The Value of Building Commissioning


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John Kokko of MMM Group presents on Building Commissioning for the Toronto Sustainable Building Advisor program

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The Value of Building Commissioning

  1. 1. BUILDING COMMISSIONING: The Value of Commissioning CaGBC Building Advisor Program October, 2012 John Kokko, P.Eng., CCP, LEED AP 519-743-8777 x2424
  2. 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES What is building commissioning What are the steps required by LEED Why is it important What results can we expect
  3. 3. NEW BUILDING CXLEED CreditsEAp1 – Fundamental Cx (Prerequisite) Deals mainly with construction and getting the building operating before hand-overEAc3 - Enhanced Cx (Credit) Deals with design and post occupancy operation
  4. 4. WHAT IS NEW BUILD COMMISSIONINGDefinition: To bring a new project or facility on line???Hands over a building that gives the owner what he paid for.
  5. 5. NAME FROM SHIP BUILDING A commissioned ship is one deemed ready for service. Must pass several milestones. Equipment is installed and tested, problems are identified and corrected, and staff are extensively trained. A commissioned ship is one whose materials, systems, and staff have successfully completed a thorough quality assurance process. Commissioned ship is one ready to sail safely and reliably
  6. 6. VISION OF COMMISSIONING Take the owner’s needs and wants ► Ensure requirements properly articulated Through the minds of the consultants ► Ensure designs properly reflect OPR Through the hands of suppliers and contractors ► Ensure building is properly built Deliver a properly performing building ► Ensure all systems operate as intended
  7. 7. BUILDING Cx = QC FOR CARS?  Similar to a QC process for cars  Note similarities in:  Work area  Tools  Assembly techniques  Workers’ responsibilities
  8. 8. WHY IS COMMISSIONING NEEDED Don’t the design and construction teams already do this? Everyone wants to do a good job. But two constrains: 1. Scope included with fees 2. Knowledge of the state-of-the-art Low price generally gets the job Designers responsible for code Site review for conformance to drawings and specs Not performance beyond obvious faults and complaints after the fact
  9. 9. UP-TO-DATE KNOWLEDGE Innovation moving extremely fast Innovative equipment and systems are relatively unfamiliar to designers, contractors, operators and even manufacturers agents Energy efficiency, integrated systems, imported design concepts and computerization have multiplied levels of complexity
  11. 11. ADDED COMPLICATIONS Radiant heating Radiant cooling Condensing boiler Water-side economizer Building automation systems
  12. 12. INNOVATION INCREASING EXPONENTIALLY Direct and indirect evaporative cooling Optimum start Cascading PID loops Stratified thermal storage Daylighting control LON and BACnet Integration And on and on and on ….
  13. 13. CONVENTIONAL COMMISSIONING• Start-up and basic check out of equipment• Testing, Adjusting and Balancing (TAB)• Begins after systems in and ready for start-up• Verify individual components function as components• Performed by installing contractor or manufacturers rep
  14. 14. TOTAL COMMISSIONING (LEED™)A systematic quality assurance programStarts at concept design and concludes at end of warrantyIncludes all phases concept design, detailed design, construction, start-up, 1 year operationCommissioning verifies energy performance and comfort maintenance
  15. 15. TOTAL COMMISSIONING (LEED™) Includes reviews through all stages Includes participation of consultants, trades, O&M staff Includes detailed reviews design, shop draw, install Expanded installation verification and start-up checks O&M documentation more centralized Whole system performance vs. component checks
  16. 16. COMMISSIONING COMPARISONTOTAL COMMISSIONING TRADITIONAL COMMISSIONINGConcept Design Reviews No Cx. Consultant self-checks.Detailed Design Reviews No Cx. Consultant self-checks.Shop Drawing Reviews No Cx. Dwgs & specs met only.Site Installation Verification No Cx. Dwgs & specs met only.Equipment Start-Up Verification Contractor or Manufacturer only. No systems interoperabilityBalancing Verification No Cx. Contractor self-checks.Functional Performance Test No Cx. Contractor self-checks.Documentation and Operator No Cx. Contractor self-checks. Training Owner verifies acceptability.Trending and Seasonal FPT Contractor seldom returnsWarranty and Occupant No Cx. Respond to complaints only. concerns
  17. 17. VALUE OF Cx  Largest study to date  Mills, LBNL July 2009   643 buildings, 26 US states  561 existing and 82 new buildings  37 Cx firms  99 M ft2, $2.2 B construct  90.4 M ft2 existing, 8.8 M ft2 new construction  $43 M Cx costs
  18. 18. NEW BUILDING Cx MEDIANS  Cx cost, $1.16/ft2 or 0.4% of overall construct cost ($290/ft2) (Range $0.60 - $2.15)  Number of deficiencies identified, 3,528 (about 1/3 of projects reported deficiencies)  Energy savings 13% (Range 9% - 29%)  Payback time, 4.2 years (Range 1.7 to 11.4 yrs)
  19. 19. AREAS OF BENEFIT  Construction Cost Savings  Equipment downsizing and trade-offs  Energy Savings - $0.05 to $0.45/ft2  Peak demand reductions  Maintenance and replacement costs reduced  Increased productivity and reduced liability  Indoor environmental quality maintenance  Carbon emissions reductions
  21. 21. LEED Cx OUTLINEDesign and Construction Phases EAp1 – Fundamental Cx EAc3 – Enhanced CxDesign Owner documents OPR Before 50% CD Owner designates CxAConstruction Documents Designers incorporate Cx specs into CxA presents Cx Plan Construction Docs50% CD CxA conducts 50% design reviewPost Contract Award Owner designates CxA CxA reviews shop drawings CxA presents Cx PlanInstallation CxA performs/oversees installation verificationStart-up CxA performs/oversees functional testing CxA reviews O&M Manuals CxA oversees staff trainingSubstantial Completion CxA prepares Draft Final Report CxA prepares Systems ManualPost Construction CxA performs/oversees defered testingOccupancy CxA delivers Final Report CxA provides Warranty and occupant concerns review
  22. 22. OWNER & DESIGN TEAM DOCUMENTATION Owners Project Requirements (OPR) ► Owner and User requirements ► Environmental sustainability goals ► Energy efficiency goals ► Indoor environmental quality requirements ► Equipment and systems expectations ► Building occupant & O&M personnel requirements Basis of Design (BoD) ► Primary design assumptions ► Standards ► Narrative descriptions
  23. 23. Cx DURING DESIGN Work with design team to define measurable energy and indoor environmental quality goals Discuss alternatives to traditional design solutions Provide support for unfamiliar technologies Review to verify design meets objectives and technologies properly implemented Review to verify equipment specified meets goals and objectives
  24. 24. COMMON DESIGN ISSUES No design target for energy use Lighting power density not identified No heat recovery Condensing boilers not considered Variable speed pumps and fans ECM motors not incorporated 20°F rather than 40°F design temp drop design used Undersized piping and ductwork
  25. 25. Cx PLAN  Overview of Cx Process  List of equipment and systems to be Cx  Cx Team and responsibilities  Management, Communication and Reporting Overview  Cx Process Overview (Outline above)  List of deliverables  Milestones
  26. 26. Cx MEMBERS & RESPONSIBILITIES COMMISSIONING AGENT  Owner’s rep leading commissioning  Reviews and produces most paperwork  Directs testing  Ensures LEED™ requirements are met OWNER  Provide support as required to ensure Cx proceeds smoothly  FM Staff? Consultants  Provide documentation as required for review  Attend commissioning meetings as required
  27. 27. Cx MEMBERS & RESPONSIBILITIES GENERAL CONTRACTOR ► Ensures contractors meet commissioning requirements M&E CONTRACTORS ► Completes start-up, installation verification lists ► Operates equipment for Performance Testing ► Produces O&M manuals, Provides owner training CONTROLS CONTRACTOR ► Operate controls for Performance Testing, produce O&M materials for controls
  28. 28. Cx SPECIFICATIONS  Contractor responsibilities  Submittal review process  Meetings  IVC process  Start-up process  Balancing reviews  FPT process  O&M manuals requirements  Training requirements  Warranty review
  29. 29. Cx DURING CONSTRUCTION  Verify equipment installed per drawings and specs, manuf’rs requirements and proper industry practice and standards  Verify equipment is, set-up, adjusted, balanced, controlled and operated to provide expected comfort and energy performance  Provide owner complete systems O&M docs  Provide owner’s operating personnel adequate training to understand, operate and maintain equipment
  30. 30. COMMON INSTALLATION ISSUES Coils piped backward Maintenance access not provided Pumps with shaft oriented improperly Thermostats located adjacent to heating/cooling diffusers Insulation missing Sensors improperly located
  31. 31. COMMON FUNCTIONAL TESTING ISSUES Controls functions not matching sequence VFDs do not modulate Outdoor damper minimum position Control valve action reversed
  32. 32. TRAINING TOPICS  General purpose of system  Use of O&M manuals  Operation of systems under all conditions  Interaction with other systems  Adjustments and optimization for efficiency  Health and safety  Special maintenance and replacement resources  Occupant interaction  Controls training
  33. 33. SYSTEMS MANUAL  Final BoD  System single line diagrams  As-Built sequences, set-points, etc.  System operating instructions  Maintenance schedule  Retesting schedule
  34. 34. Cx AFTER OCCUPANCY  Follow trends on BAS to ensure ongoing operation  Completion of deficiencies remaining after construction  Follow-up on warranty issues arising  Follow up on occupant concerns during warranty and first year occupancy  Verify that issues are cleaned up by the end of warranty
  35. 35. FINAL REPORT  OPR  Design and shops review summary  Cx specifications  IVC results  FPT results  O&M evaluation  Value achieved through Cx  Outstanding issues
  36. 36. MULTI-FUNTION AHUDESIGN ISSUES  Dehumidifying only outdoor air reduces size of equipment and increases efficiency of equipment  Using heat recovery to reduce load on cooling coil  Using indirect evaporative cooler to increase HX eff’y humidity carried outdoors
  37. 37. MULTI-FUNCTION AHU INSTALLATION ISSUES No radiation shield on sensor by flame No maintenance access to some sensors Installation of single point sensor where averaging required Reset button set tight and vibration causing unit to cut out Overloads not set properly
  38. 38. BOILERSDESIGN ISSUES No check valves would required both boilers operate in parallel Independent controllers would not have been coordinated Primary only loop with DHW would have required continuous minimum 160F
  39. 39. BOILERINSTALLATION ISSUES Water treatment eliminated by aluminum boiler manufacturer. But piping not protected OA reset not programmed because tech believed it would not save energy Control sensor located in single boiler supply rather than common header
  40. 40. RETIREMENT RESIDENCEHVAC SYSTEM Ground loop coupled distributed heat pumps with supplemental gas-fired heating. One AHU with heat recovery and HP htg/clg for fresh air distribution to corridors and common areas One AHU with WLHP htg/clg for Kitchen Individual HRVs for ventilation and WLHPs for htg/clg in each room
  41. 41. RETIREMENT HOMEDESIGN ISSUES Heat injection before rather than after ground loop Moved to eliminate boiler heating ground HX between building loop and ground loop removed Reduced capital cost and increased efficiency
  42. 42. RETIREMENT HOME Cont’d Dedicated DHW heaters simplified boiler loop controls, allowed summer shutdown and allowed primary loop OA reset and condensing Cascading different temperature loops ensured cold return water temps 40°F temp rise drop reduced pipe and pump sizing
  43. 43. AIR HANDLER SHOP DRAWING REVIEW FINDINGS 1. 3 re-submittals of heat wheel shop drawings required before a workable defrost strategy provided. 2. Shop drawing coil performance based on water while system will used propylene glycol. 3. Coils have greater air-side and water-side pressure drops than specified. 4. Controls sequences were carbon copy of engineer’s general wording rather than converting to specifics that can be programmed.  Heat wheel, heating coil and cooling coils shall be sequenced to provide energy efficient operation
  44. 44. SERVICES and REPAIR BUILDING HVAC SYSTEM  Ground Source Heat Pump  Radiant floor heating  Dedicated outdoor air ventilation with heat recovery  Supplemental fan coils for cooling
  46. 46. SMALL SERVICES BUILDINGFunctional Testing System relied on heat pump circulator but never programmed to operate when heat pump off PID loops needed tuning to provide stable operation Radiant floor valve found with wire not connected leaving valve open and space overheating
  47. 47. SERVICE AND REPAIR BUILDING CASE STUDYFUNCTIONAL TEST Storage room hot, office cool. Found crossed floor loops. Office t’stat controlling floor heat in storage room. Loops not labelled Heat pump constantly tripping. Supplier blamed system but did not measure any parameters. Cx measurements showed water flows ok. Heat pump diagnostics finally found faulty TX valve and low refrigerant. Controls are probably the single most important item in ensuring successful system operation for comfort and energy savings.  CC programmed system heating water temps lower than specified because this works better  Improperly programmed 24 hr moving average outdoor temp caused the system to flip-flop between heating and cooling
  48. 48. REAL PERFORMANCEWhat is the energy use of typical buildings? 800 700 600 Annual Energy 500 400 ekWh/m2 300 200 100 0 All data (except GoG) from  NRCan Survey (CIBEUS, 2000). All Bldgs  C&I Accom  Offices  Offices  GoG (ON) (ON) (ON) (CAN)
  49. 49. RETIREMENT RESIDENCE AActual Performance 300 250 Annual Energy 200 ekWh/m2 150 100 50 Simulated Floor Area = 5348 m2 Actual 0 Dec 04 (SL) Nov 05 (SL) Nov 05 (CBIP) Jul 06 (Review) Apr 07 to Mar 08
  50. 50. RETIREMENT RESIDENCE BActual Performance 250 200 Annual Energy ekWh/m2 150 100 50 Floor Area = 11702 m2 Simulated Actual 0 Aug 04 (SL) Feb 06 (CBIP) Aug 06 (Review) Aug 07 to Feb 08
  51. 51. LABORATORY BUILDINGActual Performance 500 Simulated Actual 400 Annual Energy ekWh/m2 300 200 100 Floor Area = 9350 m2 0 Aug 04 (SL) Aug 06 (CBIP) Feb 07 (Review) Dec 07 to Feb 08 Mar to May 08
  52. 52. COMPARISON Actual energy use compared to typical buildings 800 700 600Annual 500EnergyekWh/m2 400 300 200 100 0 All Bldgs  C&I Accom  Offices  Offices  GoG VA Building SSJ Building KPHQ Building TRCA Building (ON) (ON) (ON) (CAN) A B C D
  53. 53. MMM Group Limited100 Commerce Valley Drive WestThornhill, ON Canada L3T 0A1t: 905.882.1100 | f: 905.882.0055e: