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BAC Library Building Program BAC Library Building Program Document Transcript

  • JEFFREY c. ESTES 29 MANSON ROAD KITTERY, MAINE 03904 TELEPHONE: (207) 752-3845 EMAIL: jeff.estes@the-bac.edu A NEW LIBRARY FOR BOSTON ARCHITECTURAL COLLEGE 0 BOYLSTON (CORNER OF MASS. AVE. AND BOYLSTON) BOSTON, MA ARCHITECTURAL PROGRAMMING/CODES TM 7685 04-07-2010 1
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 5 CODES 41-44 EXISTING ZONING SUMMARY 43 7-40 CODES SUMMARY 44 SITE LOCATION: STATE AND REGION 9 CULTURE SITE LOCATION: NEIGHBORHOOD 10 SITE PLAN 11 45 SITE PHOTOGRAPHS 12 PHOTOGRAPH MAP 13 CULTURAL CONTEXT 47-48 HISTORIC CONTEXT 47 LYNCH DIAGRAMS 14-18 ARCHITECTURAL CONTEXT 47 PATHS 14 DEMOGRAPHY 47 EDGES 15 SOCIAL ISSUES 48 DISTRICTS 16 POLITICAL ISSUES 48 NODES 17 ECONOMIC ISSUES 48 LANDMARKS 18 CULTURAL CONCLUSION 48 TOPOGRAPHY 19 SITE FEATURES CLIMATE INFORMATION 20 21-23 EVIDENCE 49-54 WEATHER CONDITIONS 21 CONTEXT OF EVIDENCE 51-54 WIND 22 PHYSICAL TRACES 51 TEMPERATURE 23 ADAPTATIONS FOR USE 52 SOLAR STUDIES 24-27 DISPLAYS OF SELF 53 EXISTING WINTER SOLSTICE 24 PUBLIC MESSEGES 54 EXISTING SPRING EQUINOX 25 EVIDENTIAL CONCLUSION 54 EXISTING SUMMER SOLSTICE 26 EXISTING AUTUMN EQUINOX TRAFFIC 27 28-32 BEHAVIOR 55-57 VEHICLE PATTERNS 28 CONTEXT OF BEHAVIOR 57 VEHICLES STUDY 29 DENSITY 57 WALKING PATTERNS 30 WAYFINDING 57 WALKING STUDY 31 STRESS/ACCIDENTS 57 WALKING RADIUS 32 CONCLUSION 57 PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION 33 SURROUNDING USES FORMER SITE USE 34 35 INFORMATION 59-64 NOLLI MAP 36 CLIENT PROFILE 61 SITE DETERMINANTS 37 INTERVIEW SUMMARYS 62-64 STUDENT 62 SITE HISTORY 38 STAFF 63 REAL ESTATE VALUE 39 GUEST 64 EXISTING: CONCLUSION 40 2
  • PRECEDENTS 65-72 SOURCES 129-130 PHILLIPS EXETER LIBRARY 67-68 CIRCULATION 68 NATURAL LIGHT 68 STRUCTURE 68 STOCKHOLM LIBRARY 69-70 CIRCULATION 70 NATURAL LIGHT 70 STRUCTURE 70 CHAMBERLAIN COTTAGE 71-72 CIRCULATION 72 NATURAL LIGHT 72 STRUCTURE 72 FUTURE STATE 73-89 MISSION STATEMENT 75 ISSUES 76-77 AUDIBILITY 76 CONVENIENCE 76 COMFORT 76-77 CIRCULATION 77 LIGHT 77 FLEXIBILITY 77 GOAL 1 78-81 P .R. 1 79 P .R. 2 80 P .R. 3 81 GOAL 2 82-85 P .R. 1 83 P .R. 2 84 P .R. 3 85 GOAL 3 86-89 P .R. 1 87 P .R. 2 88 P .R. 3 89 BUILDING FOOTPRINT 90 MASSING STUDIES 91 SPATIAL COMPONENTS 92-106 COST ANALYSIS 107-108 APPENDIX 1 109-121 ZONING COMPLIANCE FORM 111 CODE WORKSHEET 1 112-113 CODE WORKSHEET 2 114-115 CODE WORKSHEET 3 116 CODE WORKSHEET 4 117-121 APPENDIX 2 123-127 STUDENT INTERVIEW 125 STAFF INTERVIEW 126 GUEST INTERVIEW 127 3
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 INTRODUCTION Last semester a class I took asked for the students to place a new building for The BAC at the corner of Massachusetts Avenue and Boylston Street. As a class, we discussed possible uses for that site based on what the school needed. A new Library was suggested for this site, which was elevated above the Mass. Pike. In this class, when asked to uses a site I was familiar with, for a Library, I instantly thought back to the idea of a Library for The BAC, and to this site. 4
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 EXISTING 5
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 SITE LOCATION: STATE AND REGION SITE IN RELATION TO THE STATE: SITE IN RELATION TO THE REGION: 6
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 SITE LOCATION: NEIGHBORHOOD SITE IN RELATION TO LOCAL STREETS: SITE IN RELATION TO MASS TRANSORTATION: 7
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 SITE PLAN 0 Boylston Street has 373 feet facing Boylston, 140 feet on Massachusetts Avenue, and 400’ abutting the old ICA Green Line entrance. The site has a ten foot setback on both roads, and three feet on the back side. 8
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 SITE PHOTOGRAPHS PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE SITE AND ITS SURROUNDINGS: A B C D E F 9
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 PHOTOGRAPH DIAGRAM MAP SHOWING WHERE EACH PICTURE WAS TAKEN FROM: F B A C D E 10
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 PATHS From The BAC, there are two paths that lead many students to the Hynes Stop on the Green Line. A library on either of these paths would be convenient to the students who use that stop. 11
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 EDGES The Library would be best located within the edges of Mass. Ave. and the Mass. Pike. Heavy edges like these would separate The BAC from a new Library. 12
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 DISTRICTS It is not necessarily important for the library to be in one district and not another. The biggest concern regarding location is distance from The BAC. 13
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 NODES The best location for a Library would be a site where Multiply paths of Vehicular and Pedestrian traffic converge with people entering and exiting Public transportation and parking areas. 14
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 LANDMARKS A Floating Landmark could benefit a library, by allowing it to be located from a distance, but the more important landmark would be a Grounded Landmark. The most likely point of departure for the Library would be from the BAC, which would be close by, so a Grounded Landmark would have a greater effect. 15
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 TOPOGRAPHY The site is drawn here with two foot contour lines. The highway is shown running below the site. 16
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 SITE FEATURES The site is entirely vegetation free, except for the occasional weed that may pop up in the side walk cracks. The site is surrounded by manmade structure on all sides, except a portion of the rear, which overlooks a small garden of trees. 17
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 WEATHER CONDITIONS AVG. DAYS w/ PRE- DAYS w/ DAYS w/ AVG.RAIN SNOWFALL DAYS w/ TYPICAL CIP T-STORMS FOG FALL(inches) (inches) SNOW SKY COVER JANUARY 12 N/A 10 2.6 12.02 7 OVERCAST FEBRUARY 10 N/A 9 2.4 12.02 6 OVERCAST MARCH 12 1 11 3.0 8 4 OVERCAST APRIL 12 1 11 3.7 0.98 1 OVERCAST MAY 12 2 13 3.5 N/A N/A OVERCAST JUNE 10 3 12 3.1 0 0 OVERCAST JULY 9 4 12 2.9 0 0 OVERCAST AUGUST 10 4 13 3.6 0 0 OVERCAST SEPTEMBER 8 2 11 3.1 0 0 OVERCAST OCTOBER 9 1 12 3.3 N/A N/A OVERCAST NOVEMBER 11 N/A 11 3.4 0.98 1 OVERCAST DECEMBER 11 N/A 10 3.3 8 5 OVERCAST 18
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 WIND AVERAGE WIND SPEED WIND DIRECTION JANUARY 16 NW FEBRUARY 16 NW MARCH 16 NW APRIL 15 NW MAY 14 SW JUNE 13 SW JULY 11 SW AUGUST 11 SW SEPTEMBER 13 SW OCTOBER 13 NW NOVEMBER 15 NW DECEMBER 15 NW 19
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 TEMPERATURES AVERAGE AVERAGE AVERAGE AVERAGE DAYS BE- AVERAGE HIGH LOW MEAN HIGH LOW LOW FREEZ- DAYS TEMP. TEMP. TEMP. RECORD RECORD ING ABOVE 90 JANUARY 36 22 29 72 -30 26 0 FEBRUARY 39 24 32 70 -18 23 0 MARCH 46 31 39 89 -8 17 0 APRIL 56 41 48 94 11 2 N/A MAY 67 50 59 97 31 0 N/A JUNE 77 59 68 100 41 0 3 JULY 82 65 74 104 50 0 5 AUGUST 80 64 72 102 46 0 3 SEPTEMBER 73 57 65 102 34 0 1 OCTOBER 62 46 54 90 25 N/A N/A NOVEMBER 52 38 45 83 -2 7 0 DECEMBER 42 28 35 76 -17 22 0 20
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 SHADOWS: WINTER SOLSTICE 8:00 AM 12:00 NOON 4:00 PM ' 21
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 SHADOWS: SPRING EQUINOX 8:00 AM 12:00 NOON 4:00 PM 22
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 SHADOWS: SUMMER SOLSTICE 8:00 AM 12:00 NOON 4:00 PM 23
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 SHADOWS: AUTUMN EQUINOX 8:00 AM 12:00 NOON 4:00 PM 24
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 VEHICLES PATTERNS 25
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 VEHICLE STUDY Because this will be a library, Traffic was studied during hours the library would be in use. Below are the total numbers of cars to enter the intersection during each cycle of the traffic light. Each light was green for approximately 60 seconds. Day/ Time Monday 2-22-2010 Tuesday 2-23-2010 Wednesday 2-24-2010 9:00am 20 - 30 25 - 35 20 - 30 Most from the south Most from the south Most from the south Fewest from the east Fewest from the east Fewest from the east 11:00am 15 – 25 10 – 25 20 – 30 Relatively equal from Relatively equal from Relatively equal from all directions all directions all directions 1:00pm 20 – 30 20 – 35 20 – 30 Relatively equal from Relatively equal from Relatively equal from all directions all directions all directions 3:00pm 20 – 30 20 – 30 20 – 30 Relatively equal from Relatively equal from Relatively equal from all directions all directions all directions 5:00pm 25-40 25-45 25-40 Most from north Most from north Most from north Fewest from east Fewest from east Fewest from east 7:00pm 20-30 15-25 25-30 Most from north Most from north Most from north Fewest from east Fewest from east Fewest from east 9:00pm 15 – 25 15 – 25 15 – 30 Relatively equal from Relatively equal from Relatively equal from all directions all directions all directions Based on several days of studying vehicular traffic at the intersection of Boylston and Massachusetts, I can conclude that traffic remain consist throughout the day. The busiest times fall around 9:00am and 5:00pm. The pedestrians greatly reduced the rate of traffic during peak hours. 26
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 WALKING PATTERNS The thin blue lines represent common paths. It is clear which paths are traveled most frequently. 27
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 PEDESTRIAN STUDY Below is the a count of people per minute whom walked past the site along either Boylston Street or Massachusetts Avenue. Street/ time Boylston Mass Ave 9:00am-10:00am 6 7 10:00am-11:00am 8 9 11:00am-12:00pm 7 8 12:00pm-1:00pm 14 16 1:00pm-2:00pm 11 10 2:00pm-3:00pm 9 9 3:00pm-4:00pm 10 10 4:00pm-5:00pm 12 14 5:00pm-6:00pm 15 17 6:00pm-7:00pm 14 15 7:00pm-8:00pm 6 7 8:00pm-9:00pm 5 5 9:00pm-10:00pm 4 4 In conclusion, there are slightly more people walking Massachusetts Ave. most of the day. The peak pedestrian hours seem to be noon and around 5:00. The largest group of users appeared to be Berklee Students going from one class to the next, but at peak hours, office workers populated the streets. The Prudential center was a popular destination around lunch time. In the evening most traffic came to or from the Green Line station. 28
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 WALKING RADIUS The diagram below shows the distance a person could walk to in five and ten minutes. Blue covers a quarter mile, while red covers one half of a mile. 29
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION 30
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 SURROUNDING USES 31
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 FORMER SITE USE The site is currently occupied by the Mass. Pike, but the buildable part of the site above the highway is not, and was not used. 32
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 NOLLI MAP It is very clear in this diagram that building on this site could complete the grid. 33
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 SITE DETERMINANTS Master Plan 0 Boylston is currently owed by the Massachusetts Turnpike Authority, but there have been talks with developers to sell the air rights over the Highway. The MTA hopes development of this site, and 3 others above the Mass. Pike, will build a better sense of connection among the surrounding neighborhoods. Historic When the back Bay was first created, the corner where this site is was intended to be a part of the rectangular city block pattern. With the Mass. Pike occupying the land, this part of the block was lost. Archeological As the site is elevated above ground, there would be no purpose for an archeological study. 34
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 SITE HISTORY Historically, the site was a part of the Back Bay grid. When the Mass Pike was built, it cut into the city block. Currently, the site sits vacant and inaccessible above the Mass Pike. 35
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 REAL ESTATE VALUE The lot at 0 Boylston Street is appraised at $3,508,500.00. This assessment is the land value only, as there is not a building on the site. 36
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 EXISTING CONCLUSION The five reasons for site selection that are most significant in directing the program are: 1) Shadow patterns will be very important in the program, as a library will require a comfortable balance of natural light. 2) The break that the highway cuts in the grid will play a big role. The library will be conforming to the Back Bay's grid. 3) The site has no existing vegetation or natural features, so the program will not have to work around trees or ledge. 4) This is going to be a flat site, reducing stairs and ramps, which take up floor space. 5) The lack of structure on the site allows for a new structure, as opposed to the unexpected hassles and costs that come with reconstruction. 37
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 CODES 38
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 ZONING SUMMARY The lot at 0 Boylston Street in Boston, Massachusetts is zoned for business, which would make a College Library “conditional.” The BAC is not a state University, and therefore falls under the label of “Business.” There is a height restriction of either 8 floors of 120’, but the 120’ limit comes with this footnote: " ^a. Planned Development Areas.* The whole or any part of a subdistrict may be established as a planned development area if such area contains not less than one acre and the commission has received from the Boston Redevelopment Authority, and has approved, a development plan or, if the area contains not less than five acres and is not located in a residential zoning district, a master plan for the development of the planned development area. Before transmittal to the commission, such development plan or master plan shall have been approved by said Authority after a public hearing, provided, however, that no development plan or master plan shall be approved by said Authority unless said Authority finds that such plan conforms to the general plan for the city as a whole and that nothing in such plan will be injurious to the neighborhood or otherwise detrimental to the public welfare. A development plan shall set forth the proposed location and appearance of structures, open spaces and landscaping, proposed uses of the area, densities, proposed traffic circulation, parking and loading facilities, access to public transportation, proposed dimensions of structures, and may include proposed building elevations, schematic layout drawings and exterior building materials, and such other matters as said Authority deems appropriate to its consideration of the proposed development of the area." There is a ten foot setback in the front, three feet on the side, and five feet at the rear. The site is on a corner and triangular, resulting in a setback of 10’ along both streets, and 3’ along the back. Three feet are given along that side, rather than five, because this side does face other buildings, not an alley. 39
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 CODE SUMMARY The site is large enough, and the building will be small enough, that there will not be a problem. In use group A3, with Construction Type IIB, the allowed size is 29,820 square feet and limited to three stories. This will not be a problem, as the proposed building is 3 stories, and only 25,000 square feet. The proposed Library will have sufficient egress to comply. The goal is for the BAC’s new library to achieve a minimum of a silver certification. 40
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 CULTURE 41
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 CULTURAL CONTEXT Historic Context For the most part, the residents of The Back Bay, and those who frequently pass through take pride in the history of the Back Bay. Mill Pond, which once sat where The Back Bay is today, was filled in and a grid of streets was laid on the new land. The grid and its creation set the neighborhood apart from the rest of the city. Almost anyone familiar with the neighbor is willing to take a moment to discuss its creation. Architectural Context The Back Bay is famous for its Brownstone buildings, but is also home to some more modern buildings, such as the Prudential Center, the BAC’s 320 Newbury location, and the Apple store. Demography Age: 5% under 18, 87% 18 – 64, 8% 65+ Income: $66,428 Average Employment: White Collar: 85% Blue Collar: 15% Education: No High School: 3% Some High School: 2% Some College: 9% Associates Degree: 5% Bachelors Degree: 43% Graduate Degree: 38% 42
  • Social Issues The Bus Stop and intersection become very difficult to navigate at times, as people meet here and pause to have a conversation on the sidewalk. There is nowhere to sit, or even seek shelter, while waiting for a bus. Political Issues The site is currently owned by the state, so, for it to be sold or leased, there would naturally be many political issues that would have to be dealt with. For one, who takes control of the site? Who maintains the site? How much is it sold or leased for? Economic Issues There is a small population of People Standing on the streets asking for spare change. The span of the open bridge, and wind it causes, might prevent people from walking from Newbury Street to Boylston along Massachusetts Ave. Conclusion The library will likely have no impact on, nor be impacted by, the demographics of the Back Bay, because they are not the population who will be using it. The Pedestrian traffic versus people talking will have the biggest effect, because the library will bring new traffic patterns to the site. Politics is the second most important factor, as some agreements will have to be made by all parties involved. Possibly, building for ease of access and maintenance will be required in the sale/lease agreement. Another issue to look at is economic benefits of sheltering people from wind on the bridge. Because of the blend of old and new architectural styles, there is a choice of which style to build in. 43
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 EVIDENCE 44
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 CONTEXT OF EVIDENCE Physical Traces: Leftovers This Lock is evidence that the fence was once used for bicycle storage. Missing Traces Nothing is in this space to show it gets used. 45
  • Adaptations for use: Connections This woman is making use of the median to get to the bus stop form the T-stop. Separations The orange marker is dividing cars from people. Props A lock was used to turn this fence into a makeshift bike rack. 46
  • Displays of Self Identification Someone has marked this as their territory by painting their name. Group Membership A fan has shown their admiration for this band. 47
  • Public Messages Official: Here is a sigh to inform people how to get to the Subway. Illegitimate: This seems to be an advertisement someone stuck to the handrail Conclusion The two most important discoveries here are: that people are dissatisfied with the official pedestrian traffic patterns, and people do not occupy the space around the site for a long length of time. 48
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 BEHAVIOR 49
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 CONTEXT OF BEHAVIOR 10:00am Wednesday 2-24-2010 Overcast around 40 degrees: Density: There was a steady flow of people and cars. About 8 people and 25 cars passed per minute. Wayfinding: Most people knew where they were going, and appeared to have their favorite places to cross. Many people did not use the crosswalks. It looks especially difficult for people to exit the Subway and walk to the crosswalk to get to the bus stop. Stress/Accidents: While no accidents were observed, there were many opportunities for collisions between cars and pedestrians. There were too many people – in cars and on foot – trying to get through the intersection at the same time. Conclusion: The biggest Problem is that drivers and pedestrians are in a constant struggle over who gets to go where and when. 50
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 INFORMATION 51
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 CLIENT PROFILE Client: Name: The Boston Architectural College Address: 320 Newbury Street Boston, Massachusetts Building Use: Library Description: The BAC is an independent professional college concentrating on Architecture, Interior Design, Landscape Design, and Design Studies. The BAC offers Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees. The BAC was founded in the 1880s as the Boston Architectural Club. Its concurrent learning program combines classroom lessons with work in architectural firms. The BAC prides itself on its connection to the community, opening its gallery to everyone, and continuing its connection to the design community, from which the BAC began. Everyone is welcome to visit the gallery and library. The BAC’s staff is made of practicing professionals. 52
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 STUDENT INTERVIEW SUMMARY Interviewee: Name: Mika Gilmore Place: 320 Newbury St. Rm. 402 (Computer Lab) Time: 6:00pm 3/9/2010 Conclusion: Mika is moderately disrupted by talking, but no other regular noise in the library bothers her. She doesn’t listen to music to block out the noise, because she wants in to be quiet. She likes to have a place where she can sit with her laptop and work comfortably, with plenty of space for books. She, and other users, is not happy with the chairs. Mika would like the books to be in the center, and have work stations all around. Lights are not as good as they could be. She wants a dedicated shelf to keep the books she is working with, and she wants access to them 24 hours a day. 53
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 STAFF INTERVIEW SUMMARY Interviewee: Name: Whitney Vitale (Employed at BAC for five years) Place: Library Time: 5:30pm 3/9/2010 Conclusion: The level of noise in the library, as it is now, is not a problem for Whitney, but she fears that she contributes to noise that disturbs users. Her job does not require her to be in the way of users, but there is the potential for BAC Student Workers to, while putting away books. The library needs to have private spaces for small groups. Other libraries she has worked in have had private rooms. As it is today, the alcove gets plenty of use. As for flexibility, the library isn’t able to keep up with the demand for scanners. The BAC library employs 7 full time workers, and usually 1 to 3 BAC Student Workers. The library also has several Clerks who work a few hours a week. The BAC is one of only a few libraries in Boston that does not allow only BAC students to use the resources. 54
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 GUEST INTERVIEW SUMMARY Interviewee: Name: A Wentworth student who would not give his real name, for fear that he was not really supposed to be in The BAC's library Place: The Bac Library Time: 7 :00pm 03/09/10 Conclusion: He was afraid that he was sneaking in, but he was, in fact, allowed to be in the library. It may have been because of the time of day, but he found the noise to be a distraction. He said if he felt that he was in the way, he would leave and come back another time. He is, as he pointed out, not paying to use the resources like the BAC students. If the school were smaller, any new face would get noticed. I, actually, first tried to interview him as a BAC student, and that was the only way I knew he was from Wentworth. The fact the current library is on the 6th floor, is very likely preventing more people not associated with the BAC from using the library. 55
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES + SPRING 2010 PRECEDENTS 56
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 PRECEDENT: PHILLIPS EXETER ACADEMY LIBRARY Project: Phillips Exeter Academy Library Architect: Louis I. Kahn Location: Exeter, New Hampshire Year Built: 1967-1972 57
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 ANALYSIS: PHILLIPS EXETER ACADEMY LIBRARY Circulation: The circulation at Phillips Exeter Academy Library is a loop that circles around an open space. The books and necessary spaces are on the outside of the loop. This idea will work great for the BAC’s new library, but the center will contain the study space, around which will be the books, photocopiers, circulation desk, etc. Natural Light: This library has light coming in and reflecting from four sides and the center. Nearly all of the building gets natural light. The new library could employ this method, providing natural light for reading. Structure: Pushing the structure away from the center allows light in, while the four columns near the center define the circulation loop. The form could be applied to the new library with little modification. 58
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 PRECEDENT: STOCKHOLM LIBRARY Project: Stockholm Library Architect: Erik Gunnar Asplund Location: Stockholm, Sweden Year Built: 1918-1927 59
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 ANALYSIS: STOCKHOLM LIBRARY Circulation: The arraignment of Stockholm Library allows for easy movement through the Shelves. Users can circle around or pass through. The BAC’s new library could use this pattern or something similar, so there is always easy access to the surrounding spaces. Natural Light: Light enters this library through windows around the top of the rotunda, casting light evenly in the rotunda, but no space has direct day light. The new library could have similar indirect light, in addition to spaces being given direct light by other means. Structure: With the all structure located at the outer walls, the floor is free from columns. This would, prevent columns from interfering with circulation, or dictating the arraignment of the book shelves. The new library can limit columns to marking circulation only, if this method is used. 60
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 PRECEDENT: CHAMBERLAIN COTTAGE Project: Chamberlain Cottage Architect: Marcel Breuer Location: Wayland, Massachusetts Year Built: 1940 61
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 ANALYSIS: CHAMBERLAIN COTTAGE GOAL THREE Circulation: The circulation at Chamberlain Cottage is a continuous loop, off of which are the frequently used spaces. The BAC’s new library can use a similar system, because with a single loop, you never have to worry about heading down the wrong hall, or incorrect direction. Natural Light: This library has two methods of bringing in light. The first is with full wall height windows, and the second is with windows just below the ceiling. The new library can employ both, to give a combination of indirect and direct sunlight. This will light the whole space evenly, and brightly light the reading spaces. Structure: The Structure is broken into columns, making a visual connection between spaces, but defining the two as separate. The new library should take this approach in forming reading spaces that are partially separate from the rest of the space. 62
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 FUTURE STATE 63
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 MISSION STATEMENT Mission: The mission of the Library is to provide an information center which supports education in Architecture and related design fields Context: The library should be efficient in function, and comfortable for all users. The space should welcome users from within and outside the BAC. Library staff must be able to carry out their jobs in the most efficient way, without interfering with, or being affected by, users. 64
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 ISSUES No. 1 Audibility Conversations Photocopiers Library Staff: How do you rank noise as a distraction to your job? Disruptive or minor annoyance? BAC alumni/ local architect: Is the noise at the same level as would be found in a working office? Student: What kinds of noises are most disruptive? Talking? Photocopier? other? Importance: In addition to making the library more quiet, the site is above a noisy highway, so it will be important to know how much noise, and what kind can be tolerated No. 2 Convenience Location Enough space to work Library Staff: Can you do your job without bumping into other users? BAC alumni/ local architect: Is it easy for you to use the Library at the BAC? Student: What is the biggest inconvenience about the library? What is most convenient? Importance: If the location of the library on the 6th floor is preventing people from using it, moving it to a separate building might as well? No. 3 Comfort Seating Privacy Library Staff: Are you able to perform your job without invading the privacy of the uses? BAC alumni/ local architect: Do you feel comfortable coming in and using a library with students? Do you feel like you are intruding on their privacy? Do you find that you are giving up a seat, or more comfortable seat for students? Student: Can you spread out and comfortably use the library? Importance: Some users might, work around comfort issues, while others may avoid using the library for extended periods of time. 65
  • No. 4 Circulation From books to seats From computer (index) to books From bookshelves to bookshelves From Books to copier Library Staff: Do you have to walk excessive distance to complete simple tasks? BAC alumni/ local architect: Have you noticed excessive circulation? Student: Could anything be moved to make circulation easier? Importance: In a case where users and staff are pressed for time, they do not need to spend most of their time walking back and forth across a room. No. 5 Light Sufficient light for reading Lighting for bookshelves Library Staff: What light conditions need to be met for a usable library? For Students? For Staff? BAC alumni/ local architect: How do you rate the quality of light: Inadequate or no room for improvement? Student: Are there any spaces in the library that could use more, or less light? Importance: Too much natural light may cause damage to books, but too much fluorescent light may damage students No. 6 Flexibility Various users Changing technology Library Staff: Are there any traces in the library now of old technology that make your job more difficult? BAC alumni/ local architect: Does the library limit the way it can be used? (example: allow for computer research or limited to printed books only? Student: Do the spaces limit the way you can use them? Is this good or bad? Importance: Minute by minute, there will be different users, making different uses of the spaces, just as year by year, there will be different technologies, requiring different uses. 66
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 GOAL ONE Goal.: To invite outsiders to gain from, and contribute to, the learning experience. Objective: To cater to BAC students, and the general public’s interest in Architecture and related fields. 67
  • P. R. 1: The entrances should be visible from each direction people are walking from. People will arrive at the library from the parking garage, bus stop, green line stop, and both streets. this diagram shows what is visible on arrival. 68
  • P. R. 2: People walking past need to be able to see in. Very few people will enter a building if they do not know what it is. 69
  • P. R. 3: The space outside the entrances must invite people to slow down and acknowledge the activities going on in the library. By creating a plaza, people might pause and realize what the building is, and it offers a chance to explore the activities seen inside. 70
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 GOAL TWO Goal.: To achieve ideal working conditions for library staff. Objective: To provide the optimum use of space for every task 71
  • P. R. 1: The Archive should be easily accessible from offices and Circulation Desk. As show, staff can quickly walk back and forth between archive and desk. 72
  • P. R. 2: The Circulation Desk must be within a short distance from the offices. In only a few steps, a staff member at the desk can be in the offices. 73
  • P. R. 3: The offices and Circulation Desk should be a short distance from user’s work areas. Depicted above, the staff is close to the users, and are available to provide assistance. 74
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 GOAL THREE Goal.: To accomplish convenient conditions for users Objective: To reduce the distance and time spent walking 75
  • P. R. 1: Photocopiers should be located near where students are working The photocopiers are shown in a separate room, to limit noise, but still close by. 76
  • P. R. 2: The Circulation Desk must be close enough to assist users, but not disrupt. With the Circulation Desk close to, but not in, the work space, help can be provided with little distraction to the other users. 77
  • P. R. 3: With the exception of the environmentally conditioned room, all the books should be located in one space, near work stations and the computer catalog. If the books are located in the center, they can be accessible from multiple surrounding spaces. 78
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 BUILDING FOOTPRINT Site Dimensions: 400’ abutting the old ICA Green Line stop 373’ along Boylston Street And 140’ on Massachusetts Avenue Set Backs: 3’ set back along the old ICA Green Line stop 10’ set back on Boylston St. and Mass. Ave. 79
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 MASSING STUDIES 80
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 SPATIAL COMPONENTS OFFICES: 600 s.f. 81
  • STORAGE: 500 s.f. 82
  • BOOK SHELVES: 8225 s.f. 83
  • CONFRENCE ROOM: 875 s.f. 84
  • STUDY: 900 s.f. 85
  • RESTROOMS: 860 s.f. 86
  • LEARNING RESOURCES: 1050 s.f. 87
  • LOBBY: 1,700 s.f. 88
  • CIRCULATION DESK: 900 s.f. 89
  • GALLERY: 750 s.f. 90
  • COMPUTER LAB: 875 s.f. 91
  • RESERVE COLLECTION: 900 s.f. 92
  • PRIVATE STUDY ROOMS: 1,800 s.f. 93
  • PERIODICALS: 960 s.f. 94
  • COPY ROOM: 24 s.f. 95
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 COST ANALYSIS OFFICES: 600 STORAGE: 500 BOOK SHELVES: 8225 CONFRENCE ROOM: 875 STUDY: 900 RESTROOMS: 860 LEARNING RESOURCES: 1050 LOBBY: 1,700 CIRCULATION DESK: 900 GALLERY: 750 COMPUTER LAB: 875 RESERVE COLLECTION: 900 PRIVATE STUDY ROOMS: 1,800 PERIODICAL: 960 COPY ROOM: 240 NET USUABLE AREA: 21,135 GROSS AREA: 25,135 BUILDING EFFICIENCY: 21,135/25,135 = 84% 96
  • BUILDING COST: 25,135sf x $139/gsf (Pena Grand) = $3,493,765.00 FIXED EQUIPMENT: $3,493,765.00 X 0.08 = $279,501.20 SITE DEVELOPMENT: $3,493,765.00 X 0.15 = $524,064.75 TOTAL CONSTRUCTION: $3,493,765.00 + $279,501.20 + $524,064.75 = $4,297,330.95 SITE ACQUISITION: $3,508,500.00 MOVEABLE EQUIPMENT: $3,493,765.00 X 0.08 = $279,501.20 PROFESSIONAL FEES: $4,297,330.95 X 0.06 = $257,839.86 CONTINGENCIES: $4,297,330.95 X 0.10 = $429,733.10 ADMINISTRATIVES COSTS: $4,297,330.95 X 0.01 = $42,973.31 TOTAL BUDGET: $3,493,765.00 + $279,501.20 + $524,064.75 +$3,508,500.00 + $279,501.20 + $257,839.86 +$429,733.10 +$42,973.31 = $8,815,878.42 X 1.185 (location factor) = $10,446,815.93 My original assumption was that the cost would be somewhere around $10 million. The result was 10 and a half million. 97
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 COST SUMMARY From my analysis of cost, I can estimate that the total cost should be somewhere around $10.5 million. $4.3 million of that would be the cost of the building itself. The site is valued at $3.5 million, but, being over a highway, would likely only be leased to the school and not sold, so this price will change depending on negotiations between the school and MBTA. If the site is not purchased, the total budget should be around $7 million, but a recurring payment would be made for the lease. 98
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 APPENDIX 1 99
  • ASSIGNMENT Codes 1 JEFF ESTES SPRING-2010 ZONING COMPLIANCE FORM Zoning Compliance Form Your Name and Contact Information: Jeff Estes jeff.estes@the-bac.edu Project Name: Library Project Address: 0 Boylston Street Lot Size: 25,830 square feet Frontage: 370' Lot Width: 140' Zoning Information: Applicable Zoning Regulations: B-8 120a Zone Designation: B-8 Special District Designation: 120a Zoning Use(s): Library Circle as applicable: A (allowed) C (conditional) F (forbidden) Dimensional Restrictions: FY (10) SY (3) RY (5) FAR (8) Attach Plot Plan or Sketch h 100
  • TM 685 & 7685 Programming and Codes Building Code Worksheet Part 1 Your Name and Contact Information: _ Jeff Estes Jeff.estes@the-bac.edu____ Project Name: ______Library ________Project Address: ___0 Bolyston Street________ Building Code Information: Applicable Building Code: _________IBC 2003__(Mass. State Building Code)________ Use Group(s): __S-1, A-3, B_______Special Occupancies: ________None__________ Building Area: _____25,000 S.F.__ Building Height (st/ft): _High Rise_ % Perimeter Access: ______56%_ Sprinklered: Yes _X_ No ___ Proposed Construction Type (circle one): IA IB IIA IIB IIIA IIIB IV VA VB Allowed Height and Area (Table 503): A-3 is most restrictive, h = 2 stories, a = 9,500 _____ ___________________________ Sprinkler increase (Height and Area): _ A-3 + 200% = 19,000 s.f.____________ _______ ____ ___ Area Increase for Perimeter Access: __56% x 9,500 = 5320 s. f. ___________________ Max. allowed area: __9,500 + 19,000 + 5,320 = 29,820___________________________ Height and Area: Allowed: __3_______________ Actual: ___3_________________ Fire Separation Distance: N__0______ S _________ E _________ W ________ Percentage of Allowed Openings: N___0_____ S __100____ E __100____W __100___ Attach Plot Plan or sketch here showing fire separation distances: 101
  • 140 + 373 + 400 = 913 140/913 = .15 373/913 = .41 Percent Perimeter Access = 56 102
  • TM 685 & 7685 Programming and Codes Building Codes Worksheet Part 2 Your Name and Contact Information: _Jeff Estes Jeffrey.estes@the-bac.edu________ Project Name: __BAC Library________Project Address: __0 Boylston______________ Table 1: Occupant Load (780 CMR 1008.1.2) Floor Area Per Floor Area Occupant Level Area Occupant (ft2) Load (ft2/occupant) Lobby 3265 20 gross 164 Books 2100 100 gross 21 Floor 01 ComputerLab 870 20 gross 44 Gallery 745 15 gross 50 Floor Total = 279 Circulation Desk 925 100 gross 93 Copy Room 250 50 gross 5 Learning 900 20 gross 45 Resources Offices 570 100 gross 8 Floor 02 Periodicals 1015 100 gross 11 Private Study 1795 25 gross 78 Reserve Collection 900 100 gross 9 Restrooms 1080 25 gross 44 Study 960 20 gross 48 Floor Total = 341 Books 7015 100 gross 71 Conference 900 20 gross 45 Floor 03 Storage 495 300 gross 2 Floor Total = 118 103
  • Table 2: Minimum Number of Exits (780 CMR 1010.2) Total Occupant Required Number of Number of Exits Level Load Exits Provided Floor 01 279 2 4 Floor 02 341 2 2 Floor 03 118 2 2 Table 3: Exit Capacity (780 CMR 1009.2) Exit Total Allowanc Occupan Level e Total Exit Capacity Provided (persons) t (in/person Load ) South Door East Door 72” Door/.15 = 480 72” Door/0.15 = 480 0.2 (Stair) Capacity = 480 Capacity = 480 North Door West Door 279 0.15 72” Door/.15 = 480 72” Door/.15 = 480 Compliant Floor 01 (Door) Capacity = 480 Capacity = 480 Total Capacity = 1920 South Door (St 1) North Stair (St 3) 0.2 (Stair) 72” Stair/0.2 = 360 72” Stair/0.2 = 360 68” Door/.15 = 453 68” Door/.15 = 453 Floor 02 341 0.15 Capacity = 360 Capacity = 360 Compliant (Door) Total Capacity = 720 0.2 (Stair) South Door (St 1) Northwest Stair (St 3) 72” Stair/0.2 = 360 72” Stair/0.2 = 360 0.15 34” Door/.15 = 226 34” Door/.15 = 226 Floor 03 118 Capacity = 226 Capacity = 226 Compliant (Door) Total Capacity = 452 104
  • TM 685 & 7685 Programming and Codes Building Codes Worksheet Part 3 Accessibility Your Name and Contact Information: _Jeff Estes jeff.estes@the-bac.edu__________ Project Name: _BAC Library_________Project Address: _0 Boylston_______________ Use(s): _________Commercial / Library______________________________________ Applicable Accessibility requirements: Massachusetts Architectural Access Board regulations 521 CMR: Section 14 Places of Assembly Americans with Disabilities Act (describe applicability below): The American’s with Disabilities Act sets out to make buildings usable for people of all abilities. In giving a fair opportunity for students, staff, and all users, no one should feel excluded based on accessibility. Students are often carrying books, book bags, and other school related materials while at The BAC. Commonly, students’ work is carried in large boxes, which will make climbing stairs, opening doors, maneuvering around corners, or seeing what is on the floor in front of them nearly impossible. With the use of cell phones and audio players distracting people today, it is not always easy to hear the sounds around them. Please provide a narrative of compliance for your project with the applicable accessibility requirements below or on a separate sheet of paper: The BAC’s new Library will not separate those who are recognized as handicapped from those who are not. As we are all sometimes handicapped, the design will assume all occupants do not have the use of two hands, can not see, or have a difficult time hearing. 105
  • TM 685 & 7685 Programming and Codes Building Codes Worksheet Part 4 Sustainability Your Name and Contact Information: _Jeff Estes jeff.estes@the-bac.edu__________ Project Name: __BAC Library________Project Address: _0 Boylston______________ Your client has asked you to either a) achieve LEED certification for your project, or b) identify four strategies from the AIA 50/50 list that you will incorporate. Describe how you will comply with this request below. Use additional paper if required. A) Download a LEED for New Construction v 2.2 Project Checklist (www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=220 ) Circle level of LEED certification sought: Certified (26-32) Silver (33-38) Gold (39-51) Platinum (52-69) State how many points will be sought in each category. Remember to seek more than the minimum in the certification category you are targeting. Sustainable Sites __4_ Water Efficiency __4_ Energy and Atmosphere __7_ Materials and Resources __8_ Indoor Environmental Quality _11_ Innovation and Design Process _1__ Attach checklist indicating which points in each category you will be targeting. 106
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  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 APPENDIX 2 111
  • ASSIGNMENT TWO JEFF ESTES SPRING-2010 STUDENT INTERVIEW Interviewee: Name: Mika Gilmore Place: 320 Newbury St. Rm. 402 (Computer Lab) Time: 6:00pm 3/9/2010 Question 1) What kinds of noises are most disruptive? Talking? Photocopier? other? Talking bothers her most. She wants silence. Question 2) What is the biggest inconvenience about the library? What is most convenient? She likes the place by the magazines. She says she can sit and work there for hours. It would be better if it were open 24 hours. Question 3) Can you spread out and comfortably use the library? There are no comfortable places to sit. [voices came from the background saying the chairs are from the 60s, and not inviting.] The triangle chairs are far from comfortable. There is no space for a laptop computer. She wants there to be a high counter with stools to work at. Question 4) Could anything be moved to make circulation easier? It would be better if books were at the center, and work stations surrounded them. Question 5) Are there any spaces in the library that could use more, or less light? The lighting is horrible. It should have task lighting. The library needs indirect lighting. She feels it should have warm lights, rather than cools lights. Question 6) Do the spaces limit the way you can use them? Is this good or bad? She wants there to be spaces for users to store books and come back to later – like lockers. 112
  • ASSIGNMENT TWO JEFF ESTES SPRING-2010 STAFF INTERVIEW Interviewee: Name: Whitney Vitale (Employed at BAC for five years) Place: Library Time: 5:30pm 3/9/2010 Question 1) How do you rank noise as a distraction to your job? Disruptive or minor annoyance? Noise is not an issue. Her office does not have noise, and the tasks she performs in the library do not require silence. Question 2) Can you do your job without bumping into other users? BAC Student Workers do all the stocking. She is afraid she disturbs users while helping to find books. Question 3) Are you able to perform your job without invading the privacy of the uses? She wishes there were private rooms students could use when working in groups. There is an alcove that gets a lot of use when students want a private space. Question 4) Do you have to walk excessive distance to complete simple tasks? Whitney is constantly walking down to her office on the fifth floor, and back up again. She is not the only staff member who has to go up and down the stairs. Archives and another office are in the Mass. Ave. Building. Question 5) What light conditions need to be met for a usable library? For Students? For Staff? Natural light and other natural conditions cause harm to the oldest books that are in a separate sealed room. Current lighting was in place before the room became a library. Question 6) Are there any traces in the library now of old technology that make your job more difficult? The library began to use more technology in the 1990s. At that time, the file cabinet went away and was replaced with computers. The space does not have enough scanners. Under ideal conditions, there would be plenty of scanners. 113
  • ASSIGNMENT TWO JEFF ESTES SPRING-2010 GUEST INTERVIEW Interviewee: Name: A Wentworth student who would not give his real name, for fear that he was not really supposed to be in The BAC's library Place: The Bac Library Time: 7 :00pm 03/09/10 Question 1) Is the noise at the same level as where you are coming from? “I have never been in the Wentworth Library at a time when noise was an issue. Here, I moved from the chairs near the copier to the tables at the back, because the noise from the copier”. Question 2) Is it easy for you to use the Library at the BAC? “As long as no one kicks me out. It is not at Wentworth, but it is worth coming to. There are not many people here, so I'm not in the way.” Question 3) Do you feel comfortable coming in and using a library with students? Do you feel like you are intruding on their privacy? Do you find that you are giving up a seat, or more comfortable seat for students? “I think I am the only visitor, but there is no one stopping me. I don't think I am invading. I try to give them respect.” Question 4) Have you noticed excessive circulation? “I am coming from outside the school, so I have to walk up 6 floors to get here.” Question 5) How do you rate the quality of light: Inadequate or no room for improvement? “The light doesn't make it impossible. I am mostly just photocopying pages to read later, therefore light is not a problem for me.” Question 6) Does the library limit the way it can be used? (example: allow for computer research or limited to printed books only? “I don't use anything except the photocopier, and I waited until it was available. There are not enough computers that I could use one if I wanted.” 114
  • THE BAC LIBRARY JEFF ESTES SPRING 2010 SOURCES Page 9: Maps: Google Maps Page 10: Maps: Google Maps Page 11: Base image: www.mapjunction.com Page 13: Base image: www.mapjunction.com Page 19: Base image: www.mapjunction.com Page 20: Base image: www.mapjunction.com Pages 21, 22, and 23: Climate information: www.myforecast.com Page 30: Base image: www.mapjunction.com Page 32: Base image: Google Maps Page 33: Base image: www.mapjunction.com Page 44: Base image: www.mapjunction.com Page 36: Base image: www.mapjunction.com Page 37: Historical information: www.bostonherald.com 115
  • Page 38: Photograph: Google Maps Page 39: Real Estate Value: www.gis.cityofboston.gov Page 43: Zoning: Boston Redevelopment Authority Pages 47 and 48: Cultural information: www.homes.point2.com, www.cityofboston.gov Page 61: Description and photograph: www.the-bac.edu Page 67-72: Information and Base images: www.greatbuildings.com Page 61: Description and photograph: www.the-bac.edu Page 107-108: Cost Estimating: Pena, William. Problem Seeking: An Architectural Programming Primer. 4th ed. New York: John Wilel & Sons, Inc, 2001. Print. Page 111-112: Zoning: Boston Redevelopment Authority Page 117-121: LEED information: www.usgbc.org 116