Ussr & usa in the middle east
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  • 1. USSR & USA in the Middle East
  • 2. The Resurgence of Islam Western Materialism = Bad In addition to the existence of Israel and the abundance of oil, Fundamentalist vs Moderate Islam is a major contributing factor to conflict in the Middle East (eq: Iran, Iraq)
  • 3. Iran becomes a Theocracy Ayatollah Khomeini returns from exile in 1979 and began his Islamic Fundamentalist Revolution Iran became a theocracy – a country run by a religious government Religious laws became the laws of the country Iran is still a theocracy today, as is Saudi Arabia (and the Vatican)
  • 4. Iran-Iraq War: 1980-88 Saddam Hussein, leader of Iraq, feared Khomeini's fundamentalist revolution would take hold in Iraq Brutal dictator, yes, but religious fundamentalist, no
  • 5. Iran-Iraq War The two sides fought a nasty fight for 8 years, but nobody won Both sides used chemical weapons Eventually they agreed to peace terms About 1 million men died
  • 6. The Gulf War: 1990-1991In August 1990 Saddam Hussein, president of Iraq, invaded his southern neighbor, oil rich Kuwait Why? Iraq claimed that Kuwait historically belonged to Iraq When the British drew the new borders after WWI, most of Basra went to Iraq, but Kuwait remained a British protectorate (gained independence in 1961) The British were protecting their dominance of the Persian Gulf by denying Iraq access to it
  • 7. International ResponseThe world, especially the US, was concerned that Iraq would control too much of the world's oil supply and have too much power to control the Persian Gulf The UN ordered Iraq to remove troops by 15 January 1991
  • 8. International ResponseA coalition force, led by the USA, assembled (included Britain and Canada) Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Egypt joined the coalition because they feared Hussein's intentions in the region The USA convinced Israel to stay out of the coalition so that the Arabs would stay in
  • 9. Operation Desert Storm Hussein did not withdraw, so the coalition attacked Baghdad was bombed for a month The coalition also attacked with a large ground force and removed Hussein's forces from Kuwait in about 4 days
  • 10. Operation Desert Storm Iraq lost about 90,000 troops (killed, captured, wounded Hussein used the one weapon he had left, SCUD missiles, against Israel and Saudi Arabia The US managed to keep Israel out in order to maintain the strength of the coalition – Patriot missiles
  • 11. SCUD Missile
  • 12. Coalition Mistake The UN resolution required that Hussein be removed from Kuwait, not removed from power Hussein continued to suppress his own people including ruthlessly putting down two uprisings after the Gulf War Shiites in the south, Kurds in the north Many blamed this on the Americans because they did not remove Hussein from power
  • 13. The Soviets in Afghanistan the Afghan Marxist party took control in 1973 they were opposed by the Mujaheddin (Muslim rebel force) in 1978 a civil war broke out between the Marxist ruling party and the Mujaheddin rebels
  • 14. The USSR Invaded in 1979Reasons to support the Marxist government against the Muslims to install a puppet government more closely linked with Moscow to gain further influence in the Persian Gulf / Middle East Region
  • 15. A Vicious War followed 1980-88 The Soviets encountered hostile resistance from the Mujaheddin this became another guerrilla war the Soviets withdrew in disgrace beginning in 1988
  • 16. Soviets experience in Afghanistan was similar to the American experience in VietnamBoth experienced a war in which the native population was largely against the foreign forces Both faced guerrilla forces dedicated to their cause Both military forces had to struggle with their own disillusioned troops World public opinion turned rapidly against both foreign invaders Both withdrew with discredited armed forces