Climate Change Actions


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For Climate Change Workshop by British Computer Society on 17-Sep-08.
Physics & Chemistry of Climate Change,
Effects and Costs of Climate Change,
Geographical Information and use of it,
Some International Meetings and Local Authority Measures,
Climate Change Bill 2008,
Carbon trading / offsetting,
Reducing Carbon Emissions – Websites & Actions.

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  • Climate Change Actions

    1. 1. Climate Change Actions Slide show © R.Newell and J.Moine 2008 In the near future we will email you offering details to supplement this presentation Don’t worry if this presentation has too much small print or is too fast! “ The scientific evidence is now overwhelming: climate change is a serious global threat, and it demands an urgent global response.” Lord Stern 2006
    2. 2. Index Physics & Chemistry of Climate Change Effects of Climate Change Costs of Climate Change Geographical Information and use of it Some International Meetings Local Authority Measures Climate Change Bill 2008 Carbon trading / offsetting Reducing Carbon Emissions – Some Actions Reducing Carbon Emissions – Some Websites The Way Forward Slide show © R.Newell and J.Moine 2008
    3. 3. Climate Change Exists? Largely man-made? <ul><li>No time now to review evidence. But:- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See the news, internet, books etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider who you trust e.g. Transport/oil companies or United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) . </li></ul></ul>Still sceptical? See website skeptics <ul><li>Evidence for climate change includes:- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellite Data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiosondes (atmospheric values from weather balloons) . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Borehole analysis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glacial melt observations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sea ice melt. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sea level rise. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proxy Reconstructions (e.g. past 500-2,000 years) . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permafrost melt (20% of earth’s land mass is below 0 o C) . </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Greenhouse Effect and Greenhouse Gases Carbon dioxide CO 2 produced largely by burning fossil fuels & destroying forests. Methane CH 4 produced by animals and swamps. Nitrous oxide N 2 O produced by microbial processes on land and in water Others include: Chlorofluorocarbons CFC s, Hydrofluorocarbons HFC s, Perfluorocarbons PFC s, Sulphur hexafluorideIndirect SF 6 , Carbon monoxide CO , Non-methane volatile organics, Nitrogen oxides NO X , Sulphur oxides SO X Global Warming Potential depends on various factors. Greenhouse gases prevent some heat escaping into space
    5. 5. Why Carbon Footprint? The average UK person’s annual Carbon footprint is approximately 10 tonnes of CO 2 Carbon (coal, oil, wood, etc) Carbon Dioxide CO 2 Energy for Business, industry, Agriculture, public sector Residential Transport, etc. Burn Many websites help you calculate your Carbon footprint, by asking your annual usage of electricity, gas, oil, etc. Remember to include your proportion from goods and services that you buy and use. China’s exports Carbon footprint = one third of China’s total Carbon footprint = Germany plus France plus UK total Carbon footprint. Your Carbon footprint is how much Carbon you use or (multiply by 44/12) Carbon Dioxide you produce. Madonna >1,000 tonnes. American 20t. Ethiopian 0.07t. World average 4t. The Earth can sustain 0.8 tonnes. Source
    6. 6. Effects of Climate Change - Global Sea level rise – Small rise  Densely settled coastal plains become uninhabitable. Impacts on agriculture - Major effects on agricultural productivity. Reduction of ozone layer – More cancer, damage plants & plankton (crucial to aquatic life) . Increased extreme weather - More droughts & floods, frequent & stronger storms. Spread of diseases - Diseases spread to areas previously too cold for them. Ecosystem change - Most organisms moving towards the North and South Poles. (Source www. carboncalculator .co. uk /effects. php ) Source www. climateark .org/overview/ )
    7. 7. Temperature Rise Impacts – Happening Now Source IPCC 2001bi; IPCC 2001aii; Watkiss et al. 2005iii. The climate change scenarios cited here are B1 (2.3º in 2100), B2 (3.0º), and A1F1 (4.8º) from IPCC 2001 • More frequent extreme weather events , more floods, more droughts, more heat waves; • A slow pole-ward migration of plant and animal species, with less mobile and less adaptable species increasingly at risk of extinction. 0.6º • More tropical diseases over a wider geographical area; • Decreased crop yields in the developing world and, as a result, widespread hunger; • Many communities facing serious water stress and widespread droughts; • A total loss of arctic ice and the extinction of many arctic species; • A near total loss of coral reefs due to “bleaching;” • And perhaps the onset of the complete melting of the Greenland ice sheet, slowly but unstoppably raising sea levels by 7 m over the course of the next 3000 years. 2º • Decreasing crop yields in the developed world and decreasing world food supplies; • Widespread species extinctions and desertification; • The wholesale collapse of the Amazon ecosystem; • The complete loss of all boreal and alpine ecosystems. 3º • Entire regions will have no agricultural production whatsoever and the melting of the West Antarctic ice sheet will gradually increase sea levels by 5 to 6 m (in addition to the increase from the loss of the Greenland ice sheet). 4º • There is a 50-50 chance that the ocean’s circulation system will shut down, removing the crucial currents that warm and stabilize the climate of Northern Europe. >4º
    8. 8. UK Impacts from 4 o C Rise and Now More droughts 40% less rain in summer More heatwaves more deaths, fewer crops flooding Source and many other effects: Friends of the Earth Oct.2006 30% more rain in winter More floods 1.8M people risk coastal flooding Thames Barrier risk overheating
    9. 9. The Real Costs – Stern Review 2006 <ul><li>If we don’t act , the costs will be in the range of 5% to 20% or more of global GDP each year . Costs of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to avoid worst impacts of climate change would be around 1% of global GDP by 2050. </li></ul>“ The benefits of strong, early action on climate change outweigh the costs” “ Costs of mitigation of around 1% of GDP are small relative to the costs and risks of climate change that will be avoided” By year 2100, a 4 o C increase in global temperatures would cause economic damage ~ $20 trillion per year , ~8% of global economic output at that time. However, action now to limit the rise to 2 degrees would eliminate over half of this damage at far lower cost. $20 trillion may be a major underestimate as it only includes the impacts which are easier to measure. (1 trillion = 1 million million) Problems around the world cause major costs & social problems in UK e.g. Environmental refugees, more expenditure on aid, food prices. GDP = Gross Domestic Product = consumption + gross investment + government spending + (exports − imports) £
    10. 10. Geographic Information is Essential to Meet the Climate Change Challenges <ul><li>LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) and 3D building data can provide accurate terrain level information to enable planning to create sustainable resilient communities in a changing climate. </li></ul>Univ.of Sussex Chichester Lecture Theatre Data Information Action plans Spend now Reduce later cost Individual Local National International
    11. 11. Geographic Intelligence <ul><li>Geographic intelligence is fundamental, necessary and essential. </li></ul><ul><li>Information should be accurate, timely, intelligent & fit for purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify & measure significant aspects of climate change. </li></ul><ul><li>It can suggest relevant actions to achieve proper outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Health, legal, building,…,professionals need this information. </li></ul>
    12. 12. The role for Geographic Information – Energy Consumption The GeoInformation Group, Alun Jones 01223 88 00 77, alunj@citiesrevealed.  
    13. 13. Aerial Imagery Leading to Action Areas for A Sustainable Community Energy Efficiency Flood Risk Planning Creating High Quality Environments Engagement with citizens Local & National Awareness
    14. 14. Aims, Actions, Signs of Success ClimateChange_AlunJonesWhitePaper_A.pdf DEFRA & LGA Joint Environmental Prospectus July 2007 Improved local environmental quality Strategic planning Engagement with citizens Improving local environmental quality Improving the Local Environment Improved local environment and biodiversity Managing open spaces to provide high quality environments Use local strategic plans to deliver land use priorities Recognising value of living environments in regeneration policies Protecting Natural Resources CO2 reduction in Local Authority buildings Community resilience Reductions in Fuel poverty Community resilience Reducing energy consumption Planning for future on the basis of a changing climate Preventing fuel poverty , increasing energy efficiency in social housing Mitigating the impact of flooding in local plans Tackling and adapting to climate change SIGNS OF SUCCESS ACTIONS REQUIRED ENVIRONMENTAL AIM
    15. 15. Some International Meetings <ul><li>1987 - Montreal Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce fluorocarbons. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (U.N.) </li></ul><ul><li>1992 - Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit. </li></ul><ul><li>1994 - U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change </li></ul><ul><li>No targets or timelines (big disappointment) but key point is ultimate objective to stabilise climate in a way to prevent dangerous human activities interference with climate system and allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate which maintained food production capability and enabled sustainable economic development . It established international equity with differentiated responsibilities & capabilities which are now in the Kyoto Protocol. </li></ul><ul><li>1997 - Kyoto Protocol Became International Law 2005. To be replaced 2012. </li></ul><ul><li>Required developed nations to cut emissions of greenhouse gases. </li></ul><ul><li>EU was assigned 8% target reduction – ranging from Denmark & Germany 29% reduction to Luxembourg 20% increase, all compared to 1990 levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Annex 1 countries that exceed targets can buy allowances from another Annex 1 country that is doing better than its target. </li></ul><ul><li>So far, from 1990 to 2004 UK has reduced 14.3%, EU by 0.6%. </li></ul>
    16. 16. After the Kyoto Protocol A single global plan or an array of decentralised alliances? Best timeframes to consider actions? What types of commitment? Should it be shared between developed and developing countries? How should it be enforced? National, regional and local schemes Renewable transport fuels obligation A range of objectives 2009 – Copenhagen 2012 – Kyoto Protocol to be replaced 4 years left to get on the right climate track! Don’t just sit there. Do something!
    17. 17. UK Local Authority Measures <ul><li>The Government’s Sustainable Energy & Climate Change Act 2006 commits to produce an Energy Measures Report contain information on measures that local authorities (LAs or LGAs) can take in order to: </li></ul><ul><li>• Improve Energy Efficiency; </li></ul><ul><li>• Increase the Levels of Micro-generation; </li></ul><ul><li>• Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions; </li></ul><ul><li>• Reduce the number of Households living in Fuel Poverty. </li></ul><ul><li>The report will also make clear the link with Adaptation to Climate Change . </li></ul><ul><li>(This has been Further Emphasised through DEFRA’s Joint Environmental Prospectus July 2007.) </li></ul>The GeoInformation Group, Alun Jones 01223 88 00 77, alunj@citiesrevealed. www. opsi . gov . uk /ACTS/acts2006/20060019. htm Alun Jones’ White Paper With Ambitious Targets like these and Challenges set at the Strategic Level LAs Need More Intelligent Means of Measuring, Monitoring and Managing Improvements in their Efforts to Tackle Global Warming . The Environmental Prospectus sets out the three high level Environmental Aims and Key Actions and these will be reflected in the New Performance Frameworks for both LGAs and National Government .
    18. 18. Climate Change Bill 2008 – Overview <ul><li>Targets </li></ul><ul><li>Committee on Climate Change </li></ul><ul><li>Enabling Powers </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Adapting to climate change impact </li></ul><ul><li>Other measures to reduce emissions </li></ul>(Royal assent due Autumn 2008)
    19. 19. Climate Change Bill 2008 – Targets <ul><li>Targets will be reviewed, based on a report from the new independent Committee on Climate Change on whether it should be stronger, and implications of including other emissions from international aviation & shipping in the target. </li></ul><ul><li>5-year carbon budgets, which will set binding limits on carbon dioxide emissions ensuring every year’s emissions count. Three successive carbon budgets (= 15 years) will always be in law, backed by strong annual accountability and independent scrutiny. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Emission reductions purchased overseas may be counted towards the UK’s targets. They can be achieved cost effectively, with potential for investing in low carbon technologies abroad and action within the UK. </li></ul>Central Government requires from Local Authorities a reduction in CO 2 emissions of 26% to 32% by 2020 and 60% by 2050 (1995 benchmark). Other possible targets are 20% reduction by 2010, 60%-80% by 2050.
    20. 20. Climate Change Bill 2008 – Committee on Climate Change <ul><li>It will take into account a range of factors including environmental, technological, economic, fiscal, social and international factors, as well as energy policy, when giving its advice. </li></ul><ul><li>It will report by 01-Dec-08, at the same time as it is due to advise the Government on the first three five-year carbon budgets (2008-12, 2013-17, 2018-22). </li></ul>A Committee on Climate Change is being set up as an independent, expert body to advise the Government on the pathway to the 2050 target and to advise specifically on: the level of carbon budgets; reduction effort needed by sectors of the economy covered by trading schemes, and other sectors; and on the optimum balance between domestic action and international trading in carbon allowances.
    21. 21. Climate Change Bill 2008 – Enabling Powers <ul><li>The Bill contains enabling powers to introduce new trading schemes, such as the Carbon Reduction Commitment, through secondary legislation. </li></ul>This increases the policy options which Government could use to stay within budgets and meet emissions targets, while maintaining the need for thorough analysis, consultation and scrutiny of proposals before a new scheme is introduced. National Indicators for environmental sustainability include:- Flood and coastal erosion risk management 189 Adapting to climate change 188 Tackling fuel poverty – people receiving income based benefits living in homes with a low energy efficiency rating 187 Per capita CO 2 emissions in the LA area 186 CO 2 reduction from Local Authority operations 185
    22. 22. Climate Change Bill 2008 – Other measures to reduce emissions <ul><li>We will use the Bill to enhance the operation of the Renewable Transport Fuels Obligation (RTFO), which is expected to deliver significant carbon savings from the road transport sector by increasing the use of biofuels. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>We will also use the Bill to provide a power to pilot local authority incentive schemes for household waste minimisation and recycling - Waste Strategy for England 2007: incentives for recycling by households </li></ul>
    23. 23. Carbon Trading / Offsetting The Climate Change Bill 2008 commits every organisation using more than 6,000 megawatts of energy per annum to a 20% emission reduction by 2010. The government’s plans are to extend these reductions to 60% – with a possible extension to 80% – by 2050. The immediate threshold will be ~5,000 UK firms. Failure to comply will attract penalties of £70 per tonne of carbon. A typical 1,000 staff organisation failing Climate Change Bill 2008 requirements could incur fines more than £274,000. Go to website of offsetting organisation (Oo). Work out emissions for an activity (e.g. a flight). Oo will charge a fee, ~£15 per tonne of CO2. (e.g. London to New York flight £25 to neutralise, or typical year of efficient car driving £42 to neutralise)
    24. 24. Reducing Carbon Emissions – Home & Travel Websites <ul><li>At home:- </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. carbonfootprint .com/ plantingtrees .html </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. energysavingtrust .org. uk /home_improvements/home_insulation_glazing </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. energysavingtrust .org. uk /generate_your_own_energy/types_of_ renewables </li></ul><ul><li>Travel:- (to school, work, holidays, hospitals, etc) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>www. carbonfootprint .com/ cartravel .html </li></ul><ul><li>www. energysavingtrust .org. uk /what_can_i_do_today/smarter_driving </li></ul>
    25. 25. Reducing Carbon Emissions – School and Office Websites <ul><li>At School:- </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>At Office:- </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    26. 26. Reducing Carbon Emissions at Home Turn your water heating down. Insulate your hot water tank. Take holidays closer to home. Add double glazing. Store foods correctly to reduce waste. Use energy saving light bulbs. Look out for the carbon label . Turn central heating down - (1 o C saves >£40 per year) . Turn electrical appliances off, don’t use the standby button. Only boil the amount of water needed when making a drink. Put clothes out to dry rather than using a tumble dryer. Use rechargeable batteries – (takes more energy to make battery than it contains) .
    27. 27. Reducing Carbon Emissions in Food Reduce your consumption of meat Don't buy bottled water if your tap water is safe to drink (especially if it has been shipped from far away) Buy local fruit and vegetables, or even try growing your own Don't buy fresh fruit and vegetables which are out of season, they may have been flown in Try to buy products made closer to home (look out and avoid items that are made in the distant lands) Where was this fish caught? Where was it tinned? Carbon footprint of travel? Carbon footprint of canning staff?
    28. 28. Reducing Carbon Emissions in Waste Note the day/dates your recycling is collected. Recycle waste from all bins in your house. See A third of the food we buy in the UK ends up being thrown away, so keep your fridge, freezer & cupboard stocked with long shelf-life food. (See Make compost. Eliminate junk mail using Mail Preference Service ( Use products with a longer life, such as energy saving light bulbs, which can last around ten times longer than standard bulbs. Buy more concentrated versions of detergents. Reuse plastic bags as often as you can. Donate unwanted items such as clothes, books, CDs and furniture to charity shops or join a gift community such as Freecycle ( Use energy saving products (see .
    29. 29. Reducing Carbon Emissions in Cars Keep the vehicle properly serviced. Check tyre pressures at least once a fortnight. Avoid carrying unnecessary weight in the boot. Plan the journey, so you don't get lost and waste fuel. Try to avoid congested areas. For local travel consider leave the car at home and walk, cycle or use public transport When starting up, there is no need to allow the engine to warm up. Avoid using air conditioning if possible, as this uses more fuel Drive with the windows closed, as this reduces drag on the vehicle Switch off engine if likely to be stationary for more than 2 minutes On motorways keep a good distance from cars in front to avoid unnecessary braking When replacing your car, look for the most carbon efficient (i.e. with a low gCO2/km figure) or with a high mpg. Car not bon Try to avoid sudden acceleration, engine revving, and sudden braking – this can use up to 30% more fuel and increase wear and tear of the vehicle
    30. 30. Reducing Carbon Emissions in Organisation Almost half a billion pounds is wasted — equivalent to 2.5 million tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions are generated every year when appliances are left on stand-by. For every 1ºC that your building is overheated, up to 10% is added to your heating costs. A 20% cut in energy costs is equivalent to a 5% increase in sales in most businesses. Energy costs can usually be reduced by 10% — often by 20% — by simple actions. Compressed air leaking through a small (5mm) hole could cost up to £14,000 per year. Motors can consume their purchase price in energy costs in just a few weeks. Heating and hot water can account for up to 60% of building’s energy use, most wasted. Ensure heating and air conditioning are not switched on at the same time. Office equipment is 15% of current energy use, will double over the next fifteen years. Switch off unused equipment & enable energy saving, energy consumption could be reduced by 70% .
    31. 31. Individual Energy Generation for Organisation and H ome Biomass Heat pumps Small scale hydro Small scale wind Solar PhotoVoltaic Solar water heating
    32. 32. The Way Forward <ul><li>Climate problems are pushing the world to catastrophe. </li></ul><ul><li>By establishing a carbon budget and an environmental balance sheet, we can avert economic and environmental disaster. </li></ul><ul><li>The 2008 Climate Change Bill will help pull the world back from the brink of chaos with a low carbon economy and a stable future for organisations. </li></ul>