People began to question their lives and authority
What had become the biggest authority figure of the Middle Ages ?
Martin Luther- 1517
Questioned Churches practices
Sale of indulgences by Johann Tetzel building a church
“ selling forgiveness for sins”
Automatic trip to heaven in after-life
Luther was so upset at church he decided to write down the 95 Theses (95 things church is doing wrong) and nails them to the church in Wittenberg (Germany)
How did this become such a big deal?
effect of the printing press –spread ideas faster
Opened people’s eyes to church malpractices
“ Faith Alone” will save you
All should read the Bible in their own vernacular (language)
Priests do not have special powers
Simplify the sacraments to baptism and communion
Religious Education for all.
How will people react?
How will the church react?
Want Martin Luther to recant (take back) what he said @ Diet of Worms
Diet – group/assembly
Worms is a place in Germany
Luther says NO!!!!!!!!!! Hier stehe ich. Ich kann nicht anders. Gott helfe mir. Amen." ( "Here I stand. I can do nothing else. God help me. Amen." ) He is excommunicated from church and forced into hiding for the rest of his life
What is the results of Luther’s actions?
Opened people’s eyes to corruption of the church
soon others began to create new churches away from the Roman Catholic Church based on own beliefs– ex John Calvin-- Calvinism
Ex. Protestant, Lutheran, Baptists, Puritans, Methodists, Calvinists, and so on.
John Calvin - Calvinism
French lawyer - moved to religious community in Geneva, Switzerland
“ Faith Alone” saves you
The Bible holds the truth
PREDESTINATION - God has already decided who is saved/condemned.
Spreads to France, Germany, Netherlands, Scandinavia, Scotland
Scottish Presbyterians, American Baptists, Puritans, from this branch.
Henry VIII of England
Wished to divorce Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn
Pope refused to grant it
Henry declares himself head of the Church of England in the “Act of Supremacy” 1534
In America we call this the Anglican Church
Act of Supremacy- 1534
The King is head of the church in England, not the Pope!!
The COUNTER-Reformation Or, The Catholic Church Strikes Back!!
1545 Council of Trent
Met over 17 years
Determined what was heresy (against church teachings)
Reaffirmed what was Church teachings
Launched the Inquisition, and the Jesuits
Remember: The Spanish Inquisition
IN SHORT, THE REFORMATION ENDED CHURCH UNITY IN WESTERN EUROPE