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Biology introduction
 

Biology introduction

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  • Movement in animals is possible because of muscular and skeletal systems.
  • Growth, with increases in size and number of cells, is part of development. Development involves many stages from conception until death.
  • Adaptations are modifications that enable an organism to be suited to its way of life.
  • Genus and species are the two names used to identify specific organisms in the binomial system of classification. Division is used for plants.
  • Cell Theory: All organisms are composed of cells. Biogenesis Theory: Life comes only from life. Theory of Evolution: All living things have a common ancestor, but each is adapted to a particular was of life. Gene Theory: Organisms contain coded information that dictates their form, function, and behavior.

Biology introduction Biology introduction Presentation Transcript

  • Inquiry into Life , 10 th edition by Sylvia Mader
  • Chapter 1: The Study of Life
  • The Characteristics of Life
    • Life is diverse yet all living things share common characteristics.
    • Living things are organized.
  •  
    • Living things acquire materials and energy.
    • Photosynthetic organisms use carbon dioxide, water, and solar energy to make food.
    • Animals obtain nutrients and energy from food eaten.
    • Energy is the capacity to do work.
    • Many living things can convert energy to motion.
    • Living things reproduce.
    • Genes (DNA) contain information needed for heredity and metabolism .
    • Metabolism is all the chemical reactions in the cell.
    • Reproduction may be asexual or sexual.
    • Living things respond to stimuli.
    • Living things may respond to external stimuli by movement toward or away from a stimulus.
    • Movement constitutes part of the behavior of an organism.
    • Living things are homeostatic .
    • Homeostasis is the ability of an organism to maintain relatively constant internal conditions.
    • An example is temperature regulation in the human body.
    • All organ systems contribute to homeostasis.
    • Living things grow and develop.
    • All organisms undergo development.
    • Living things are adapted.
    • Adaptations come about through evolution .
    • Evolution is the process by which a species changes through time.
    • Evolution explains both the unity and diversity of life.
  • The Classification of Living Things
    • Taxomony is the science of identifying and classifying organisms according to specific criteria using these categories:
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum (Division)
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  • There are three domains :
    • Archaea and Bacteria – unicellular prokaryotes that lack a membrane-bound nucleus.
    • Eukarya – showing cellular complexity and having a nucleus and other organelles.
    • Archaea live in harsh environments and may represent the first cells to have evolved.
    • Bacteria, some of which cause human diseases, are present in almost all habitats on earth.
    • Many bacteria are important environmentally and commercially.
    • The Domain Eukarya is divided into 4 kingdoms:
    • Protists (kingdom Protista)
    • Fungi (kingdom Fungi)
    • Plants (kingdom Plantae)
    • Animals (kingdom Animalia)
    • Most genera contain a number of similar species, with the exception of Homo that only contains modern humans.
    • Classification is based on evolutionary relationships.
    • Each successive classification category contains more different types of organisms than the preceding category.
    • Scientific names are binomial names, using genus and species.
    • Modern humans are Homo sapiens .
    •  
  • The Organization of the Biosphere
    • The biosphere is the zone of life in the air, water, and land that surrounds the planet.
    • Groups of individuals of a species are called populations .
    • Populations of different species that interact make up communities .
    • Communities plus the physical habitat form ecosystems .
    • Ecosystems are characterized by chemical cycling and energy flow .
    • Climate determines what ecosystem can exist in an area.
    • Human populations tend to modify ecosystems for their uses.
    • Loss of ecosystems results in loss of biodiversity , the total number of species.
    • Preservation of ecosystems is important to ensure our continued existence.
    • Loss of species threatens ecosystems.
  • The Process of Science
    • Biology, the study of life, uses the scientific method .
    • The scientific method has these steps:
    • Observation
    • Hypothesis
    • Experiments/Further Observations
    • Conclusion
    • Theory
  •  
    • An experimental design contains a control group that goes through all the steps of the experiment but is not exposed to the factor being tested.
    • Results of an experiment are called data .
    • Data undergo statistical evaluation.
    • Several theories in biology include:
    • Cell
    • Biogenesis
    • Evolution
    • Gene
    • Scientific studies may be carried out in the field or in the lab.
    • In either type of study, scientists formulate testable hypotheses, make observations or perform experiments, and come to objective conclusions.
  • Field Study Example
  • Controlled Laboratory Experiment Example
  • Science and Social Responsibility
    • Technology is the application of knowledge for a practical purpose.
    • Technology has both benefits and drawbacks.
    • Ethical and moral issues surrounding the use of technology must be decided by everyone.