Background Information• Ghana, a country on the WestCoast of Africa, has oftenbeen referred to as an "islandof peace" in one of the mostchaotic regions on earth.• Ghana in 1957 (March 6) becamethe first sub-Saharan countryin colonial Africa to gain itsindependence from the UnitedKingdom.
Demography• Location: It shares boundarieswith Togo to the east, la CotedIvoire to the west, Burkina Fasoto the north and the Gulf ofGuinea, to the south.• Area: 238,533 sq. km (92,100 sq.mi.) land: 227,533 sq km water:11,000 sq km– Coastline: 539 km
Demography• Climate: tropical; warm andcomparatively dry along southeastcoast; hot and humid in southwest;hot and dry in north• President: John Evans Atta Mills• Official Language: English andAfrican• Capital: Accra• Etymology: Ghana means WarriorKing
Economy• Ghanas economy has beenstrengthened by a quarter centuryof relatively sound management, acompetitive business environment,and sustained reductions inpoverty levels.• Gold, timber, and cocoa productionand individual remittances aremajor sources of foreign exchange.
• Natural resources: gold, timber,industrial diamonds, bauxite,manganese, fish, rubber,hydropower, petroleum, silver,salt, and limestone.• Oil production at Ghanas offshoreJubilee field began in mid-December, 2010, and is expected toboost economic growth.Economy
Economy• Ghana opted for debt relief under theHeavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC)program in 2002, and is also benefitingfrom the Multilateral Debt ReliefInitiative that took effect in 2006.• In 2009 Ghana signed a three-yearPoverty Reduction and Growth Facilityto improve macroeconomic stability,private sector competitiveness, humanresource development, and goodgovernance and civic responsibility.
Population Ageing• There issignificance in thephenomenal growth ofelderly populationsesp. in the ruralareas of Ghana.• Elderly persons, age60 years and above,constitute about 7%of the Ghana’s totalpopulation.
Population Ageing• Factors contributing toits growth:– Decline in infant andmaternal mortality– Reductions in fertility– Decreases in infectiousand parasitic diseases– Improvements innutrition and education– Impact of rural-to-urban migration– Death due to HIV/AIDSof able-bodied youngpeople
Population AgeingBecause of modernization andurbanization, the traditionalextended family system isdisintegrating, leaving theelderly population with littleor no means of support andcare. As a result, Ghana’srapidly increasing number ofolder citizens is like toperpetuate poverty.
Discrimination AgainstWomenGhanaian women face institutionaldiscrimination in their attempts togain access to land and credit, despitethe fact that they constitute about 52%of the agricultural work force andproduce about 70% of the total cropoutput.
Current Environmental Issues• recurrent drought in the northseverely affects agriculturalactivities• deforestation• overgrazing• soil erosion• poaching and habitat destructionthreatens wildlife populations• water pollution• inadequate supplies of potable water
Health• HIV/AIDS– Adult prevalence rate: 1.8%– People living with HIV/AIDS:260,000– Deaths: 18,000• Note: Highly pathogenic H5N1 avianinfluenza has also been identifiedin this country
Health• Life expectancy at birth: 62years• Infant mortality rate: 47/1000live births• Total fertility rate: 4children/woman• 10.6% of the countrys GDP wasspent on health.
Health• Major infectious diseases:– degree of risk: very high– food or waterborne diseases: bacterialand protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A,and typhoid fever– vectorborne diseases: malaria– water contact disease: schistosomiasis– respiratory disease: meningococcalmeningitis– animal contact disease: rabies
Regional Inequality• The trend towards povertyreduction in most regions is notreplicated in the north.• Factors that may have caused thisinequality are:– Geographical aspects (rainfall,ecology, and location)– Historical origins (pre-colonial andcolonial)• It remains massively disadvantagedin terms of medical services.
Transnational Issues• illicit producer of cannabis for theinternational drug trade• major transit hub for Southwest andSoutheast Asian heroin and, to a lesserextent, South American cocaine destinedfor Europe and the US• widespread crime and money launderingproblem, but the lack of a welldeveloped financial infrastructurelimits the countrys utility as a moneylaundering center• significant domestic cocaine andcannabis use
ANALYSISAccording to my findings, the Republic ofGhana developed sustainably and has been positivelyleading among the rest of the other African nationsin terms of economy. Yet, there is still the threatof poverty and corruption that if not addressedwould result to its instability. There aredefinitely a lot of issues that still needs to beaddressed (discrimination, inequality, populationageing, corruption…) for this country to fullybecome developed.Therefore, the relative peace Ghana hasenjoyed over the years should be guarded andsustained for improved food security, ruraldevelopment and poverty reduction. The government ofthe Republic of Ghana should keep its focus on theupliftment of the general being of its citizens,most especially its elderlies.
CONCLUSIONTherefore I conclude thatunderdevelopment results from theimbalance of the important aspects,especially of a country. Economicdevelopment alone does not guaranteedevelopment. It does not get a person or acountry very far unless it is accompaniedby social, political, and moraldevelopment.