Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14
Cloud Computing and
Intelligent Systems
Two Fields at a Cross...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14
Cloud Computing and Intelligent
Systems
• Context
• Technical...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14
Context
• Unique Systems Engineering and Development
Capabili...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today
Continuous Transformation
Environment
“A Cloud Computing
Range”
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14
CTE at a Glance
• CTE Objectives
– Prototype development and ...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today
CTE Network
6
 Quality Technology Services (QTS) and Verizon (VZW) ...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today
Main CTE Experimentation Lab Location
Richmond- High Density Multi-D...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14
Technical Challenges
• Rapidly create complex, realistic, and...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today
Unmanned Systems Control
October 27, 2008 USIC Conference, San Diego...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14
Hypersonic Anti-Ship Missile
Challenges
• Critical Battlespac...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14
Anti-Ship Missile
Defense
 Increase Response time for Fleet
...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today
12
Sea Base
Perimeter
ASW Threat
Identification
Perimeter
SUW Threat...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today
13
Sea Base
Perimeter
ASW Threat
Identification
Perimeter
SUW Threat...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today
Cloud of Projectiles
Each USV’s Gun Creates a Cloud
14
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14
New Fleet Capabilities
• Automated Fleet Systems
– Adaptive &...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today
Inter-system Interoperability and Interaction with Personnel “On
Sce...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14
Nightingale II
• Autonomous:
– VTOL UAV
– High-mobility UGV(s...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14
Nightingale II
Challenges
• Autonomous VTOL UAV
– Autonomous ...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14
Nightingale II
Challenges
• Autonomous VTOL UAV (cont)
– Auto...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14
2
0
Nightingale II
Challenges
• Rough-terrain UGV(s)
– Mobili...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14
System/Component Integration
• Most well-known methods and te...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today
Ease of Development/Integration/Interoperability
Implement/Support A...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today
Data
Source 1
Application 1
Compute
Process 1
Compute
Process M
Data...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14
The DNA of Complex Systems
• Look at nature to understand
com...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14
Internal Processes
Analogy: The Heart Beat
• Atria pump blood...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14
External Processes
Analogy: Pacemaker
• External process moni...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14
Internal Events
Analogy: Heart Attack
• Internal occurrence w...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14
External Events
Analogy: Defibrillation
• External event chan...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today
FE FE
FE FE
FE
FE
FE
FE
FE FE
FE
FE FE FE FE FE
FE FE
FE FE
FE FE
FE...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today
Component Repository
Composability Automation
CASE Tool Environment
...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today
API Example
Turret/Fire Control
Slew Elevate
Fire When Slew and Elev...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today
Example: Turret Fire Command
void Turret::fire()
{
P_VAR
P_BEGIN(2)
...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14
Algorithm/Environment
Integration
• Must be able to integrate...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today
Adaptive, Dynamic, Knowledge-based
Execution/Control
Conceptual Grap...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today
Basic CG Formation Rules
Concept 1
Relationship 1
Relationship 1
Con...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14
Extensions
• A CG execution engine with abilities to:
– Embed...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14
Extensions
• A mechanism to control the CG execution
engine
–...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14
Summary of Extensions
• A collection of user-defined concept ...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14
Paradigm of Execution
1. The system is started
a. Each compon...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today
CG Execution
Dividend: 9.0
Divisor: 4.0
Number: 144.0
Quotient: 2.0
...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today
Example of a Path of Route
in a CG
runs
Is a
generating
for
Responsi...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14
Summary
• Representation of complex webs of
synchronized caus...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today
Backup
43
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14
Software Development Framework: JEE
• Minimizes amount of cod...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today
Example: Building Automation
Management System
Level 1
Information
m...
Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today
Components in a BAMS
fan
Air conditioning
PC
Heat energy
sanitary
li...
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Cloud Computing and Intelligent Systems: Two Fields at a Crossroads

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Many “big data” software systems are not interactive, automated, or run in a real-time mode. The true utility of cloud computing and “big data systems” can be increased by providing an execution framework and control software that is native to cloud architectures and supports interactivity and time synchronization. In addition, a framework to integrate different artificial intelligence and machine learning algorithms is combined with the execution framework to create a powerful cloud computing system development platform.

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  • The Aegis combat system talks to the Standard Missile a pitiful 4 times a second to update guidance and telemetry information.
  • The focus of over half a decade of war in Southwest Asia has driven innovation, investment, and focus away from defense against high-technology, state actor funded weapons systems, such as the newly rumored DF-21D – reputed to be a “carrier-killer”.Reliably countering anti-ship missiles – ballistic or otherwise – requires a degree of speed and coordination between system components that is beyond today’s technology. Integrating the components also requires a great deal of time and money – rapidly integrating new systems into the networks requires months of time and testting.The new solution finally makes the marketing slogan “plug-n-play” a reality.Adding a new sensor or system to the network is now a matter of installing and configuring a board or network appliance.
  • Cloud Computing and Intelligent Systems: Two Fields at a Crossroads

    1. 1. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14 Cloud Computing and Intelligent Systems Two Fields at a Crossroads Dr. Jeffrey Wallace The 2014 International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence (CSCI'14)
    2. 2. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14 Cloud Computing and Intelligent Systems • Context • Technical Challenges • Examples – Unmanned Systems Control • Anti-ship Missile Defense • Battlefield Extraction of Wounded • Technology Enablers – System/Component Integration – Algorithm/Environment Integration • Summary 2
    3. 3. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14 Context • Unique Systems Engineering and Development Capability – A distillation of over $2B in government R&D – Addresses both people and technology • Partnered with the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the 4 services, Academia, and others • Solved world-class/grand challenge problems on F-35, CVN-21, healthcare IT, etc. • Systems Integrator for the Continuous Transformation Environment 3
    4. 4. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today Continuous Transformation Environment “A Cloud Computing Range”
    5. 5. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14 CTE at a Glance • CTE Objectives – Prototype development and experimentation: Innovation in a collaborative environment by industry, government, and academia in an open systems collaborative environment – Integration, verification, test, and release of Commercial-Off-The- Shelf (COTS) products for government use – Rapidly prove operational utility of high technology solutions – Open systems and standards compliance evaluation, documentation, and capabilities matrix • Solve GAO identified big integrator problem1 – Organizing principle: “Give innovation a chance.” • Consortium of large and small technology companies and facilities partners 5 1 Government Accounting Office-09-326SP, http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d09326sp.pdf
    6. 6. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today CTE Network 6  Quality Technology Services (QTS) and Verizon (VZW) are the current facilities  OCONUS Sites are VZW  CONUS VZW: Engelwood, CO; Culpeper, VA, Miami, FL  Remaining CONUS Sites are QTS, in particular the 1.3M sq. ft. Richmond, VA s
    7. 7. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today Main CTE Experimentation Lab Location Richmond- High Density Multi-Data Center Campus 500,000 Sq Ft of Planned Raised Floor Multiple Distinct Data Center Buildings (Current Basis of Design) 1 3 2 Office Space 1.3 Million Sq Ft Campus
    8. 8. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14 Technical Challenges • Rapidly create complex, realistic, and scalable networks of systems and component inter- relationships • Distribution of autonomous controls and monitors • Implementation of complex webs of cause and effect • Dynamic alteration of the component execution structure – Adaptation and evolution of the system • Ability to handle billions of active processes in real- time – Harness power of sequential, distributed and/or parallel processing – optimizing the use of any compute/network/storage configuration – Smartphones to supercomputers 8
    9. 9. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today Unmanned Systems Control October 27, 2008 USIC Conference, San Diego, CA 9
    10. 10. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14 Hypersonic Anti-Ship Missile Challenges • Critical Battlespace defense gap • Interactions happening faster than humans can react • Current Command and Control (C2) is not real-time, performance limited, and the only source of information • Greatly affects real-time response for kinetic engagement capabilities 10
    11. 11. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14 Anti-Ship Missile Defense  Increase Response time for Fleet  Simplify Installation, Maintenance, & Operation SBX DDG e.g. DF-21 UAS Weapon USV Anti- Ship Missile Space Sensor
    12. 12. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today 12 Sea Base Perimeter ASW Threat Identification Perimeter SUW Threat Monitoring Perimeter SUW Threat Identification Perimeter 18 nmi ASMD Threat Perimeter
    13. 13. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today 13 Sea Base Perimeter ASW Threat Identification Perimeter SUW Threat Monitoring Perimeter SUW Threat Identification Perimeter ASMD Threat Perimeter
    14. 14. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today Cloud of Projectiles Each USV’s Gun Creates a Cloud 14
    15. 15. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14 New Fleet Capabilities • Automated Fleet Systems – Adaptive & composable – Knowledge built into systems – Emphasizes speed and flexibility • Ability to fuse new information, knowledge, and structures rapidly – Mesh networks and systems – Example: Sensor net that automatically refocuses based on accurate real time fused information • C2 and fire control moves from Fleet platforms to Network 15
    16. 16. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today Inter-system Interoperability and Interaction with Personnel “On Scene” Example: Nightingale II 16 Autonomous transit from starting point, to pick-up point, to medical unit 4 A. Call for MedEvac received at Nightingale Control B. Best UAV is chosen automatically C. Route is autonomously planned & uploaded D. UAV is launched automatically 1 2 Autonomous collision & obstacle avoidance Similar process for: Logistics, Combat Rescue, & Special Ops No Fly Zone C2 No Fly Zone A B C D 1 Autonomous Clear-Zone landing 3 5 UGV+BEAR deploys BEAR deploys 6 BEAR recovers & Medic treats 7 UAS/UGV/BEAR system rejoins and goes to destination
    17. 17. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14 Nightingale II • Autonomous: – VTOL UAV – High-mobility UGV(s) – Asset allocation and mission planning • Interoperability / coordination with existing – Dismounted ground personnel – Air operations – Ground operations – Artillery & strike operations – Political & no-fly boundaries – High-data-rate non-LOS communications October 27, 2008USIC Conference, San Diego, CA 1 7
    18. 18. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14 Nightingale II Challenges • Autonomous VTOL UAV – Autonomous obstacle avoidance • Wires, antennae, etc. – Sensor with sufficient resolution & range for vehicle maneuverability limits – Day, night, weather, dust/sand/dirt (“brown out”) – Autonomous collision avoidance (other aircraft) • Small UAVs, birds, etc. – Sensor with sufficient resolution & range for vehicle maneuverability limits – Day, night, weather, dust/sand/dirt (“brown out”) October 27, 2008 USIC Conference, San Diego, CA 1 8
    19. 19. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14 Nightingale II Challenges • Autonomous VTOL UAV (cont) – Autonomous LZ identification • LZ size, geometry, roughness, slope • Ingress/egress flight-path – Obstacles – Moving ground personnel, vehicles – Exposure to enemy » Lines of fire » Exposure time • Coordination with UGV mobility constraints – Navigable path between LZ and casualty October 27, 2008 USIC Conference, San Diego, CA 1 9
    20. 20. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14 2 0 Nightingale II Challenges • Rough-terrain UGV(s) – Mobility • Tracks, wheels, legs • Water crossing • Mud, sand, snow, ice • Interiors (stairs, doors, elevators, etc.) – Autonomous capabilities • Beyond Grand Challenge, Urban Challenge – Casualty extraction • Careful casualty handling • Does the UGV need a UGV? October 27, 2008 USIC Conference, San Diego, CA
    21. 21. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14 System/Component Integration • Most well-known methods and technology originate in “business IT”… • Optimizing execution and efficiency and enabling computation at scale is typically the province of “high performance computing” • Real-time execution and synchronization are addressed by several communities, e.g. robotics 21
    22. 22. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today Ease of Development/Integration/Interoperability Implement/Support Any Architecture Application Connectors Message Brokers Enterprise Resource Managers Application Servers Component Brokers
    23. 23. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today Data Source 1 Application 1 Compute Process 1 Compute Process M Data Source 2 Data Source N Application X WAIT_FOR (DS1 semaphore, wait time1) WAIT_FOR (DSP semaphore, wait timep) Typical Complex Application- System
    24. 24. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14 The DNA of Complex Systems • Look at nature to understand complex systems • Internal Processes • External Processes • Internal Events • External Events • Intermix of all four is required –Implementing in a scalable manner is key
    25. 25. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14 Internal Processes Analogy: The Heart Beat • Atria pump blood to ventricles, which contract • Nonstop contractions are driven by the heart's electrical system Internal Process: Synchronous or Asynchronous – Intrincsic Capabilities
    26. 26. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14 External Processes Analogy: Pacemaker • External process monitors and interacts with an object (i.e., a pacemaker monitors the heart’s rhythm) • The electric current makes the heart beat within a certain range External Process: Synchronous or Asynchronous – Monitor and Control
    27. 27. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14 Internal Events Analogy: Heart Attack • Internal occurrence without pre-established time scale • Certain factors cause the occurrence. Blood flow is restricted, or the nerve system, which controls the heart, malfunctions Internal Occurrence: Irregular Time Scale – Intrinsic Capabilities
    28. 28. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14 External Events Analogy: Defibrillation • External event changes a passive object’s state (i.e., a defibrillator is used for resuscitation) • External electrical shock is applied to the heart • Foundational representation method External Occurrence: Irregular Time Scale – Monitor and Control
    29. 29. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE User Application Interface Services Hardware Device Interface Services 3D Visualization Interface Services Web Interface Interface Services Communication Speed Slow Medium Fast Configurable Computational Mesh Polymorphic Computing Architecture (PCA) FE = Functional Element 29
    30. 30. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today Component Repository Composability Automation CASE Tool Environment User Defined IT System Interface User Defined Hardware Interface Web Services API (JNI, SOAP, OWL, etc.) Shared Memory IP JTRS Reflective Memory Security State Saving Core Programming Distributed Object Mgmt Std App Dev Interface Synchronization Management Event Management Services Knowledge Representation Integration Meta-Data Data Translation Communication Services (Unicast, Multicast, Broadcast) Common Application Services Intelligent Application Services System Execution Services Service Decomposition CompressionEncryption BLOSLink-16 Others 30
    31. 31. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today API Example Turret/Fire Control Slew Elevate Fire When Slew and Elevate are Complete Process Firing Commands (and Queuing Them) 31
    32. 32. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today Example: Turret Fire Command void Turret::fire() { P_VAR P_BEGIN(2) // Wait until the turret movement is completed WAIT_FOR(1, slewComplete, -1); WAIT_FOR(2, elevateComplete, -1); // Fire the weapon, this would activate the real gun Fire_M256(); RB_cout << "Flash, Boom, Bang, Echo" << endl; fireComplete = 1; P_END } 32
    33. 33. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14 Algorithm/Environment Integration • Must be able to integrate arbitrary types of models (e.g. rule-based, network-based, fuzzy, combinations, etc.) • A system must account for functionally disparate phenomena, in order to represent “intelligence” more effectively, for example: – Recognition of patterns – Adapting new solutions or strategies – Rule following
    34. 34. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today Adaptive, Dynamic, Knowledge-based Execution/Control Conceptual Graphs Computational Ontology Framework ConceptsConcepts ActorsActorsRelationshipsRelationships CAT STAT LOCSIT MATCAT STAT LOCSIT MATMAT A Cat sits on a matA Cat sits on a mat Une Chat assis sur une matte Une Chat assis sur une matte
    35. 35. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today Basic CG Formation Rules Concept 1 Relationship 1 Relationship 1 Concept 2 Concepts or Other Actors Actor 1 Actors or Relationships Actors or Relationships Concept 1 Concept Concept or other Actors Concept 1 Relationship 1 Actor 1 INVALID
    36. 36. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14 Extensions • A CG execution engine with abilities to: – Embed in a hardware controller or a software program – Associate the software and hardware components as indicated by the CG structure – Control, execute, and integrate the entire system • Customization of concepts, relationships, and actors by the integrator, providing capability to: – Accommodate new hardware, or software components, without returning to original developers for new versions of graph systems
    37. 37. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14 Extensions • A mechanism to control the CG execution engine – Each node maintains a truth value to managed graph execution – A concept from belief network theory • Collectively, the extensions embodied in the system enable intelligent automation, execution, and control of complex hardware and software assemblies
    38. 38. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14 Summary of Extensions • A collection of user-defined concept nodes • A collection of user-defined relationship nodes • A collection of user-defined actor nodes • A unique ID numbering scheme to identify every node, regardless of type • A description of the connected nodes, and route of the connection • A list of references to input concept nodes (those with no incoming arcs) – A valid CG must contain at least one input concept node • A list of references to the output concept nodes (those with no outgoing arcs) – A valid CG must contain at least one output concept node • A data structure that records the truth value of each node
    39. 39. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14 Paradigm of Execution 1. The system is started a. Each component in the system is initialized b. Synchronization relationships are established c. Inputs are read and loaded into system components 2. The CG associated with the system is initialized and parsed a. Each system component is associated with a CG element using the unique ID tag (concept, relationship, actor) b. Each component is registered in the correct collection mechanism for each type, using the unique ID tag 3. The system begins operating, with various evolution methods. For example: a. A user inputs information, which changes the state of the system (either event- based, process-based, or simple update loop) b. Regular update cycles occur for various system aspects 4. The system operation mechanism executes, and an Execution Cycle operation for the CG is activated 5. Each time a system operation mechanism is activated, step 4 is repeated
    40. 40. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today CG Execution Dividend: 9.0 Divisor: 4.0 Number: 144.0 Quotient: 2.0 Remainder: 1.0 SquareRoot: 12.0 Sum: 14.0 divide plus sqrt Dividend: 9 Divisor: 4 Number: 144 Quotient: 2 Remainder: 1 SquareRoot: 12 Sum: *s divide plusplus sqrt IF ?r = 0IF ?r = 0 T TT T TT TT T F
    41. 41. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today Example of a Path of Route in a CG runs Is a generating for Responsible for of Producing A Machine An Interpreter Algorithm An Interpretation An Agent A Graph A Behavior
    42. 42. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14 Summary • Representation of complex webs of synchronized causes and effects is central to the implementation of complex systems • Computation, correlation of simultaneously evolving systems and interrelated phenomena • Ability to control an activity based on a web of logic, and start another in response to dynamic conditions • Achievement of scalability without loss of capability 42
    43. 43. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today Backup 43
    44. 44. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems TodayCSCI'14 Software Development Framework: JEE • Minimizes amount of code, people, skill-level, development, test, integration, and time required • Standardizes processes, templates, and documentation • Works with all modern languages and standard Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) • Does not compromise any other software vendor’s intellectual property – typically a key cost, schedule, and performance driver • Can be taught to all development team members in an extremely short period of time (< 1 to 2 days) 11
    45. 45. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today Example: Building Automation Management System Level 1 Information management system Level 2 Information processing And supervisory system Level 3 Information processing/ Automation system Level 4 Process field
    46. 46. Infinite Dimensions Solving Tomorrow’s Problems Today Components in a BAMS fan Air conditioning PC Heat energy sanitary lighting Waste- managementelectricalacoustics video safety elevator Emergency power supply transformer heating Building 700
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