Growing imbalance between energy supply and demand Environmental problems associated with energy supply GHG emissions Air Pollution Energy reliability Energy security Electricity infrastructure efficiency
This lays out the perspective that we will be using to assess the value chain – “how do these factors, actors, and issues increase the adoption of ZEH or create outcomes that make ZEH more achievable.
This is about framing proposed solutions – since developers are the ones who build homes, all other factors in the value chain are focused on influencing this group in the ways listed. Why Developers are key: they are ultimately at the centre of every project (public or private), and thus we need to focus on their abilities/appetite for ZEH.
Each country ’ s value chain consists of a description of Supporting Factors that define the nature of the current housing environment, and Development Activities that encompass the development cycle of housing
These convergence areas refer to operational, policy or market considerations that can help accelerate ZEH adoption already underway, which are common among multiple countries. Focussed attention and strategic international collaboration around these areas could provide high-leverage opportunities for mobilizing ZEH development across APP regions.
IMAGES Top – “Santa Barbara Garden”, Shanghai China Bottom – “Santorini”, Mexicali, Mexico Ongoing efforts to simplify designs to reduce costs and to customize for local conditions will increase the uptake of ZEH design. Continuously testing new technology and material applications will continue to improve the performance of ZEH homes. Single-family homes are the most common type of residential buildings in Australia , Canada , Japan and the United States . Houses in Japan are historical unique and have a shorter lifetime than the others. Townhouses and apartment buildings are the most popular types of housing in South Korea and apartment buildings are dominant in China . Canada and the northern USA have cool to cold climates nationally, and heating is a major energy consumer. ZEH design approaches tend to focus on insulation and building sealing, supplemented by renewables including solar PV, Solar Thermal and geo-exchange. Several Canadian demonstration projects exist across the country under the CMHC Equilibrium banner. USA initiatives have been lead largely by the Department of Energy’s Building America program. India is focused largely on improving insulation of housing and has particularly high requirements for rooftop R rating. South Korea and Japan have achieved higher energy efficiencies through relatively small dwelling size, and extensive use of solar PV and advanced energy efficient technologies. Mexico has focused on passive solar, ventilation and shading and is developing a large number of demonstration projects in preparation for COP 16 in Mexico in November, 2010.
IMAGES: Top – The Capital Markets Partnership launched a series of Green Building Underwriting Standards Bottom – Grameen Shakti (power) offers microcredit loans for the purchase of Solar Panels and High Efficiency Cookers in Bangladesh Financial mechanisms, including lending, leasing and insurance, play a significant role in shaping capacity and demand for ZEH. Financial products should, at minimum, recognize the unique capital costs and operation costs of ZEH in valuation models. Commercial and Multifamily Real Estate The Commercial Real Estate National Consensus Green Building Underwriting Standard ｩ provides a quantitative CMP Green Value Score ｩ showing increased cash flow and reduced expenses. This relates directly to net operating income, the industry measure of a building's investment value. Residential Real Estate The Residential Green Building Underwriting Standard ｩ provides a quantitative CMPGreen Value Score ｩ score showing reduced expenses and increased value. Background on the Standards The consensus Standards were launched by JPMorgan Chase and Wells Fargo Wachovia and unanimously approved on September 2, 2008. The Capital Markets Partnership / MTS is an American National Standards Institute-Accredited Standards Developer.For the capital markets and the building industry, consensus standards have the highest value and are a prerequisite for use and adoption because they substantially reduce risk and uncertainty, and have regulated the industry since 1898.The Standards are part of Wall Street 痴 Capital Markets Briefing Paper: Sustainable Investment Business Case ｩ . Australia, Canada, Japan, South Korea and USA have highly developed financial markets and high relative home prices. Consumers in these countries rely heavily upon lending for home purchases. Green building underwriting standards and financial products for green homes and renewable energy are in development, but not widely distributed. South Korea is unique among these countries in that ownership rates are relatively low, making builder financing and addressing tenant/landlord ‘ s plit incentives’ key issues. Mexico, India and China have less developed financial systems and many low income families still operate on a primarily cash economy. New lending models such as micro-lending are making credit available to these groups.
IMAGE The APP’s report on Building Energy Codes – The US Dept of Energy Commissioned reports for all 7 APP countries describing their building energy codes, enforcement, and future outlook. PDFs Available on the DOE website. Experience suggests that some form of auditing is recommended to ensure designs meet the demands of codes and that construction achieves the design requirements. China and India have both acknowledged that inspection is not keeping up with the pace of development, and enforcement of codes is inconsistent. India’s building energy codes also apply only on larger residential buildings over 1,000 square meters, excluding a significant share of dwellings. Japan has robust energy requirements but does not inspect construction – only design. In Mexico , building inspectors are not licensed by the state or federal governments. Australia , Canada and USA have well development energy labels for products and homes such as ENERGY STAR, Energuide and 6 star for energy efficient products and ENERGY STAR and NatHERS for homes. India is also adopting their own BEE label for appliances.
IMAGES Online and on-site tour elements from Minto’s inspiration EcoHome BOTTOM RIGHT – Energy Labels help consumers choose energy efficient homes and products (US/Canada Energy Star, India BEE ration, Australia 5-star rating, Canada EnerGuide) Building consumer awareness of the benefits of ZEH, particularly lifecycle costs, can generate demand, and will help buyers make informed decisions about what types of housing are possible. Canada, USA and Australia have very high awareness of energy efficiency and increasing awareness of green building, however, these countries also have the highest residential energy consumption per capita in the APP. Japan and South Korea have very well-developed and publicly communicated policies on energy efficiency and renewable energy, however, while consumers in Japan face high energy prices, those in South Korea and more greatly protected by government subsidies. India and Mexico have very low general awareness of ZEH, particularly in low-income areas, however per capita energy consumption is on the lower end of APP countries. China also has low awareness of ZEH, but strong government controls take much of the market driving power out of consumer hands.
Images TOP – All APP Countries are actively involved in creating Local Green Building Councils. BOTTOM – Events such as the Green Building Congress in India are building capacity for the green building industry. There are many organizations actively involved in professional training on the ground in all APP countries. The World Green Building Council (WGBC) has relationships in all 7 APP countries and Mexico. Australia , Canada, India, Mexico and the USA all have full member chapters GBCs influence in the local construction and development industry that ranges from nascent to well established. In Japan , the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT) is leading training courses across the country. National Homebuilding Association in the USA and Canada are increasingly supporting green homebuilding training. In South Korea , the National Institute of Environmental Human Resource Development (EHRD) provides environmental training to approx. 10,000 government and private professionals per year.
IMAGES TOP – Harvard Business Review Ranked Countries Environmental Regulatory Frameworks relative to their economic performance levels. Correlation is high. BOTTOM – The International Energy Agency has a robust searchable directory of renewable energy and energy efficiency policies and programs for many countries, including incentives and tax rebates. There are many ways that government policy can help to encourage ZEH. These can range from building energy codes that mandate performance, to renewable energy feed-in tariffs, to retrofit grants, to accelerated permitting. The APP’s Building Energy Code Report for the US Department of Energy singled out Australia as the leader in environmental policy and building energy code development. In Canada , the province of Ontario has established a robust ‘feed-in tariff’ program for renewable energy generation, with particular focus on rooftop solar. In the USA building energy codes and regulations can vary greatly from state to state. Japan and South Korea have rigorous Rational Energy Utilization Acts targeting strict energy efficiency, but South Korea ’s cap on energy prices can restrict the market pressure to reduce energy consumption. China, India, Japan, South Korea, and USA are all net importers of energy and ZEH could significantly contribute to energy security.
IMAGES Top – Energy Efficiency will not be a priority until basic services can be met. But efforts to build new housing to meet housing shortages present a huge opportunity to integrate ZEH principles. Mexico alone is building 500,000 new social housing units each year. BOTTOM – programs like the University of Texas at Austin and Portland State University’s BaSIC program are teaching locals to build sustainably using locally available and affordable materials. In all APP countries some level of housing shortage is putting pressure on developers and government to provide necessary housing at a low cost. These government-built or government-funded projects represent a great opportunity to tie ZEH into design guidelines. The need for the provision of adequate housing is most serious in India , where an estimated 100 million households lack access to affordable housing and over 50% are not connected to a reliable source of electricity. China and Mexico are rapidly working to upgrade the level of housing for millions of citizens. In Australia , Canada and USA, adequate housing shortfalls are centred on urban social housing projects, in addition to many rural Indigenous Peoples’ communities.
Here is an example of how key issues can be drawn from supporting data and linked to the value chain. Data tables to be added. Grid-tied solar ensures that the maximum amount of energy generated is used to offset other hydro sources. It is critical to work with utilities and grid owners to implement connection. In developing areas where electrical connections do not exist, or where utilities or governments are expanding their grids, optimum designs should allow for grid tied solar. In places that are not targets for grid expansion, models for district energy or locally networked solar could be considered. Only 43% of households in India are connected to the grid. Grid tied rooftop and building integrated solar is growing rapidly in use in Canada due to the feed-in tariff in Ontario, as well as South Korea and Japan , which have well-developed solar PV industries.
Here is an example of how key issues can be drawn from supporting data and linked to the value chain. Data tables to be added. Product availability is a major barrier to ZEH in many parts of the APP. Remote communities and developing nations experience access issues, and small builders in all countries may not be able to obtain small orders of specialized materials. Increasing trade, building local capacity, and supporting retail penetration for providers of alternative technologies can help ensure that developers have access to the materials they need to cost-effectively build ZEH. Canada , USA , Australia , Japan and South Korea all have reasonably good access to most products. Mainstream home improvement retailers are carrying more eco-friendly products. Japan and South Korea are home to industry leaders in solar and building automation but are dependant on imports for materials like cement, certified timber, and steel. Mexico has access to many ZEH technologies and some manufacturing capacity. Retail availability is not well developed.
Here is an example of how key issues can be drawn from supporting data and linked to the value chain. Data tables to be added. An active community will help to transfer knowledge, minimize duplication of efforts and continue to build awareness of the potential for ZEH.
ENERGY SECURITY Historically, energy security has been understood as defence against supply disruption and price instability. Within this mindset, protecting the status quo is paramount. Yet dynamic trends, including the sharp rise in demand from newly industrialising economies, carbon-dioxide (C02) induced global warming and the growth of alternative energy technologies, mean that protecting traditional energy practices will make us far less secure, and less competitive, in the future. This is in addition to the threat that climate change poses to energy infrastructure. ... Anticipated disruption around energy, water and other critical natural resources pose new political, economic and human security challenges. ... Meeting the dual challenge of maintaining stable energy services in the short term, without jeopardising them in the long term, means reformulating ‘ energy security ’ as ‘ securing the transition to a low or no carbon economy ’ . - Lloyd ’ s 360° Risk Insight Sustainable energy security: strategic risks and opportunities for business 7
BUILDING-ENERGY NEXUS Delivered Energy Use by Buildings = 14% Residential, 7% Commercial Primary Energy Use =< 40% (IEA) ELECTRICITY LOSS > in the USA, approx 2/3 of energy used to create electricity is lost through conversion and transmission (Dept. Of Energy)
Energy Security/National Security (risks, threats) Sovereignty – The “Taps” of energy are controlled by foreign parties, over whose governance importers have little control Diplomacy – Less likely to take action against countries with high production (ie. Iran’s Nuclear Program) Scarcity – Countries fighting over remaining supplies held by third parties (China vs. USA) Serious Action – If supply is interrupted, countries will do whatever it takes to get supply back to a required level to avoid economic collapse
Economic Stability While stopping short of debilitating the national security apparatus, the lack of sufficient energy provision to critical domestic networks or infrastructures can cause the breakdown of essential services from healthcare and safety systems to communication, transport, emergency response, and basic utilities. (Cornell, 2009) … oil and gas price spikes can shock the economy – dampen macroeconomic growth by rising inflation and increasing unemployment and by dampening the value of financial assets. (Simon, 2004)
Environmental Unrest Indoor Air Quality - About 37 percent of the world population—largely in India and Africa—still relies on animal dung, fuelwood, and agricultural residues for cooking fuel. - U.S. Energy Information Administration / International Energy Outlook 2010 pg 14
Distributed Energy Systems are more resilient “ ...about 98 percent to 99 percent of all power failures originate in the grid. Thus the original architecture is raising, not lowering, costs and failure rates: cheap and reliable power must now be made at or near customers.” – Amory Lovins, Freakonomics Blog http://freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/02/09/does-a-big-economy-need-big-power-plants-a-guest-post/ August 14, 2003, a series of power surges over a 12-second period triggered a cascade of shutdowns at more than 100 generating plants throughout eight U.S. states and Ontario. The result was the biggest blackout in North American history. 61,800 megawatts of power were lost to over 50 million people. The IESO-administered markets were suspended for nine days. - The Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO) http://www.ieso.ca/imoweb/EmergencyPrep/blackout2003/default.asp#MarketSuspension
This visual illustrates a range of important linkages between buildings and diverse energy security issues. Governments, institutions, businesses and even the provision of human needs depend on reliable access to affordable energy that does not unduly affect our environmental, economic and social well being. Population, productivity and standard of living growth are increasing energy demand in the face of dwindling supplies of traditional energy sources and increasing discovery and production costs.
MUCH OF WHAT MEXICO/CHINA DOING VIA APP PROJECTS IS FOCUSED ON “ ZEH-READINESS ” vs. FULL-ON IMPLEMENTATION…
1. ZERO-ENERGY HOUSING: TIPPING THE GLOBAL MARKET Sustainable Buildings Breakfast Apr 20, 2011 Jeff Ranson
2. A INTERNATIONAL VISION FOR ZERO ENERGY HOUSING Vision: To advance Zero-Energy Housing as the standard for housing worldwide. Mission: Empowering countries to achieve Zero-Energy for all housing.
4. STARTING WITH THE ASIA-PACIFIC PARTNERSHIP ZEH approaches have been successfully demonstrated in diverse projects around the world: CHINA AUSTRALIA KOREA JAPAN CANADA MEXICO USA
5. Avalon Discovery, Canada
6. EcoTerra, Canada
7. Riverdale Net-Zero, Canada
8. Abondance la Soleil, EcoCite, Canada
9. Inspiration, Minto, Canada
10. Inspiration, Minto, Canada
11. AusZEH, Henley, Australia
12. AusZEH, Henley, Australia
13. AusZEH, Henley, Australia
14. AusZEH, Henley, Australia
15. Zero-Energy House, Artistic Homes, USA
16. Zero-Energy House, Artistic Homes, USA
17. Zero-Energy House, Artistic Homes, USA
18. Japan House, Tsuchiya Twoby Homes, Japan
19. Japan House, Tsuchiya Twoby Homes, Japan
20. Japan House, Tsuchiya Twoby Homes, Japan
21. Shanghai Daan, Insightful Healthy Homes, China
22. Shanghai Daan, Insightful Healthy Homes, China
23. Green Tomorrow House, Samsung C&T Corp, South Korea
24. Green Tomorrow House, Samsung C&T Corp, South Korea
25. Green Tomorrow House, Samsung C&T Corp, South Korea
27. Puerto Esmeralda, Geo, Mexico
28. Jardines del Sur, Sadasi, Mexico
29. Vista Real, ARA, Mexicov
30. Vista Real, ARA, Mexico
31. Villa del Rey, URBI, Mexico
32. Villa del Rey, URBI, Mexico
33. Bilbao, URBI, Mexico
34. Vista Real, Vinte, Mexico
35. Vista Real, Vinte, Mexico
36. Vista Real, Vinte, Mexico
37. BUILDING OUT FROM THE APP
38. Shunya, 3C Company, India
39. Casa Eficiente, Eletrosul, Brazil
40. 1. Global ZEH Value Chain Highlights 2. Zero Energy Buildings & Security 3. Collaborative Opportunities MOBILIZING THE MARKET
41. 1. Global ZEH Value Chain Highlights 2. Zero Energy Buildings & Security 3. Collaborative Opportunities
42. Value Chain Analysis Objective: To examine the value chain of home building in the APP countries as it relates to ZEH adoption, with a view to strengthening regional understanding of how market conditions may be influenced to achieve positive ZEH outcomes. ACHIEVING PRO-ZEH OUTCOMES THROUGH VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS Value Chain Defined: THE value chain of a national housing industry is comprised of all activities that influence, and are involved in the development of housing .
43. TAKING A DEVELOPER PERSPECTIVE Framing the Value Chain With new construction being the focus of the ZEH roadmap, this analysis is based on a developer-centred framework. All factors are evaluated on the extent to which they hinder or enable ZEH development. <ul><li>Increase knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Increase availability of technology </li></ul><ul><li>Provide legal frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>Mandate performance </li></ul><ul><li>Promote transparancy </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure compliance </li></ul><ul><li>Lower cost </li></ul><ul><li>Increase demand </li></ul><ul><li>Increase accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Lower risk </li></ul><ul><li>Improve perception </li></ul><ul><li>Increase desire </li></ul>Housing industry factors that support ZEH should :
44. Support Factors Issues that affect the achievement of ZEH throughout the development process BUILDING ZEH: VALUE CHAIN OVERVIEW The Value Chain Map is anchored in key activities of the development cycle - from project conception to product end of life . Activities and influencing factors are organized across two dimensions: Development Activities Key activity areas in the development cycle ( primary ) and ongoing activities associated with the development ( secondary ) A. MARKET FUNDAMENTALS B. MARKET DRIVERS C. EDUCATION D. FINANCIAL ENVIRONMENT E. CODES & STANDARDS F. DEVELOPMENT DRIVERS G. TECHNOLOGICAL CAPACITY H. ASSURANCE CONDITIONS 1. PLANNING 2. DESIGN 3. CONSTRUCTION 4. SALES 5. OPERATION 6. RE-SALES 7. RETRO-FITS 8. DEMOLITION
45. KEY ISSUE AREA: “ LOCALIZED BUILDING APPROACHES ” Global ZEH market transformation can be driven by following proven design approaches “ the path to zero energy ” that are implemented through technologies and building approaches that suit local market conditions. Passive design principles High performance envelope Energy efficient appliances & equipment Renewable energy generation PATH TO COST EFFECTIVE ZEH
51. KEY VALUE CHAIN ISSUE AREAS <ul><li>LOCALIZED BUILDING APPROACHES </li></ul><ul><li>FINANCIAL MOBILIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>BUILDING PERFORMANCE ASSURANCE </li></ul><ul><li>CONSUMER EDUCATION </li></ul><ul><li>TRAINING & CAPACITY BUILDING </li></ul><ul><li>POLICY FRAMEWORKS </li></ul><ul><li>ADEQUATE HOUSING </li></ul><ul><li>INFRASTRUCTURE INTEGRATION </li></ul><ul><li>FACILITATING PROCUREMENT </li></ul><ul><li>RECOGNIZING SUCCESS </li></ul><ul><li>10 distinct ISSUE AREAS for knowledge sharing and collaboration emerged from the value chain analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>MOBILIZATION TACTICS for advancing ZEH may involve leading new programs, supporting existing efforts, or creating partnerships with external organizations. </li></ul>
52. KEY ISSUE #1: LOCALIZED BUILDING APPROACHES <ul><li>OPPORTUNITY AREAS </li></ul><ul><li>Support innovation for localized ZEH approaches and technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on cost reduction of ZEH to increase affordability. </li></ul><ul><li>Continue to develop regional best-practices and guidelines for ZEH based on measured performance and industry experience. </li></ul><ul><li>MOBILIZATION TACTICS: </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot Projects </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Clarifying Regionally-Appropriate Approaches </li></ul>Photo: Santa Barbara Garden, Shanghai, China Photo: URBI Hacienda Santorini , Mexicali, Mexico
53. KEY ISSUE #2: FINANCIAL MOBILIZATION <ul><li>OPPORTUNITY AREAS </li></ul><ul><li>Increase capital available to ZEH: construction financing, mortgages, retrofit loans, renewable energy project financing, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the financial carrying costs of ZEH: insurance premiums, loan interest etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Address the “ split incentive ” for rental/leased properties. </li></ul><ul><li>MOBILIZATION TACTICS: </li></ul><ul><li>Green Building Underwriting Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Green Building Lending Products </li></ul><ul><li>Green Leases </li></ul><ul><li>Micro-Financing Solutions </li></ul>Grameen Shakti provides low interest loans for solar installations in rural villages Source: www.powergenworldwide.com The US Capital Markets Partnership has released a Green Building Underwriting Standard
54. KEY ISSUE #3: BUILDING PERFORMANCE ASSURANCE <ul><li>OPPORTUNITY AREAS </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate energy performance auditing and monitoring within residential construction. </li></ul><ul><li>Enforce compliance to building energy codes. </li></ul><ul><li>Improve data transparency around energy usage and costs to influence policy and consumer decision-making. </li></ul><ul><li>MOBILIZATION TACTICS: </li></ul><ul><li>Building Energy Codes </li></ul><ul><li>Building Inspection Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Labelling </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Monitoring & Reporting Standards </li></ul>Led by the US Dept of Energy, the APP produced guides to building energy codes for all 7 APP countries.
55. KEY ISSUE #4: CONSUMER EDUCATION <ul><li>OPPORTUNITY AREAS </li></ul><ul><li>Support market readiness efforts to provide consumers with understanding of ZEH value proposition. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase consumer familiarity with ZEH (i.e. how they look, how they work) to increase buyer demand and confidence. </li></ul><ul><li>MOBILIZATION TACTICS: </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Lifecycle Costing Data </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration Projects & Tours </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Labelling </li></ul><ul><li>Public Promotion/Outreach </li></ul>Source: Minto Inspiration, Manotick, Canada: Virtual and On Site Tours
56. KEY ISSUE #5: TRAINING & CAPACITY BUILDING The Indian Green Building Congress Source: WORLD GREEN BUILDING COUNCIL <ul><li>OPPORTUNITY AREAS </li></ul><ul><li>Provide supporting trades with access to design, construction and maintenance skills necessary to service ZEH approaches across a building’s lifecycle. </li></ul><ul><li>Disseminate best practices and support knowledge transfer to increase adoption of effective construction techniques and technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>MOBILIZATION TACTICS: </li></ul><ul><li>Best Practices Database </li></ul><ul><li>Educational Curriculum Development </li></ul><ul><li>Trade-Oriented Training Sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot Projects </li></ul>National Green Building Councils Full Member Emerging Member Established Non-Member Australia Korea China Canada Hong Kong India Japan Mexico USA
57. KEY ISSUE #6: POLICY FRAMEWORKS <ul><li>OPPORTUNITY AREAS </li></ul><ul><li>Promote aggressive building energy codes and regional energy targets that raise the bar for building energy performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify the value of ZEH for local, regional and national governments, including sustainability, energy security, job creation and housing affordability. </li></ul><ul><li>Support policies and regulatory initiatives that support or level the playing field for ZEH. </li></ul><ul><li>MOBILIZATION TACTICS: </li></ul><ul><li>Policy Development Support </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives, Penalties & Tax Subsidies </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Development Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Autonomy </li></ul>Source: Harvard Business Review, Ranking Environmental Regulation and Performance Source: IEA
58. KEY ISSUE #7: ADEQUATE HOUSING <ul><li>OPPORTUNITY AREAS </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate ZEH principles into new developments aimed at meeting housing shortfalls. </li></ul><ul><li>Create economic opportunities for low-income communities through ZEH applications: micro-financing for solar panel leasing, local construction jobs etc. </li></ul><ul><li>MOBILIZATION TACTICS: </li></ul><ul><li>Social Housing Development Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Affordable Housing Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Social Enterprise Ventures/Micro-Lending </li></ul><ul><li>Local Construction Training/Certification Programs </li></ul>Source: BaSIC Source: WORLD RESOURCE INSTITUTE
59. KEY ISSUE #8: INFRASTRUCTURE INTEGRATION <ul><li>OPPORTUNITY AREAS </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage infrastructure development to provide grid connection to those not currently serviced. </li></ul><ul><li>Support grid connection technologies for renewable tie-in and metering. </li></ul><ul><li>Where grid connection is not possible, support local distributed energy networks and district energy systems. </li></ul><ul><li>MOBILIZATION TACTICS: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Adaptation-Oriented” Infrastructure Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Metering Capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Feed-In Tariff Programs </li></ul><ul><li>District Energy Systems </li></ul>Source: UNESCO Photo: SOLAR POWER METER, from Picasa: reedyoung
60. KEY ISSUE #9: FACILITATING PROCUREMENT <ul><li>OPPORTUNITY AREAS </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate trade of ZEH technologies to improve market accessibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Promote development of local manufacturing capacity for ZEH components and materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Support retail strategies to increase availability of ZEH components for consumers and smaller builders. </li></ul><ul><li>MOBILIZATION TACTICS: </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Missions / Strategic Trade Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Green Building Product Directory/Database </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturer Education </li></ul><ul><li>Retail Green Product Strategies </li></ul>Photo: Building Supply Shop in Athouli, India, from Flickr: Sixtybolts Photo: Container Ship, from Flickr: jdnx
61. KEY ISSUE #10: RECOGNIZING SUCCESS <ul><li>OPPORTUNITY AREAS </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrate the achievement of ZEH stakeholders and identify ZEH leaders. </li></ul><ul><li>Continue to foster issue-specific working groups/collaborative networks across APP countries to advance priority ZEH issues. </li></ul><ul><li>MOBILIZATION TACTICS: </li></ul><ul><li>Online Communities </li></ul><ul><li>Awards/Recognition Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Professional Networks/Directories </li></ul><ul><li>Case Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Media Relations Strategies </li></ul>Sources Top to Bottom: Zeroenergyhousing.org, Treehugger, Net-Zero Energy Home Coalition
62. 1. Global ZEH Value Chain Highlights 2. Zero Energy Buildings & Security 3. Collaborative Opportunities
63. Energy is the foundation of industrialized society. Our institutions, businesses, and the provision of basic human needs depends on a reliable supply of affordable energy… … that does not unduly affect our economic, environmental and social security. THE SHIFTING ENERGY AND SECURITY LANDSCAPE
64. SOURCE: International Energy Agency: http://www.iea.org/subjectqueries/buildings.asp Buildings account for close to 40% of energy used in most countries. Energy demand growth is exceeding production growth, leading to increased supply scarcity. BUILDING-RELATED ENERGY USE: A THREAT AND OPPORTUNITY
65. SUPPLY SECURITY IN A GLOBAL ECONOMY Remaining energy reserves are increasingly separated from end-use. Economic, environmental and social costs of producing additional barrels from difficult environments expected to rise. SOURCE: 2010 OECD/IEA
66. ECONOMIC STABILITY THREATENED BY PRICE AND SUPPLY SHOCKS Price volatility has dramatic downstream economic effects ranging from inflation to housing affordability to the provision of basic services.
67. ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS A LIABILITY TO HUMAN/ECONOMIC HEALTH <ul><li>Supply Side: </li></ul><ul><li>Water pollution from tailings </li></ul><ul><li>Deforestation </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat destruction </li></ul><ul><li>Consumption Side: </li></ul><ul><li>Smog from combustion </li></ul><ul><li>Indoor air quality from </li></ul><ul><li>inefficient cooking </li></ul>Environment-related threats increase the likelihood of civil unrest, regulation, and trade intervention that can further interrupt supply, increase costs and reduce economic productivity.
68. CONVENTIONAL ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE AT RISK Distributed energy systems offer greater resiliency. “ ...about 98-99 percent of all power failures originate in the grid ” - Amory Lovins August 14, 2003 - a series of power surges triggers a cascade of shutdowns: 61,800 megawatts of power are lost to over 50 million people in North America’s largest blackout in history
69. THE ZEB-SECURITY NEXUS Geopolitical SECURITY ENERGY SECURITY ISSUES ZEB MITIGATION OPPORTUNITIES Economic STABILITY Environmental STRESS Infrastructure RESILIENCY Threats from unequal energy source distribution … Disruptions from energy market uncertainty… <ul><li>Strengthen energy independence </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease supply chain risk and source ownership disputes </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease operational risk from price volatility to businesses and consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce public costs from energy subsidization </li></ul><ul><li>Job creation and labour market diversification </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce infrastructure renewal/expansion costs and transmission losses </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize vulnerability to grid-related disruptions and security threats </li></ul><ul><li>Provide power to off-grid areas </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce emissions from energy generation </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize ecological impacts and health effects from energy-related production and use </li></ul>Extraction, production and combustion impacts of energy… Risks from natural, operational, and security shocks…
71. <ul><li>Locate buildings on the Interactive Map . </li></ul><ul><li>Filter by : </li></ul><ul><li>Building Type </li></ul><ul><li>Number of Units </li></ul><ul><li>Size of Development </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity Generation </li></ul><ul><li>Partners may log-in to add and edit their own buildings . </li></ul>MAPPING ZERO-ENERGY HOUSING www.zeroenergyhousing.org
72. <ul><li>View Building Details , including: </li></ul><ul><li>Builder info </li></ul><ul><li>Building Details </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Metrics </li></ul><ul><li>Building Approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Photos </li></ul><ul><li>“ ZEH Score ” </li></ul><ul><li>(% of energy generated beyond the needs of the building) </li></ul>MAPPING ZERO-ENERGY HOUSING (Total energy generated - Total energy consumed) Total energy generated X 100
73. View Country Summary page, which provides at-a-glance information regarding the status of ZEH projects within Partner Countries. MAPPING ZERO-ENERGY HOUSING FPO ONLY
74. PURCHASING FOR ZEH
75. GLOBAL COLLABORATION UNDERWAY Numerous global collaborations are driving the International ZEH Initiative's mission to accelerate the identification of optimal solutions, enhance networking, facilitate technology transfer and strengthen the international branding of zero energy housing globally, including: <ul><li>Developing key environmental metrics to advance new business and financial cases for zero energy home developments internationally. </li></ul><ul><li>GHG (Carbon) methodology and associated ZEH metrics will support ongoing policy, technical research and financial instrument design efforts globally. </li></ul>ZEH METRICS ZEH TECHNOLOGY MAPPING <ul><li>Facilitating a workshop for selecting the most appropriate and adaptable ZEH technologies and developing strategies for overcoming barriers to move forward. Boulder, Colorado. </li></ul>
76. ONGOING COLLABORATIVE OPPORTUNITIES 1. Building networks of existing organizations already working in key areas supporting ZEH development. 2. Fostering enhanced knowledge-transfer between “mature” and “emerging” market clusters to accelerate development trajectories through best-practice sharing and/or country-to-country mentoring. 3. Establishing working groups between nations in similar development phases to advance problem solving through experience sharing and idea exchange around specific issue areas. 4. Augmenting collective capacity to resolve priority issues by dedicating shared, international resources toward solution-oriented research initiatives or programming. Enhanced collaboration to address key ZEH issue areas could manifest through such forms as: