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Biology introduction


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  • Movement in animals is possible because of muscular and skeletal systems.
  • Growth, with increases in size and number of cells, is part of development. Development involves many stages from conception until death.
  • Adaptations are modifications that enable an organism to be suited to its way of life.
  • Genus and species are the two names used to identify specific organisms in the binomial system of classification. Division is used for plants.
  • Cell Theory: All organisms are composed of cells. Biogenesis Theory: Life comes only from life. Theory of Evolution: All living things have a common ancestor, but each is adapted to a particular was of life. Gene Theory: Organisms contain coded information that dictates their form, function, and behavior.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Inquiry into Life , 10 th edition by Sylvia Mader
    • 2. Chapter 1: The Study of Life
    • 3. The Characteristics of Life
      • Life is diverse yet all living things share common characteristics.
      • Living things are organized.
    • 4.  
    • 5.
      • Living things acquire materials and energy.
      • Photosynthetic organisms use carbon dioxide, water, and solar energy to make food.
      • Animals obtain nutrients and energy from food eaten.
      • Energy is the capacity to do work.
      • Many living things can convert energy to motion.
    • 6.
      • Living things reproduce.
      • Genes (DNA) contain information needed for heredity and metabolism .
      • Metabolism is all the chemical reactions in the cell.
      • Reproduction may be asexual or sexual.
    • 7.
      • Living things respond to stimuli.
      • Living things may respond to external stimuli by movement toward or away from a stimulus.
      • Movement constitutes part of the behavior of an organism.
    • 8.
      • Living things are homeostatic .
      • Homeostasis is the ability of an organism to maintain relatively constant internal conditions.
      • An example is temperature regulation in the human body.
      • All organ systems contribute to homeostasis.
    • 9.
      • Living things grow and develop.
      • All organisms undergo development.
    • 10.
      • Living things are adapted.
      • Adaptations come about through evolution .
      • Evolution is the process by which a species changes through time.
      • Evolution explains both the unity and diversity of life.
    • 11. The Classification of Living Things
      • Taxomony is the science of identifying and classifying organisms according to specific criteria using these categories:
      • Kingdom
      • Phylum (Division)
      • Class
      • Order
      • Family
      • Genus
      • Species
    • 12. There are three domains :
      • Archaea and Bacteria – unicellular prokaryotes that lack a membrane-bound nucleus.
      • Eukarya – showing cellular complexity and having a nucleus and other organelles.
    • 13.
      • Archaea live in harsh environments and may represent the first cells to have evolved.
      • Bacteria, some of which cause human diseases, are present in almost all habitats on earth.
      • Many bacteria are important environmentally and commercially.
    • 14.
      • The Domain Eukarya is divided into 4 kingdoms:
      • Protists (kingdom Protista)
      • Fungi (kingdom Fungi)
      • Plants (kingdom Plantae)
      • Animals (kingdom Animalia)
    • 15.
      • Most genera contain a number of similar species, with the exception of Homo that only contains modern humans.
      • Classification is based on evolutionary relationships.
      • Each successive classification category contains more different types of organisms than the preceding category.
    • 16.
      • Scientific names are binomial names, using genus and species.
      • Modern humans are Homo sapiens .
    • 17. The Organization of the Biosphere
      • The biosphere is the zone of life in the air, water, and land that surrounds the planet.
      • Groups of individuals of a species are called populations .
      • Populations of different species that interact make up communities .
      • Communities plus the physical habitat form ecosystems .
    • 18.
      • Ecosystems are characterized by chemical cycling and energy flow .
    • 19.
      • Climate determines what ecosystem can exist in an area.
      • Human populations tend to modify ecosystems for their uses.
      • Loss of ecosystems results in loss of biodiversity , the total number of species.
    • 20.
      • Preservation of ecosystems is important to ensure our continued existence.
      • Loss of species threatens ecosystems.
    • 21. The Process of Science
      • Biology, the study of life, uses the scientific method .
      • The scientific method has these steps:
      • Observation
      • Hypothesis
      • Experiments/Further Observations
      • Conclusion
      • Theory
    • 22.  
    • 23.
      • An experimental design contains a control group that goes through all the steps of the experiment but is not exposed to the factor being tested.
      • Results of an experiment are called data .
      • Data undergo statistical evaluation.
    • 24.
      • Several theories in biology include:
      • Cell
      • Biogenesis
      • Evolution
      • Gene
    • 25.
      • Scientific studies may be carried out in the field or in the lab.
      • In either type of study, scientists formulate testable hypotheses, make observations or perform experiments, and come to objective conclusions.
    • 26. Field Study Example
    • 27. Controlled Laboratory Experiment Example
    • 28. Science and Social Responsibility
      • Technology is the application of knowledge for a practical purpose.
      • Technology has both benefits and drawbacks.
      • Ethical and moral issues surrounding the use of technology must be decided by everyone.