank Correlation Method<br />Spearman rank correlation is a non parametric test that is used to measure the degree of association between the two variables. It was developed by Spearman, thus it is called the Spearman rank correlation. In practice, however, a simpler procedure is normally used to calculate r. The n raw scores X, Y are converted to ranks x, y, and the differences d = x – y between the ranks of each observation on the two variables are calculated.<br />r =1- 6∑d2 n3-n <br />2. Coefficient of correlation<br />The correlation coefficient a concept from statistics is a measure of how well trends in the predicted values follow trends in past actual values.  The correlation coefficient is a number between -1 and 1.  If there is no relationship between the predicted values and the actual values the correlation coefficient is 0 or very low.  This formulae is applied when deviation for x and y series are taken from some assumed values.<br />r = N∑dxdy-∑dx*dy/ [√N∑dx²-(∑dx) ²*√N∑dy²-(∑dy) ²<br />REVIEW OF LITERATURE:<br />Aswathappa (2003) opinion that the Job Satisfaction of employees can be judged through the system of wage payment. Different organization adapts different type of wage payment system. Along with wages and salaries they are paying incentives, perquisites and non-monetary benefits.<br />According to him, he explained 3 theories of remuneration:<br />Reinforcement and Expectancy Theory<br />Equity Theory<br />Agency Theory<br />Shah & Shah (2008), in their study " Job Satisfaction and Fatigue Variables" concluded that relationship between fatigue and Job Satisfaction variables which were found to be significantly negative. The study also found that fatigue is negative predictor of Job Satisfaction. The study is clearly indicative of different issues for Call Centre employees in Indian context. There are different ON THE JOB and OFF THE JOB FACTORS leading to dissatisfaction and fatigue for them which were explored in this study. If fatigue can be reduced and job satisfaction can be increased by various innovative and encouraging strategies.<br />CHAPTER-III<br />INTRODUCTION<br />Job satisfaction is one of the important factors which have drawn attention of managers in the organization as well as academicians. Various studies have been conducted to find out the factor which determines job satisfaction and the way it influence productivity in the organization. Though there is no conclusive evidence that job satisfaction affects productivity directly because productivity depends on many variables, it is still a prime concern for managers. Job satisfaction is the mental feeling of favorableness which an individual has about his job<br />The father of scientific management Taylor's (1911) approach to job satisfaction was based on a most pragmatic & essentially pessimistic philosophy that man is motivation by money alone. That the workers are essentially 'stupid & phlegmatic' & that they would be satisfied with work if they get higher economic benefit from it. But with the passage of time Taylor's solely monetary approach has been changed to a more humanistic approach. It has come a long way from a simple explanation based on money to a more realistic but complex approach to job satisfaction. New dimensions of knowledge are added every day & with increasing understanding of new variables & their inter play; the field of job satisfaction has become difficult to comprehend. The term job satisfaction was brought to limelight by Hoppock (1935). He reviewed 32 studies on job satisfaction conducted prior to 1933 & observed that job satisfaction is a combination of psychological, physiological & environmental circumstances that cause a person to say. 'I am satisfied with my job'. Locke defines job satisfaction as a " pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experiences" . To the extent that a person's job fulfils his dominant need & is consistent with his expectations & values, the job will be satisfying. One way to define satisfaction may be to say that it is the end state of feeling. The word 'end' emphasizes the fact that the feeling is experienced after a task is accomplished or an activity has taken place whether it is highly individualistic effort of writing a book or a collective endeavor of constructing a building. These activities may be minute or large. But in all cases, they satisfy a certain need. The feeling could be positive or negative depending upon whether need is satisfied or not & could be a function of the effort of the individual on one hand & on the other the situational opportunities available to him. <br />This can be better understood by taking example of a foreman in an engineering industry. He has been assigned the task to complete a special order by a certain, deadline. Person may experience positive job satisfaction because he has been chosen to complete the task. It gives him a special status & feeling that he has been trusted and given a special task, he likes such kind of rush job and it may get him extra wages. The same could be the sources of his dissatisfaction if he does not like rush work, has no need for extra wages. Each one of these variables lead to an end state of feeling, called satisfaction. <br />Determinants of job satisfaction<br />While analyzing the various determinants of job satisfaction, we have to keep in mind that: all individuals do not derive the same degree of satisfaction though they perform the same job environment and at the same time. Therefore, it appears that besides the nature of job and job environment, there are individual variables which affect job satisfaction. Thus, all those factors which provide a fit among individual variables, nature of job, and situational variables determine the degree of job satisfaction. Let us see what those factors are.<br />Individual Factors: Individuals have certain expectations from their jobs. If their expectations are met from the jobs, they feel satisfied. These expectations are based on an individual’s level of education, age and other factors.<br /><ul><li>Levels of education: Level of education of an individual’s is a factor which determines the degree of job satisfaction. For example. Several studies have found negative correlation between the level of education, particularly higher level of education, and job satisfaction. The possible reason for this motivational Environment</li></ul>Phenomenon may be that highly educated persons have very high expectations from their jobs which remain unsatisfied. In their case, peters principal who suggests that every individuals tries to reach his level of incompetence, applies more quickly.<br /><ul><li>Age: Individuals experience different degree of job satisfaction at different degree of job satisfaction at different stages of their life. Job satisfaction is high at the initial stages, gets gradually reduced, starts rising up to certain stages, and finally dips to a low degree. The possible reasons for this phenomenon are like this. When individuals join an organization, they may have some unrealistic assumptions make them more satisfied. However, when these assumptions fall short of reality, job satisfaction goes down .It starts to assess the jobs in right perspective and correct their assumptions. At the last, particularly at the far end of the career, job satisfaction goes down because of fear of retirement and future outcome.
  11. 11. Other factors: Besides the above two factors, there are other individual factors which affect job satisfaction. If an individual does not have favorable social and family life, he may not feel happy at workplace. Similarly, other personal problems associated with him may affect his level of job satisfaction.
  12. 12. Nature of job: Nature of job determines job satisfaction which is in the form of occupation level and job content.
  13. 13. Occupation Level: Higher level jobs provide more satisfaction as compared to lower levels. This happens because high level jobs carry prestige and status in the society which itself becomes source of satisfaction for the job holders. For example, professionals derive more satisfaction as compared to salaried people: factory workers are least satisfied.</li></ul>Job content: Job content refers to the intrinsic value of the job which depends on the requirement of skills for performing it, and the degree of responsibility and growth it offers. A higher content to these factors provides higher satisfaction. For example, a routine and repetitive job provides lesser satisfaction; the degree of satisfaction progressively increases in job rotation, job enlargement, and job enrichment.<br />Situational Variables: Situational variables related to job satisfaction lie in organizational context_ formal and informal. As we shall see in the next part of the text, Formal organization is created by the management and informal organization emerges out of the interaction of individuals in the organization .Some of the important factors which affect job satisfaction are given below :<br /><ul><li>Working conditions: Working conditions, particularly physical work environment, like conditions of workplace and associated facilities for performing the job determine job satisfaction. These work in two ways. First, these provide means for job performance. Second, provision of these conditions affects the individuals’ perception about the organisation. If these factors are favorable, individuals experience higher level of job satisfaction.
  14. 14. Supervision: The type of supervision affects job satisfaction as in each type of supervision; the degree of importance attached to individuals varies. In employee-oriented supervision, there is more concern for people which is perceived favorably by them and provides them more satisfaction. In job-oriented supervision. There is more emphasis on the performance of the job and people become secondary. This situation decreases job satisfaction.
  15. 15. Equitable Rewards: The type of linkage that is provided between job performance and rewards determines the degree of job satisfaction. If the reward is perceived to be based on the job performance and equitable, it offers higher satisfaction. If the reward is perceived to be based on considerations other than the job performance, it affects job satisfaction adversely.
  16. 16. Opportunity for Promotion: It is true that individuals seek satisfaction in their jobs in the content of job nature and work environment but they also attach importance to the opportunities for promotion that these jobs offer. If the present job offers opportunity of promotion in future, it provides more satisfaction. If the opportunity for such promotion is lacking, it reduces satisfaction.
  17. 17. Work Group: Individuals work in group either created formally or they develop on their own to seek emotional satisfaction at the workplace. To the extent such groups are cohesive, the degree of satisfaction is high. If the group is not cohesive, job satisfaction is low. In a cohesive group, people derive satisfaction out of their interpersonal interaction and workplace becomes satisfying leading to job satisfaction.</li></ul>Measuring of job satisfaction:<br />There are many methods for measuring job satisfaction. By far, the most common method for collecting data regarding job satisfaction is the Likert scale (named after Rensis Likert). Other less common methods of for gauging job satisfaction include: Yes/No questions, True/False questions, point systems, checklists, and forced choice answers. This data is typically collected using an Enterprise Feedback Management (EFM) system.<br />The Job Descriptive Index (JDI), created by Smith, Kendall, & Hulin (1969), is a specific questionnaire of job satisfaction that has been widely used. It measures one’s satisfaction in five facets: pay, promotions and promotion opportunities, coworkers, supervision, and the work itself. The scale is simple, participants answer either yes, no, or can’t decide (indicated by ‘?’) in response to whether given statements accurately describe one’s job. The Job in General Index is an overall measurement of job satisfaction. It is an improvement to the Job Descriptive Index because the JDI focuses too much on individual facets and not enough on work satisfaction in general.<br />Importance of job satisfaction:<br />Job satisfaction is an important indicator of how employees feel about their job and a predictor of work behavior such as organizational, citizenship, Absenteeism, Turnover. Job satisfaction can partially mediate the relationship of personality variables and deviant work behavior. Common research finding is that job satisfaction is correlated with life style. <br />This is vital piece of information that is job satisfaction and job performance is directly related to one another. Thus it can be said that, “A happy worker is a productive worker.” It gives clear evidence that dissatisfied employees skip work more often and more like to resign and satisfied worker likely to work longer with the organization.<br />Models of job satisfaction:<br />Affect Theory:<br />Edwin A. Locke’s Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most famous job satisfaction model. The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. Further, the theory states that how much one values a given facet of work (e.g. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/aren’t met. When a person values a particular facet of a job, his satisfaction is more greatly impacted both positively and negatively, compared to one who doesn’t value that facet. To illustrate, if Employee A values autonomy in the workplace and Employee B is indifferent about autonomy, then Employee A would be more satisfied in a position that offers a high degree of autonomy and less satisfied in a position with little or no autonomy compared to Employee B. This theory also states that too much of a particular facet will produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker values that facet.<br />Social References - Group Theory:<br />It takes into account the point of view & opinions of the group to whom the individual looks for the guidance. Such groups are defined as the 'reference-group' for the individual in that they define the way in which he should look at the world and evaluate various phenomena in the environment (including him). It would be predicted, according to this theory that if a job meets the interest, desires and requirements of a person's reference group, he will like it & if it does not, he will not like it.<br />A good example of this theory has been given by C.L. Hulin. He measures the effects of community characteristics on job satisfaction of female clerical workers employed in 300 different catalogue order offices. He found that with job conditions held constant job satisfaction was less among persons living in a well-to-do neighborhood than among those whose neighborhood was poor. Hulin thus provides strong evidence that such frames of reference for evaluation may be provided by one's social groups and general social environment.<br />To sum up, we can say, Job satisfaction is a function of or is positively related to the degree to which the characteristics of the job meet with approved & the desires of the group to which the individual looks for guidance in evaluating the world & defining social reality.<br />Two-Factor Theory (Motivator-Hygiene Theory)<br />Frederick Herzberg’s two factor theory (also known as Motivator Hygiene Theory) attempts to explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace. This theory states that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by different factors – motivation and hygiene factors, respectively. Motivating factors are those aspects of the job that make people want to perform, and provide people with satisfaction, for example achievement in work, recognition, promotion opportunities. These motivating factors are considered to be intrinsic to the job, or the work carried out. Hygiene factors include aspects of the working environment such as pay, company policies, supervisory practices, and other working conditions. <br />While Hertzberg's model has stimulated much research, researchers have been unable to reliably empirically prove the model, with Hackman & Oldham suggesting that Hertzberg's original formulation of the model may have been a methodological artifact.[ Furthermore, the theory does not consider individual differences, conversely predicting all employees will react in an identical manner to changes in motivating/hygiene factors. Finally, the model has been criticised in that it does not specify how motivating/hygiene factors are to be measured. <br />Job Characteristics Model<br />Hack man & Oldham proposed the Job Characteristics Model, which is widely used as a framework to study how particular job characteristics impact on job outcomes, including job satisfaction. The model states that there are five core job characteristics (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback) which impact three critical <br />Psychological states (experienced meaningfulness, experienced responsibility for outcomes, and knowledge of the actual results), in turn influencing work outcomes (job satisfaction, absenteeism, work motivation, etc.). The five core job characteristics can be combined to form a motivating potential score (MPS) for a job, which can be used as an index of how likely a job is to affect an employee's attitudes and behaviors----. A meta-analysis of studies that assess the framework of the model provides some support for the validity of the JCM. <br />Effect of Job Satisfaction: Job satisfaction has a variety of effects. These effects may be seen in the context of an individual’s physical and mental health, productivity, absenteeism, and turnover.<br /><ul><li>Physical and Mental Health: The degree of job satisfaction affects an individual’s physical and mental health. Since job satisfaction is a type of mental feeling, its favorableness or unfavourableness affects the individual psychologically which ultimately affects his physical health. For example, Lawler has pointed out that drug abuse, alcoholism and mental and physical health result from psychologically harmful jobs. Further, since a job is an important part of life, job satisfaction influences general life satisfaction. The result is that there is spillover effect which occurs in both directions between job and life satisfaction.
  18. 18. Productivity: There are two views about the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity:
  19. 19. A happy worker is a productive worker,
  20. 20. A happy worker is not necessarily a productive worker.</li></ul>The first view establishes a direct cause-effect relationship between job satisfaction and productivity; when job satisfaction increases, productivity increases ; when job satisfaction decreases, productivity decreases. The basic logic behind this is that a happy worker will put more effort for job performance. However, this may not true in all cases. For example, a worker having low expectations from his jobs may feel satisfied but he may not put his effort more vigorously because of his low expectations from the job. Therefore, this view does not explain fully the complex relationship between job satisfaction and productivity.<br />Another view: That is a satisfied worker is not necessarily a productive worker explain the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity. Various research studies also support this view. This relationship may be explained in terms of the operation of two factors: effect of job performance on satisfaction and organizational expectations from individuals for job performance.<br /><ul><li>Job performance leads to job satisfaction and not the other way round. The basic factor this phenomenon is the rewards attached with performance. There are two types’ rewards intrinsic and extrinsic. The intrinsic reward stems from the job itself which may be in the form of growth potential, challenging job etc. the satisfaction on such a type of reward may help to increase productivity. The extrinsic reward is subject to control by management such as salary, bonus, etc. any increase in these factor does not help to increase productivity though these factors increase job satisfaction.
  21. 21. A happy worker does not necessarily contribute to higher productivity because he has to operate under certain technological constraints and, therefore, he cannot go beyond certain output. Further, this constraints affect the management’s expectations from the individuals in the form of lower output. Thus, the work situation is pegged to minimally acceptable level of performance.</li></ul>However, it does not mean that the job satisfaction has no impact on productivity. A satisfied worker may not necessarily lead to increased productivity but a dissatisfied worker leads to lower productivity.<br /> Absenteeism: Absenteeism refers to the frequency of absence of a job holder from the workplace either unexcused absence due to some avoidable or long absence due to some unavoidable reason. It is the famous type of absence which is a matter of concern. This absence is due to lack of satisfaction from the job which produces a ‘lack of will to work’ and alienate a worker from work as far as possible. Thus, job satisfaction is related to absenteeism.<br />Employee Turnover: Turnover of employees is the rate at which employees leave the organization within a given period of time. As discussed earlier in this chapter under defense mechanism, when an individual feels dissatisfaction in the organization, he tried to overcome this through the various ways of defence mechanism. If he is not able to do so, he opts to leave the organization. Thus in general case, employee turnover is related to job satisfaction. However, job satisfaction is not only cause of employee turnover, other cause being better opportunity elsewhere. For example, in the present context, the rate of turnover of computer software professionals is very high in India. However, these professionals leave their organizations not simply because they are not satisfied but because of opportunities offered from other sources particularly from foreign companies located abroad.<br />Improving Job Satisfaction: Job satisfaction plays significant role in the organization. Therefore, managers should take concrete steps to improve the level of job satisfaction. These steps may be in the form of job redesigning to make the job more interesting and challenging, improving quality of work life, linking rewards with performance, and improving overall organizational climate.<br />WHAT IS THE IMPACT OF JOB SATISFACTION?<br />Many managers subscribe to the belief that a satisfied worker is necessarily goodWorker. In other words, if management could keep the entire worker’s happy”, good performance would automatically fallow. There are two propositions concerning the satisfaction performance relationship. The first proposition, which is based on traditional view, is that satisfaction is the effect rather than the cause of<br />Performance. This proposition says that efforts in a job leads to rewards, which<br />Results in a certain level of satisfaction .in another proposition, both satisfaction and performance are considered to be functions of rewards.<br />Various research studies indicate that to a certain extent job satisfaction affects employee turnover, and consequently organization can gain from lower turnover in terms of lower hiring and training costs. Also research has shown an inverse relation between job satisfaction and absenteeism. When job satisfaction is high there would be low absenteeism, but when job satisfaction is low, it is more likely to lead a high absenteeism.<br />Mood and emotions while working are the raw materials which cumulate to form the affective element of job satisfaction. Moods tend to be longer lasting but often weaker states of uncertain origin, while emotions are often more intense, short-lived and have a clear object or cause. <br />What job satisfaction people need?<br />Each employee wants:<br />1. Recognition as an individual<br />2. Meaningful task<br />3. An opportunity to do something worthwhile.<br />4. Job security for himself and his family<br />5. Good wages<br />6. Adequate benefits<br />7. Opportunity to advance<br />8. No arbitrary action- a voice a matters affecting him<br />9. Satisfactory working conditions<br />10. Competence leadership- bosses whom he can admire and respect as persons and as bosses.<br />However, the two concepts are interrelated in that job satisfaction can contribute to morale and morale can contribute to job satisfaction. It must be remembered that satisfaction and motivation are not synonyms. Motivation is a drive to perform, where as satisfaction reflects the individual’s attitude towards the situation. The factors that determine whether individual is adequately satisfied with the job differs from those that determine whether he or she is motivated. The level of job satisfaction is largely determined by the comfits offered by the environment and the situation. Motivation, on the other hand is largely determine by value of reward and their dependence on performance.<br />The result of high job satisfaction is increased commitment to the organization, this may or may not result in better performance. A wide range of factors affects an individual’s level of satisfaction. While organizational rewards can and do have an impact, job satisfaction is primarily determine by factors that are usually not directly controlled by the organization. A high level of job satisfaction lead to organizational commitment, while a low level, or dissatisfaction, result in a behavior detrimental to the organization. For example, employee who like their jobs, supervisors, and the factors related to the job will probably be loyal and devoted. People will work harder and derive satisfaction if they are given the freedom to make their own decisions.<br />CHAPTER-IV<br />DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION<br />TABLE 4.1<br />JOB SATISFACTION OF EMPLOYEES<br />S.NOATTRIBUTESRESPONDENTPERCENTAGE1.STRONGLY AGREE19382.AGREE23463.UNDECIDED484.DISAGREE485.STRONGLY DISAGREE--TOTAL50100<br />(Source: primary data)<br />INTERPRETATION<br />From the above table it is clear that most of the respondents are satisfied about the nature of they are performing because they are placed in appropriate department according to their skills and knowledge they possess. Each employee is placed on the respective job which fulfills their expectation regarding designation. Few respondents are not highly satisfied may be due monotony in the nature of work and lack of scope to exhibit their potentiality and excel.<br />CHART 4.1<br />JOB SATISFACTION OF EMPLOYEES <br />TABLE 4.2<br />JOB SECURITY TO EMPLOYEES<br />SL.NOATTRIBUTESRESPONDENTSPERCENTAGE1STRONGLY AGREE002AGREE26523UNDECIDED004DISAGREE24485STRONGLY DISAGREE00TOTAL50100<br />(Source: primary data)<br />INTERPRETATION<br />From the above table it is evident that the job security provided by the Organizations is good, most of the respondents agree regarding job security of service, it will decrease labour turnover. The remaining respondents are not satisfied, as these employees are appointed by management after undergoing 1 to 2 years service notice. The candidate who is all not fit for the job they will be eliminated, they are not sure about the job in future.<br />CHART 4.2<br />JOB SECURITY TO EMPLOYEES<br />TABLE 4.3<br />EMPLOYEES ARE HAPPY WITH PAY BENEFITS<br />S.NOATTRIBUTESRESPONDENTPERCENTAGE1.STRONGLY AGREE8162.AGREE27543.UNDECIDED10204.DISAGREE485.STRONGLY DISAGREE12TOTAL50100<br />(Source: primary data)<br />INTERPRETATION<br />From the above table we can conclude that most of the employees are highly satisfied with their pay benefits, according to their qualification pay packages are paid to them according to qualification and designation. Certain employees are neither agree nor disagree about their pay benefits. Some respondents are strongly disagreeing with their pay benefits because as they are very much experienced but they are getting low salary and few respondents are in probation period. It is almost impossible to make all employees to feel satisfied about the overall pay package.<br />CHART 4.3<br />EMPLOYEES ARE HAPPY WITH PAY BENEFITS<br />TABLE 4.4<br />SATISFACTION OF SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS<br />SL.NOATTRIBUTESRESPONDENTSPERCENTAGE1STRONGLY AGREE242AGREE5103UNDECIDED15304DISAGREE23465STRONGLY DISAGREE510TOTAL50100<br />(Source: primary data)<br />INTERPRETATION<br />More than half of the respondents are not satisfied with the safety measures provided by the organizations because the pension policies, medical facilities, PF etc, are found inadequate. This means that the company has not understood the needs and wants of employees. Some of the respondents are neither agree nor disagree with their security benefits, which mean they are not in aware of the social security benefits. Few respondents are satisfied with their security measures as they are comfortable with their present policy regarding social security measures.<br />CHART 4.4<br />SATISFACTION OF SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS<br />TABLE 4.5<br />FELLOE EMPLOYEES ARE FULLY CO-OPERATIVE<br />S.NOATTRIBUTESRESPONDENTPERCENTAGE1.STRONGLY AGREE22442.AGREE23463.UNDECIDED124.DISAGREE365.STRONGLY DISAGREE12TOTAL50100<br />(Source: primary data)<br />INTERPRETATION<br />From the above table it shows that most of the employees is satisfied with the cooperation of co-workers due to better human relationship inside the organization and the employees having mutual understanding trust between each other. And some of the respondent are disagree with their satisfaction level of employees with others because they are not interest to mingle with others may be due to difference in opinion and attitude and certain employees are neither agree nor disagree because they are not open minded person as like others.<br />CHART 4.5<br />FELLOE EMPLOYEES ARE FULLY CO-OPERATIVE<br />TABLE 4.6<br /> WORKING ENVIRONMENT IS CONDUCIVE<br />S.NOATTRIBUTESRESPONDENTPERCENTAGE1.STRONGLY AGREE12242.AGREE23463.UNDECIDED7144.DISAGREE5105.STRONGLY DISAGREE36TOTAL50100<br />(Source: primary data)<br />INTERPRETATION<br />From the above table it is clear more than half of the employees are satisfied with their work place and suggested that working environment is excellent because the location provides peace to the employees, friendly relationship between their co-workers, good facilities etc. They feel very happy to work in that environment. But some of the respondents are not satisfied due to any proper canteen facilities. Some respondent are not having any idea towards their work environment. <br />CHART 4.6<br />WORKING ENVIRONMENT IS CONDUCIVE<br />TABLE 4.7<br />ENOUGH PROMOTIONAL OPPORTUNITIES<br />S.NOATTRIBUTESRESPONDENTPERCENTAGE1.STRONGLY AGREE9182.AGREE24483.UNDECIDED12244.DISAGREE5105.STRONGLY DISAGREE--TOTAL50100<br />(Source: primary data)<br />INTERPRETATION<br />From the above table we clearly able to identify that nearly one third of the employees are satisfied promotional opportunities provided by the organization, being public limited company employee promotion depends upon the seniority. And some are disagreeing with their opportunities of promotions as they are qualified and experienced but they didn’t get chance because promotion depends on seniority basis. And 24% of employees are neither agree nor disagree.<br />CHART 4.7<br />ENOUGH PROMOTIONAL OPPORTUNITIES<br />TABLE 4.8<br />FACILITIES OF TRAINING ARE AVAILABLE<br />SL.NOATTRIBUTESRESPONDENTSPERCENTAGE1STRONGLY AGREE482AGREE20403UNDECIDED15304DISAGREE6125STRONGLY DISAGREE510TOTAL50100<br />(Source: primary data)<br />INTERPRETATION<br />Training is an important factor of a company which helps in satisfying a employees. Half of the employees are well trained for their work with good training facilities through on the job training methods and off the job training methods to update their knowledge and usage of latest technology. This is the reason they are satisfied. Some of the staff is not satisfied as it is provided properly to new and operating level employees training with latest technology are provided. <br />CHART 4.8<br />FACILITIES OF TRAINING ARE AVAILABLE<br />TABLE 4.9<br />SCOPE FOR PARTICIPATION IN DECISION MAKING<br />S.NOATTRIBUTESRESPONDENTPERCENTAGE1.STRONGLY AGREE482.AGREE7143.UNDECIDED8164.DISAGREE27545.STRONGLY DISAGREE48TOTAL50100<br />(Source: primary data)<br />INTERPRETATION<br />Above table shows that the more than half of the respondents are in opinion that there is no scope for participation in decision making because basically it is a public limited company and is difficult to make the employees to participate in the process of decision making. And few of the respondent are neither agree nor disagree about this as they are operating level people and they don’t take active part. Some of the respondents suggested that there is scope for decision making as those few have the authority in decision making.<br />CHART 4.9<br />SCOPE FOR PARTICIPATION IN DECISION MAKING<br />TABLE 4.10<br />BETTER HUMAN RELATION BETWEEN EMPLOYEE IS POSSIBLE<br />S.NOATTRIBUTESRESPONDENTPERCENTAGE1.STRONGLY AGREE15302.AGREE28563.UNDECIDED244.DISAGREE5105.STRONGLY DISAGREE--TOTAL50100<br />(Source: primary data)<br />INTERPRETATION<br />Almost 90% of employees believe that job satisfaction leads to good relationship among employees is possible because when employees are satisfied with the job. They are free to move and understand the employee’s duo to lack of stress. The other respondents are not agree with this because they are introverts in nature and they are not socializing.<br />CHART 4.10<br />BETTER HUMAN RELATION BETWEEN EMPLOYEE IS POSSIBLE<br />TABLE 4.11<br />EMPLOYEES ARE SATISFIED WITH PRESENT POSITION IN COMPANY<br />S.NOATTRIBUTESRESPONDENTPERCENTAGE1.STRONGLY AGREE6122.AGREE20403.UNDECIDED12244.DISAGREE5105.STRONGLY DISAGREE714TOTAL50100<br />(Source: primary data)<br />INTERPRETATION<br />From the above table we are clearly able to identify that half of the employees are satisfied with their present position in the company. These persons are placed in appropriate department according to their qualification and skills. And remaining employees are not satisfied because as they are experienced but they didn’t get promotion, as promotion is based on seniority basis. And some of the employees are neither satisfied nor dissatisfied with their position in the company, for this company must take necessary action in promoting qualified personnel’s. <br />CHART 4.11<br />EMPLOYEES ARE SATISFIED WITH PRESENT POSITION IN COMPANY<br />TABLE 4.12<br />EMPLOYEES ARE RECOGNISED BY CONCERN<br />S.NOATTRIBUTESRESPONDENTPERCENTAGE1.STRONGLY AGREE7142.AGREE21423.UNDECIDED16324.DISAGREE5105.STRONGLY DISAGREE12TOTAL50100<br />(Source: primary data)<br />INTERPRETATION<br />From the table it is clear that in this organization people are recognized by concern over each other as their needs and wants are fulfilled by the organization in highly motivated manner and only few of respondents are not fulfilled by the concern as they are not good with their work. But still some of them are undecided regarding their recognition as they feel that their developmental opportunities and other benefits are inadequate. The people saying undecided mostly belongs to operating level management and they don’t feel recognized because their work is not acknowledged by the management.<br />CHART 4.12<br />EMPLOYEES ARE RECOGNISED BY CONCERN<br />TABLE 4.13<br />JOB SATISFACTION TECHNIQUES ARE EFFECTIVE<br />S.NOATTRIBUTESRESPONDENTPERCENTAGE1.STRONGLY AGREE19382.AGREE16323.UNDECIDED10204.DISAGREE365.STRONGLY DISAGREE24TOTAL50100<br />(Source: primary data)<br />INTERPRETATION<br />From the above table we are able to identify that most of the employees are satisfied with their job satisfaction techniques. The various job satisfaction techniques are pay benefits, non monetary benefits, working environment relationship between superior and co-worker are highly satisfied to them. And some of them are not satisfied due to they are not satisfied with their canteen facilities lack of pay, introverts in nature in the organization. <br />CHART 4.13<br />JOB SATISFACTION TECHNIQUES ARE EFFECTIVE<br />TABLE 4.14<br />OPPORTUNITY TO DEVELOP THE SKILLS<br />S.NOATTRIBUTESRESPONDENTPERCENTAGE1.STRONGLY AGREE8162.AGREE12243.UNDECIDED15304.DISAGREE13265.STRONGLY DISAGREE24TOTAL50100<br />(Source: primary data)<br />INTERPRETATION<br />The table shows that 40% of respondents suggest there is an opportunity to develop their skill some of the respondents highly satisfied with their developed skill. They developed skills through organizational development progammeand attending various seminar and work shop and through their personal skill. And remaining employees are neither agree nor disagree. Certain number of employees is found dissatisfied with development measures taken by company due to lack of affordability of the development programme.<br />CHART 4.14<br />OPPORTUNITY TO DEVELOP THE SKILLS<br />TABLE 4.15<br />REDUCTION OF LABOUR TURNOVER IS POSSIBLE THROUGH JOB SATISFACTION<br />S.NOATTRIBUTESRESPONDENTPERCENTAGE1.STRONGLY AGREE11222.AGREE21423.UNDECIDED6124.DISAGREE10205.STRONGLY DISAGREE24TOTAL50100<br />(Source: primary data)<br />INTERPRETATION<br />From the above table it can be conclude that reduction of labour turnover is possible through job satisfaction if everyone is satisfied with their needs and wants. We obtain that some respondent are strongly agree and some respondent are agree with that job satisfaction will reduce labour turnover. Few respondents are undecided about the statement. But still some of are disagreeing regarding job satisfaction reduces labour turnover because if employee get better opportunity in another company surely they will shift to another company.<br />CHART 4.15<br />REDUCTION OF LABOUR TURNOVER IS POSSIBLE THROUGH JOB SATISFACTION<br />TABLE 4.16<br />RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORKING ENVIRONMENT AND BETTER HUMAN RELATIONSHIP<br />RANK CORRELATION:<br />WORKING ENVIRONMENT HUMAN RELATIONSHIP12152328725530<br />SOLUTION:<br />XYxyd=x-yd²12152200232811007234-11554311305500TOTAL∑d²=2<br />RANK CORRELATION<br /> r =1- 6∑d2 n3-n <br /> = 1-[6*2/{5³-5}]<br /> = 0.9<br />INTERPRETATION<br />Since the rank correlation is positive it is concluded that the positive correlation exists between the factors working environment and human relationship. According to working environment human relationship will differ.<br />TABLE 4.17<br />RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POSITION OF EMPLOYEES AND PAY BENEFITS<br />COEFFICIENT OF CORRELATION:<br />POSITION OF EMPLOYEESPAY BENEFITS68202712105471<br />SOLUTION:<br />XYX-dx²Y-dy²dx*dy68-416-2482027101001728917012102400054-525-6363071-39-98127∑dx²=154∑dy²=410∑dxdy=235<br />CORRELATION COEFFICIENT<br />r = N∑dxdy-∑dx*dy/ [√N∑dx²-(∑dx) ²*√N∑dy²-(∑dy) ²<br /> = 5*235-235/√770*√2050<br /> = 940/27.7*45.2<br /> = 940/1254.1<br /> = 0.74<br />INTERPRETATION<br /> There is positive correlation exists between the position of employees and pay benefits. Therefore, it is concluded that depending upon position of employees, pay benefits will differ. Higher post more pay, lower post less pay.<br />CHAPTER-V<br />FINDINGA SUGGESTION AND CONCLUSION<br />FINDINGS<br /><ul><li>The satisfaction level of employees in TTK healthcare limited is highly satisfied due to conducive working environment, pay benefits and relationship between them and superiors.
  22. 22. The job security which is provided by the organization is not adequate to the employees in the organization.
  23. 23. The pay benefits provided to the employee in TTK healthcare limited was highly satisfied as they are getting salary for his qualification.
  24. 24. Employees are not highly satisfied with their social security benefits because there are no proper insurance schemes and no enough pension schemes.
  25. 25. Fellow employees are fully cooperative due to conducive working environment and mutual understanding between them.
  26. 26. The employees of TTK healthcare limited were highly satisfied with their working environment because it provides peace to do the work.
  27. 27. There are enough promotional opportunities in TTK healthcare limited due to their involvement in job and experience.
  28. 28. Facilities of training provided to employees are seminar and workshop due to changes in recent trends and technology.
  29. 29. The study clearly shows that there is less scope for decision making in the organization.
  30. 30. The employees in the organization feel themselves as recognized by the organization.
  31. 31. The job satisfaction techniques in TTK healthcare limited is very effective because the employees are highly satisfied with their nature of job and the employees are recruited as their specialization.
  32. 32. Employees are developing skills through various seminar and workshop.
  33. 33. Employees are highly satisfied because the needs and wants are fulfilled by the organization.
  34. 34. Employees those who are working in TTK healthcare limited was highly satisfied with their present position with their company as they are placed in appropriate position as per qualification.
  35. 35. The job satisfaction techniques in TTK healthcare limited is very effective because the employees are highly satisfied with their nature of job.
  36. 36. Rank correlation indicates that according to working environment human relationship will differ
  37. 37. Co-efficient of correlation shows that depending upon position of employees, pay benefits will differ.</li></ul>SUGGESTION<br /><ul><li>The company should provide enough social security benefits like insurance facilities, enough pension plan, gratuity etc.
  38. 38. The criteria for Job security is not much satisfactory so management have</li></ul>concentrate on job security of employees so that they can work without fear of job loss in the organization.<br /><ul><li>Rarely the suggestions given by them are drawn in action. Hence the confidence of employees gets demotivated. So to motivate the employees management can take into consideration some proper suggestions given by the employees. It will help to increase the motivation and ultimately the Job satisfaction of the employees
  39. 39. Every employee should have interest to develop skills through seminar and workshop, for this the organization must take steps to induce employees. It will lead to increase in efficiency of person to take active part in management.</li></ul>CONCLUSION<br />Job satisfaction is an important indicator of how employees feel about their job and a predictor of work behavior such as organizational, citizenship, Absenteeism, Turnover. Job satisfaction can partially mediate the relationship of personality variables and deviant work behavior. Common research finding is that job satisfaction is correlated with life style. <br />The satisfaction level of employees in TTK healthcare limited is highly satisfied due to conducive working environment, pay benefits and relationship between them and superiors. Fellow employees are fully cooperative due to conducive working environment and mutual understanding between them. The employees of TTK healthcare limited were highly satisfied with their working environment because it provides peace to do the work.<br />To improve satisfaction level the company should give more consideration for the welfare of the employees & due recognition should be given to employees. The wage & salary structure should be revised accordingly for the benefit of both the parties.<br />ANNEXURE<br />QUESTIONNAIRE<br />PART-I<br /><ul><li>NAME:
  40. 40. AGE:
  41. 41. SEX:
  42. 42. EXPERIENCE:
  44. 44. DESIGNATION/DEPARTMENT:</li></ul>PART-II<br />Indicate your agreement/disagreement with the following statements by putting mark in the relevant column<br /><ul><li>S.NOQUESTIONSSTRONGLY AGREEAGREEUNDECIDEDDISAGREESTRONGLY DISAGREEThe job I do gives me satisfaction.There is job security .I am happy with my pay benefits.Satisfaction of Social security benefits (medical insurance) .Fellow employees are fully co-operative.I get expert guidance from my superior.The working conditions are excellent.Targets are attainable.My potentials are fully utilized.There are enough promotion opportunities.Facilities of training are available.Assessment of performance is unbiased.There is scope for participation in decision making.Better human relation is possible.The job is stressless.My company provides flexible working hours. I am satisfied with the present position of my company.I am feeling recognized by the concern.My company clearly communicates its goals, strategies to me.There is an opportunity to develop skills.I am satisfied with my team-spirit in work environment.Reduction in labour turnover is possible through job satisfaction.The job satisfaction techniques are effective.</li></ul>RANKING METHOD:<br /><ul><li>Which component is increased due to job satisfaction
  45. 45. Productivity.
  46. 46. Efficiency.
  47. 47. Quality.
  48. 48. Results.
  49. 49. Any other specify
  50. 50. Lack of job satisfaction leads to
  51. 51. Absenteeism
  52. 52. Lower performance.
  53. 53. Poor output.
  54. 54. High labour turnover.
  55. 55. Lack of efficiency.
  56. 56. Lack of concentration.
  57. 57. Other specify</li></ul>BIBLIOGRAPHY<br /><ul><li>Human resource management by Dr.L.M.PRASAD
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