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Van Dorst & Syamsuddin - 2011 - Making Use of Free Marketing Tools: Integration of Social Media


This report shows the results of a study on how social media can be incorporated as a marketing tool. For this purpose a roadmap is developed which can guide practitioners who want to start making use …

This report shows the results of a study on how social media can be incorporated as a marketing tool. For this purpose a roadmap is developed which can guide practitioners who want to start making use of social media as a tool to communicate their business. In order to develop this roadmap a literature study is done, but also in-dept interviews are conducted with users and experts from the field. As these participants are in different phases of incorporation, practical insights are included.

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  • 2. Field Research Course BKMME160-10MAKING USE OF ‘FREE’ MARKETING TOOLS: INTEGRATION OF SOCIAL MEDIA J.P.J.C. VAN DORST ROTTERDAM SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT, ERASMUS UNIVERSITY Department of Strategic Management and Entrepreneurship Burgemeester Oudlaan 50 3062 PA Rotterdam Tel: (0031) 6-30545543 E-mail: jeffreyvandorst@student.eur.nl S. SYAMSUDDIN ROTTERDAM SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT, ERASMUS UNIVERSITY Department of Strategic Management and Entrepreneurship Burgemeester Oudlaan 50 3062 PA Rotterdam Tel: (0031) 6-21683930 E-mail: syamsuriasyamsuddin@student.eur.nl Submitted on the 26th of May, 2011 1
  • 3. This report shows the results of a study on how social media can be incorporated as amarketing tool. For this purpose a roadmap is developed which can guide practitionerswho want to start making use of social media as a tool to communicate their business. Inorder to develop this roadmap a literature study is done, but also in-dept interviews areconducted with users and experts from the field. As these participants are in differentphases of incorporation, practical insights are included.T oday social media is a widely used medium and with almost 12 millionInternet users of the Dutch population of social news ranking, wikis and custom communities (Social Media Modellen, 2011). By this, it is the perfect place for15 years and older (comScore, Inc., 2011) viral marketing since it makes use of thethis can be seen as a fact. Moreover they ability of peope to spread a message withinstate that 96.1 percent of the Dutch Internet their network if they can personaly benefitpopulation makes use of social networking, of it (Kraus, Harms, & Fink, 2010). Thatwhich can be seen as an indicator of the viral marketing is a method which is usablereach of social networks in the as a ‘free’ marketing tool becomes clear byNetherlands. This large reach makes them the statement of Lahm (2007) thatattractive for business purposes as they bootstrappers are willing to make use ofform a new and powerfull place for viral marketing to spread a message formarketing activities (Wigmo & Wikström, free. The reason that free is put between2010). Since social networks are used to inverted commas in the title is thatshare, link, collaborate and include content spreading your message via social media ismade by the user, users are able to engage not totally without costs. This is madein the generation of online content clear by Thackeray et al. (2008) by(Thackeray, Neiger, Hanson, & McKenzie, viewing the costs of a social media2008) and can choose between several campaign from a business and individualkinds of platforms that are available. Those perspective. From the business perspectiveplatforms consist of social networks, costs can be found in the scope of theweblogs (blogs), microblogging, video- activities (timeframe, reach, usedsharing, photosharing, social bookmarking, applications) and the needed internal The Authors Jeffrey P.J.C. van Dorst is a master student Entrepreneurship and New Business Venturing at Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Syamsuria Syamsuddin is a master student Entrepreneurship and New Business Venturing at Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. 1
  • 4. resources like hardware and software, marketing activities of a business. For thisknowlegde and the development of it and purpose the target group for this report isthe full time equivalents required for the the practitioner from the field who wants tosocial media campaign. On the other hand, know how to incorporate social mediafrom the individual perspective, costs can marketing with minimal costs to improvebe minimal since only time and effort are their business.needed to participate in the social mediacampaign bygenerating content and Social mediasharing knowledge. roadmap Our researchConsidering this, costs To incorporate In order to develop the road mapof using social media social media marketing qualitative research is conducted toas a marketing tool can in your business examine how social media is usedbe seen as minimal activities it is important as a marketing tool by users.because the to complete several Exciting part of the topic is that itinfrastructure needed to steps in certain order is still very fresh, which can bemake use of social (Wigmo & Wikström, seen by the limited scientificmedia is in most cases 2010; Zak, 2009; research on it and the differentavailable and platforms ClickZ OMS, 2009). perspectives and visions from theand application are free This is important field. By conducting four in dept-too. Only costs that are because social media interviews with five different users,needed is the time to marketing needs a we were able to discover their waysspend and perhaps for different approach than of using and their visions on it. Bygaining knowledge or the classical marketing creating diversity in our sample asmaking use of a platforms, like we interviewed both beginners andtraining. As a lot of magazines and advanced users, but also experts,information is television campaigns. we were able to conlude how Dutchnowadays widely The nature of social entrepreneurs can make use ofavailable when media is fundamental social media as a marketing tool.searching the Internet to this as users form the Combined with the insights fromor inside social centre of the the desk research and the literaturenetworks, a thing communication review this resulted in a roadmapwhich is also process. They can seek, to guide practioners during theirmentioned by Wigmo create and share social media marketing activities.and Wikström (2010) information via severalas they state: “the best channels and devicesinformation is often whenever they wantright there for free”, costs can be reduced and without limitations from their currentdrastically. As this makes the use of social location (Thackeray & Neiger, 2009). Thismedia available for a wide and large group means that practitioners have to find out onof entrepreneurs, including the which social media platforms their targetbootstrappers, the purpose of this article is groups are active. Since the nature ofto provide a road map on how to social media is sharing knowledge andincorporate social media marketing into the information, viral marketing is an 2
  • 5. important method to use. Due to this, Preparing for social mediapractitioners have to discover how they can Before becoming active on socialmotivate their target groups to share media platforms, preparation is a must ininformation within their network order to prevent your business from(Thackeray & Neiger, 2009) as the success backfires (Kim, Jeong, & Lee, 2010). Toof viral marketing depends on the personal prepare your business for the use of socialbenefits the receivers of the message media as a marketing tool the first threeexperience by forwarding the message and steps from the roadmap have to beby not being pushed to forward the fulfilled.message (Dobele, Toleman, & Beverland,2005). Step 1: Listen Because this indicates the The first step to be taken is ‘Listen’importance of the different approach for (e.g. Eck, 2011; Wigmo & Wikström,social media usage, this report is equiped 2010; Zak, 2009; ClickZ OMS, 2009).with a roadmap which is displayed in Besides this is the first step, it is even thefigure 1. The purpose of this roadmap is to most important and a neverending step as itmake clear which steps practitioners have will provide you with information andto fulfil in a certain order to establish a knowledge for free. First of all it will makeproper way of using social media clear which platforms are used by yourmarketing. customers. Second, knowledge can be Figure 1 Roadmap to incorporate social media 3
  • 6. gained about what customers think about it. Besides a policy can be developed toyou and what they want to have, but also make clear what you expect from yourabout their problems and frustrations. By employees while using social media.monitoring this you are able to fulfill a Regarding to Veldwijk (2011) a socialneed for information (Reece, 2010). media policy will have the following benefits:Step 2: Create a plan • You express confidence in your The second step to be taken is the own staff;creation of a social media marketing plan. • You have a framework toAfter more information is gained about the implement a strategy;target group of your social media activities • You reduce the gap betweenduring the first step, the second step will younger and older employees;continue on this obtained knowledge. • You can react in time to preventDuring the second step it is important to damage to your reputation;make clear the objectives of the social • You impove internalmedia marketing activities. When the communication through mutualobjectives are clear a strategy can be cooperation.developed. More precise, the strategy mustconsist of the following aspects: content, To obtain these benefits a social mediainteraction and discovery & sharing policy has to provide an answer to the four(ClickZ OMS, 2009). First it must be clear following questions (Wigmo & Wikström,what kind of content your target group 2009):expect from you: new or user generated. • What can we talk about and whatSecond, your strategy must make clear not?how to maintain an expected level • What steps do we have to takeinteraction. This is what customers expect when something goes wrong?from you (ClickZ OMS, 2009) and besides • Who is responsible for whichit is important to contribute more than you contributions?consume (Reece, 2010). The third and last • Which platforms do we have to useaspect of the strategy is a vision on how for reaching the objectives?your target group can discover and shareyour information. Unless there are several Unless all questions are important, not allthings to use, for example hashtags on questions have to be answered in the socialTwitter, most important is how your target media policy. Of course some answers aregroup can reach your contributions on the already given within the other parts of themost easiest way. Therefore it is important social media marketing plan. That a goodto know how your target group is searching policy does not have to exist of all thefor information and knowledge. questions becomes clear by the social When the strategy is developed it is media policy of the TNT Group. Their plantime to determine a prefered attitude to consists of the following chapters (TNTmake clear which behaviour is expected Group, 2010):from the users inside your business. • Introduction:Important is to listen and only contribute to to make clear why the policy exists;a conversation when you can add value to 4
  • 7. • Basic principles: benefit from it. Which social media to let your employees make use of platform is effective to use as a free social media in a proper way; marketing tools also depends on • Guideline for using social media: how the company/entrepreneur is to indicate what you expect from willing to use social media to your employees and what not; support the business activity. • Guideline on when to react: to indicate what your employees • The products characteristic should do in different Every product has its own circumstances. characteristics. Thus by deciding which social media platforms to Now the important tactical and use, the company should considerstrategical aspects are completed it is time what the best-suited social mediato select facilitators to spread the message platforms will be to promote their(Baer, 2009; Wigmo & Wikström, 2010). products.Dissapointing fact is that there is no exactanswer to the question what the right social • The target groupmedia platforms are. This can be seen as Knowing the target group is anwhich weapon a soldier has to use to important aspect before start usingconquer his enemies. As this depends on social media. It is important that thethe characteristics of the weapon, the company is using the same socialenemies and the place, no single answer media platforms as the targetcan be given to this question. For choosing group. The company should findthe most effective social media platforms out where the potential customerthere are no differences and the words primarily can be found and it is“depend on” will be heard many times. important that the company is Unless the question about which present on the same platformssocial media platform is effective in a (Bark, 2009 in Wigmo &certain situation is hard to answer, the Wikström, 2010). Furthermore, theinterviews with the users and experts company should listen to the peopleprovided some valuable insights to handle about what they want and attractthis question. Aspects to consider while them by using the right socialselecting the most effective social media media platforms to reach andplatforms for your social media marketing involve them.activities are the following: When the right social media • The objectives of the company platforms are selected a last important The most important thing to aspect can be added to the social media consider, before deciding which marketing plan, namely the content social media platforms the calendar (Eck, 2011). This tool makes it company have to use, is how to possible to plan your contributions to the align with the companys several social media platforms that are objectives. By using social media, intended to use. Besides this also makes it it is expected that the company will possible to evaluate the frequency of your 5
  • 8. contributions. An example is show in developing the profile are (Biemans &figure 2. Kammers, 2011; Schoone, 2011): uniformity of identity in real-life and on the Internet and to be transparent. Besides it is important to consider that this profile must promote your business, but as social media is a social environment the content has to be not too commercial. This can be done by introducing your business and indicating your strengths. Besides, information about for example the company, products and owners can be provided. This is similar to personal Figure 2 Social media content calendar profiles where information like employment, education and relationship isIncorporating social media submitted. After completing the first two stepsof the roadmap, enough knowledge is Step 4: Participateobtained to make use of social media When the relevant accounts areplatforms and a social media marketing registred and developed it is time to start toplan is developed. Now practitioners are participate on the social media platforms.able to register their business an account During this step an online brand is built byon the relevant social media platforms, actively contributing to discussions andbuilding an online brand and start adding questions and giving your view onvalue to the community. To develop products and services. By adding value toyourself to a practitioner who is able to the social media, users start to respect youcreate their own content on social media and will voluntary start promoting you byplatforms, the remaining steps of the spreading the message. Remember that thisroadmap have to be fulfilled. effect will disappear if your contribution becomes too much, a thing which is alsoStep 3: Join know as spamming. Besides, it will even result in a situation where users of social When the framework for the social media platforms will not voluntarillymedia activities is completed, social media promote you anymore (Wigmo &platforms can be joined. First step for Wikström, 2010) and the contributions byjoining the social media is registering an viral marketing will disappear.account. By listening and by creating a As this step consist of a largeplan it became clear which platforms are process, it is clear that users go through arelevant for your business and which have learning curve during this step. This canbeen chosen to use. also be seen when placing this step in the Second step is to develop the Social Media Ladder of Forrester Researchprofiles on the different platforms. Inc. (Gain, 2010). As all other steps consistImportant aspects to consider while 6
  • 9. of just one rung, the step participate Step 5: Createconsists of three rungs. The final and the most important The first rung that is reached when step in using social media for marketingusers enter this phase is those that is called activity is the creation step. The companythe collectors. Since their profiles are should create the content based on whatcreated and developed they are ready for kind of information that the company getparticipation. They will do this by using from the customers. The content can beRSS feeds to collect information and shared in the social media channel to otherknowledge, vote for websites and add users and the company is free to decide“tags” to content that is distributed through what kind of content to share (e.g updatesocial media platforms. Examples of those information about product, the companyscontent are photos, status updates and news and even share the content that is notwebsites. related at all to the company). When users are used to this way of The create step is not about creatingacting they are becoming more active on the social media profile, but on creatingthe social media platforms by contributing value and offering the right value on theto wikis and online forums, reacting on right time at the right place. Value meansblog posts of other users and providing relevant content, useful information, tailorproducts and services with a rating and/or a made promotion depending on the signalreview. By doing this, users have the company gets from the observation ofdeveloped themselves and are recognized the customer. By contributing and offeringas critics on the scale of the Social Media value to the community, the company willLadder (Gain, 2010). As the use of social receive value from the community. Themedia became common for users at this users become interested in you and want tostage, users are starting to develop know more about your business. Satisfiedthemselves towards the final rung of this customers or so called "fans" orstep, namely conversationalists. During "followers" will be the strongest sales forcethis stage their frequency of participating of the company as they contribute to thebecomes higher. Besides, they start using viral marketing. As users are now in theother tools to communicate like Twitter ability to create their own content, theyand status updates on their social media reached the final rung of the Social Mediaprofiles. Ladder and are known as Creators (Gain, While developing yourself through 2010).the above described process, users are able There is a common rule that isto listen and contribute to others which will adopted by many social media users forcreate goodwill. When you have created business regarding to the creation andenough goodwill and established yourself information of offering. It is highlyin the social media environment the time recommended that the company delivershas come to go to the final step of the the message not in a commercial way,roadmap in order to get something back otherwise the message will be read as anfrom the network. Important lesson till advertisement or spam. Thus,now is that the incorporation and also the communicate your message by the way theparticipation is done by small steps in users communicate.order to optimize the learn curve. 7
  • 10. Success factors for using social change the image of the products and themedia brand. The development of social media is Knowledge about using social mediagood news for marketers, because it is part The knowledge of using socialof almost any Internet users life and media and its features is the foundation ofchanged the way people communicate. It the success. Every social media platformmeans that the marketers have an was created with some features that aim toadditional channel to spread the marketing help the users in reaching their goals bymessage to the customers or potential using the social media. Optimizing the keycustomers. However, social media content feature will improve the likelihood ofis different with the content in general success.web. Social media content is more Regarding to the social mediafragmented. Companies that focus on content, it is very important for thewebsites maybe improve readability, company to have a good management ofespecially for higher conversion, but this is the content. Social media content andnot similar social media content. In social information will reflect the image or brandmedia, the readability is the most important of the company or product. Good contentaspect to manage since the content will contribute to the increase of attentioncirculation is incredibly fast and widely to the company and could be adistributed. When the content is not clear distinguishing feature. On the other hand,for the receivers, this will lead to if social media content is not managedmisunderstandings and perhaps even in well, it will imply to the negative image ofnegative effects. the company or products since the effect of In order to create success of using mass social media is uncontrollable andsocial media, there are some common key difficult to change. As this implies thatfactors and strategy. Based on the social media success is something that hasinterviews, some proven key success to be earned, it is important to know howfactors of using social media as a free to listen and respond to both positive andmarketing tool are retrieved and displayed negative developments (Corcoran, 2009).below. Besides, Corcoran (2009) also indicates that it is important to know when to try andGood product is a good start! stimulate the viral marketing effect. The basic and the most importantthing on marketing is the product. A good Good understanding of target Customerproduct combined with good promotion For successful use of social mediawill create success. A good product will as a marketing tool, the company mustbenefit the customers and it will be easy to focus on the relationships with thepromote (Eck, 2011). Before starting to use customer, not merely on the technology.social media, the most important thing is Maintaining the relationship with themaking sure that the company can offer a customers’ need a good understanding ofgood product to the customers. Bad quality customer needs and wants can be obtained.products will easily ruin all of the If the company is able to listen to themarketing efforts and spontaneously customer, knowing what they are talking 8
  • 11. about and what they want, it will be easy to information. In addition, the follower isdevelop and create a product based on that also acknowledging the person they arekind of information. Through the right retweeting (Jantsch, 2009). Newchannel and right social media platform, developments can be shared in a messagethe customer will be easy to approach thus and if this is interesting enough people andthe company can serve a wide public by other large communities will retweet.following the audiences in different social Based on this, there are two main reasonsmedia platforms. why people forward the message: first However, it is not easy to get the because information is considered asattention from the social media users to the important in forwarder’s point of view, thecompanys product. Some companies that second reason is because the information isuse social media as a marketing tool start a made by someone who is reputable andcommunity to create a hype around their respected by message forwarders.product. Another way around, instead of In case of using the power of thestarting the community, it is also good to crowd in a proper way the company will beplug into an existing community (Eck, close to success, because the power of the2011). In addition, the employees of the crowd is very strong. The collaboration ofcompany should have enthusiasm to be the company and the crowd can be aactive on social media platforms and to mutual benefit for both of them. On thecommunicate the information about the one hand, the company can reach a widecompany on several social media audience in a fast and efficient way. On theplatforms. other hand, the users benefit from it because they obtain knowledge orThe collaboration of the crowd information they like, can share this with Some users/experts think that, the their friends and are able to act on it.most important thing in using social media The social media platforms can beas the marketing tools is the collaboration. an efficient channel to spread the messagesCollaboration with the community is by making use of viral marketing. A clearimportant to create a large network to example on the importance ofspread the message. In order to collaborate collaboration by the crowd when usingwith the crowd, the company could plug in viral marketing, becomes clear by anwith the existing community. After that, example of the social media campaign ofthe company should post or write a content the Dutch beer brand Grolsch. In 2009 theythat will be found by the community as created a rumour that something uniquebeneficial information for them and for the was going to happen on a roof top. That noothers (Bosch, 2011). Thus, the message one knew about the specific date andwill be sent by itself and create a viral location started people wondering andeffect. For example, in microblogging interacting about it with each other. Justmedia like twitter, another way of building two days before the event the artists whoa network and a larger number of follower would contribute to the event wereis to retweet other people’s tweets. If the announced, but the location still remainedfollower find something interesting from secret. This created a load of discussionsthe user they are following, the followers on several social media platforms andwill do a favour by sharing that when it actually started, the word was 9
  • 12. spread very quickly. This wide distribution From the interviews with the usersand the created hype were not anymore and experts some common barriers thatsmall and national media stations picked usually occur before using social media areup the news. This resulted in the creation retrieved. First, The knowledge barriers.of a central platform where followers could The users should have knowledge aboutkeep track on all the created content, but the social media platform that they want toeven more important was the positive use, how they work, what the main featureseffect on the branding, image and the are and how to optimize the features toturnover (Isobar Human Media, 2010). In help the company promote their products.sum, the result of this example was on the Second, the online culture. In the world ofone hand an experience for the followers Internet, facing online culture is inevitable.and on the other hand benefits for Grolsch. Sometimes the language or how people In order to persuade people to be interact is much more informal. Thus, theinvolved in the companys development, company should be ready to deal with thatthe six principles of persuasion Robert kind of culture.Cialdini can be applied (Jong, 2011). Besides that, there are no facts orThose principles are Liking (people like certain guidelines on how social mediathose who like them), Reciprocity (people usage for marketing tools will benefit therepay in kind), Social proof (people follow company. Thus, the company has to learnthe lead of similar others), Consistency how to deal with this uncertainty. Another(people align with their clear important thing is that people or users formcommitments), Authority (people defer to different generation have a different lookexperts they trust) and Scarcity (people towards social media and this has to bewant more of what they can have less of). overcome. Another aspect that could be aIf these principles can be applied in using barrier for using social media is thesocial media, people will pay much transparency. The social media content isattention to what you are sharing to them meant to be shared, thus the fear ofand will collaborate. transparency/visibility must be overcome. The most dangerous effect of transparencyOvercome the barriers comes from the competition. Some Even though it is a young and fresh entrepreneurs do not want to use socialdomain, the development of social media is media to communicate with customers,fast and dynamic. Because of this, it because of their fear for transparency. Therequires continually updating your competitors could make use of certainknowledge and making use of it by information to their benefit and could giveperforming social media activities. Almost bad impact to the company (Schoone,no company today can grow without 2011).dealing with social media. In many cases, According to what this studycompanies are not doing much more than retrieved from the field, the transparencyopening an account on the various of social media is not bad as many peopleplatforms (Hooijdonk, 2011). But to said. Even though it looks riskier to bedevelop a social media strategy users transparent and easier to share information,should first deal with some barriers. it is more importantly to be open and transparent to the public. If there is a 10
  • 13. negative effect of transparency, the Photo-Sharingcompany should able to learn from that and Platform to share pictures and to react oncan keep in front of the competitors it.(Schoone, 2011). Qualitative research Research technique to reveal certainGlossary behaviour and perceptions by making useBootstrapper of in-depth studies of small groups ofPerson that makes use of bootstrapping people to explain certain phenomena.techniques. RoadmapBootstrapping A technique of reporting that gives theThe technique to start and run a business audience a guidance and example of howwith limited resources by using external to conduct certain activity.help. RSS feedsCustom community RSS feeds is a web feature that is beingOnline software to create your own used by Internet users around the world to keep track of favorite websites.communities. Social bookmarkingDesk research Platform to share your favourite websitesA technique to gather data that already and social media platforms with others.exists from existing resources, such asprevious studies, articles on the Internet, Social mediamagazines and another sources. Various platforms that integrate the technology, social interaction and theHashtags construction of words, pictures, video andHashtags is also known as the "#" symbol. audio to spread knowledge andUsed to mark keywords or topics in information.Twitter. It is created organically by twitterusers as a way to categorize the messages. Social networks Platform to share information andLiterature review knowledge, but also to stay in touch withBody of text that has a purpose to review friends, customers, suppliers and othercritical points of certain topic and professional contacts.knowledge from the current literature,including substantial findings about that Social News Rankingtopic. Platform to rank news reports.Microblogging SpammingKind of weblog that makes use of short Unsolicited sending large number ofmessages. messages to other users. 11
  • 14. Tags from Slideshare:A label attached to someone or something http://www.slideshare.net/toprank/tfor identification or other information. oprankmarketingcom-social-media- roadmap?src=related_normal&rel=Video-Sharing 2814892Platform to upload, watch and share comScore, Inc. (2011, April 26). Thevideos. Besides, it is also possible to react Netherlands Ranks #1 Worldwideon the uploaded videos. in Penetration for Twitter and Linkedin. Retrieved March 16,Viral Marketing 2011, from comScore.com:Marketing phenomenon that facilitates and http://www.comscore.com/Press_Eencourages people to pass along certain vents/Press_Releases/2011/4/The_marketing messages. Netherlands_Ranks_number_one_ Worldwide_in_Penetration_for_TwWeblogs itter_and_LinkedInKind of online diaries to share information Corcoran, S. (2009, December 16).and finding out how others think about Defining Earned, Owned And Paidcertain subjects. Media. Retrieved May 25, 2011, from Sean Corcorans Blog:Wikis http://blogs.forrester.com/interactivTogether created platform with any kind of e_marketing/2009/12/defining-knowledge to make sharing of it possible, earned-owned-and-paid-media.htmlbut also knowledge can be obtained. Dobele, A., Toleman, D., & Beverland, M. (2005). Controlled infection! Spreading the brand messageReferences through viral marketing. BusinessBaer, J. (2009, August 20). Developing a Horizons, 48(2), 143-149. Social Media Strategy in 7 Steps. Eck, J. v. (2011, May 05). Interview on Retrieved May 2011, 17, from social media as a free marketing SlideShare: tool. (J. v. Dorst, & S. Syamsuddin, http://www.slideshare.net/jaybaer/d Interviewers) eveloping-a-social-media-strategy- Gain, M. (2010, January 23). Forrester in-7- adds Conversationalists to the steps?src=related_normal&rel=392 Social Media Ladder. Retrieved 440 May 17, 2011, fromBiemans, E., & Kammers, J. (2011, May MatthewGain.com: 4). Interview on social media as a http://matthewgain.com/2010/01/fo free marketing tool. (J. v. Dorst, rrester-adds-conversationalists-to- Interviewer) the-social-media-ladder/Bosch, J. v. (2011, May 5). Interview on Hooijdonk, R. v. (2011, April 7). Social social media as a free marketing media als strategie. Retrieved May tool. (E-mailresponse, Interviewer) 19, 2011, from Internet marketingClickZ OMS. (2009). Social Media en Reclame: Roadmap. Retrieved May 2011, 23, http://www.internetmarketingenrecl 12
  • 15. ame.nl/online- http://www.socialmediamodellen.nl marketingplan/social-media-als- /social-media-kanalen-platformen- strategie/ websites-voorbeelden/Isobar Human Media. (2010, March 11). Thackeray, R., & Neiger, B. (2009). A Isobar Human Media - Grolsch Multidirectional Communication Moke vs. JunkieXL - Social Media Model: Implications for Social Marketing Case. Retrieved May 25, Marketing Practice. Health 2011, from YouTube: Promotion Practice, 10(2), 171- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= 175. -f8R9qKF5Us&feature=youtu.be Thackeray, R., Neiger, B., Hanson, C., &Jantsch, J. (2009). Using Twitter for McKenzie, J. (2008). Enhancing Business. Retrieved May 19, 2011, Promotional Strategies Within from Social Marketing Programs: Use of http://johnjantsch.com/TwitterforB Web 2.0 Social Media. Health usiness.pdf Promotion Practice, 9(4), 338-343.Jong, J. d. (2011, May 2). Entrepreneurial TNT Group. (2010, September 1). Sociale Marketing. media richtlijnen. Retrieved MayKim, W., Jeong, O., & Lee, S. (2010). On 23, 2011, from TNT Group: social Web sites. Information http://group.tnt.nl/Images/2010090 Systems, 35(2), 215-236. 1_TNT_Social_Media_Guidelines-Kraus, S., Harms, R., & Fink, M. (2010). Dutch_tcm178-525230.pdf Entrepreneurial Marketing: Moving Veldwijk, J. (2011, April 13). 5 voordelen beyond Marketing in New van Social Media beleid voor Ventures. International Journal of bedrijven. Retrieved May 23, 2011, Entrepreneurship and Innovation from VeldMerk Social Media: Management, 11(1), 19-34. http://www.veldmerk.nl/2011/04/1Lahm, R. (2007). Bootstrap Marketing: An 3/5-voordelen-van-social-media- analysis of constructs and beleid-voor-bedrijven/ implications. Paper presented at Wigmo, J., & Wikström, E. (2009, the Association for Small Business December). SVAR FRÅN and Entrepreneurship (ASBE) 2007 RESPONDENT #4. Retrieved May Annual Conference, Austin, Texas. 25, 2011, from Sociala Medier:Reece, M. (2010). Real-Time Marketing http://sm-exjobb.se/2009/12/svar- for Business Growth. Upper Sadle fran-respondent-4/ River, New Jersey: Pearson Wigmo, J., & Wikström, E. (2010). Social Education, Inc. Media Marketing: What role canSchoone, R. (2011, May 5). Interview on social media play as a marketing social media as a free marketing tool? tool. (J. v. Dorst, Interviewer) Zak, D. (2009, August 31). ChamberSocial Media Modellen. (2011). Social Social Media Bootcamp – Media Kanalen en Platformen. Developing a Social Media Retrieved May 17, 2011, from Strategy. Retrieved May 17, 2011, Social Media Modellen: Modellen from The SpringfieldEdge blog: en tools voor social media gebruik: http://springfieldedge.wordpress.co 13
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