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  • 1. Ancient Greece
  • 2. Ancient Greece Learning Points  The Greek views of government, law, and reason  The development of the Greek political ideas
  • 3. Ancient Greece The Greeks were an ancient farming and fishing culture whose development gave rise to modern day politics, literature, warfare, and art. Founders of Western civilization Classical Era – 500 BC
  • 4. Ancient Greece  Geography forced Greeks to form city- states – small “nations” the size of a city.  Desire for more land led Greeks to emigrate to other lands.  This spread Greek civilization to the known world.
  • 5. Ancient Greece Which culture is considered the founders of Western civilization?
  • 6. Ancient Greece Life in a city-state:  Honored Greek Gods (Zeus, Hermes, Poseidon)  Ruled by kings, later democracy  Built bronze weapons  Held slaves, mainly captured in war
  • 7. Ancient Greece  When iron-making is discovered, warfare changes too.  The Phalanx is the Greeks prime weapon.  Rows of men, armed with spears trying to push the other side off the field  All citizens required to train in the Phalanx
  • 8. Ancient Greece
  • 9. Ancient Greece
  • 10. Ancient Greece Sparta: The Warrior State Practiced fighting from the time of children. Ignored farming in order to train, so their diet was bland. Only males over 30 who had proved themselves in battle could be citizens
  • 11. Ancient Greece What was the main weapon used by the Greeks?
  • 12. Ancient Greece  Athens: The Political State  First democracy  Outlawed slavery, gave more people citizenship  “Tyrants” took advantage of the new democracy, favoring only the merchants and poor (because of numbers)  Created a legislature
  • 13. Ancient Greece The ultimate enemy of all Greeks was the Persian Empire Athens stopped an invasion at Marathon, 490 BC 480 BC - The Persians returned and burned Athens, but a combined force of Spartans and Athenians sunk the Persian Navy
  • 14. Ancient Greece  479 BC – The Persians return by land and are defeated at Thermopylae  300 Spartans stood against 300,000 Persians.  Athens’ navy again defeated the Persian navy.  Now, Greece was safe from Persians
  • 15. Ancient Greece What were the two most important city-states?
  • 16. Ancient Greece Athens came out on top – money is power Led by Pericles All citizens directly participated in government Established juries Pericles said citizens in a democracy have rights, but also responsibility
  • 17. Ancient Greece  Athens spent lots of money on temples and works of art.  Some Greeks turned away from the gods and began to think that the universe was regulated by natural laws.  These “philosophers” believed in the reason of the human mind to understand human existence.
  • 18. Ancient Greece Peloponnesian War 431 BC – 404 BC With Persia gone, the two Greek giants squared off – Athens and Sparta. Sparta won and Athens’ power was diminished.
  • 19. Ancient Greece  A group of philosophers, called “Sophists” said that goodness and truth were just opinions not something that needed to be followed.  They trained politicians to use their ideas to become powerful.  But one man disagreed…
  • 20. Ancient Greece Socrates: “Use self-examination to determine what can a person do that will work for the greatest good.” Rejected the Sophists and said that their teachings were destructive Socrates arrested and refused to escape. Executed by poison.
  • 21. Ancient Greece  Plato:  Socrates’ brightest student.  Hated democracy for what it did to his teacher.  Said the government should control everyones life.  Said all were born equal, but by their actions showed their true level.  Workers, soldiers, thinkers
  • 22. Ancient Greece Plato’s brightest student was Aristotle Argued for a constitutional government ruled by the middle class. Rulers should be subject to their own laws. Aristotle’s most famous student was a young boy named Alexander.
  • 23. Ancient Greece Who was Socrates’ best student?