Green Roofs Overview

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Green Roofs Overview

  1. 1. Green Roof Systems What you need to know to implement effective green roofs Kees GoversLiveRoof Ontario Inc Mt Brydges, ON
  2. 2.  Green Roof Basics Extensive green roof systems Evaluating green roof systems Design tips An installation in 4 slides Innovative new greening techniques Questions
  3. 3.  Main reasons for installing green roofs  Stormwater management  Air pollution reduction  Urban heat island reduction  Energy use reduction  Replacement or increase of green space  Roof life extension  Aesthetics  Green roof mandates  Contribution to LEED credits
  4. 4. What makes a green roof work? Plants utilise solar radiation  Photosynthesis creates carbohydrates and O2 from H2O and CO2  Respiration produces plant growth and CO2  Respiration and photosynthesis create transpiration  Transpiration draws H2O and O2 from substrate along with nutrients  Growing medium absorbs and holds H2O and O2 until transpired  Filtration and buffering takes place in the process
  5. 5. LEED Sustainable Sites Credits 6.1 & 6.2 Stormwater Design: Quantity control & Quality control  Storm Water Retention  Storm Water Detention  Storm Water Filtration
  6. 6. Storm Water Retention Defined by the absorptive capacity of Green roof system  Growing media 20-45% by volume  Plants depends on plant type and turgidity  Water retention fabrics  Water retention cups Green roof system auxiliaries  Cisterns
  7. 7. Where does the retained water go? Evapotranspiration  Succulents (facultative CAM)  Grasses (mostly C-4)  Perennials (mostly C-3) Photosynthesis Surface evaporation
  8. 8.  What happens during a drought?  Succulents  Switch to CAM  Reduce evapotranspiration  Cuticles get thicker  Plants physically shrink  Plants loose mass (mostly water)  Death occurs after very long drought  Recovery time from drought: less than 24 hours
  9. 9. Allium schoenoprasum ‘Forescate’Sedum ellacombianum
  10. 10.  What happens during a drought  Grasses (C-4)  Reduce evapotranspiration  Cuticles get thicker  Plants abort flowers and seeds  Plants shrivel up  Plant crown goes dormant  Death occurs after variable fairly long drought  Recovery time from drought: up to several weeks
  11. 11. Koeleria macrantha Schyzachyrium scoparium
  12. 12.  What happens during a drought  Perennials (C-3)  Reduce evapotranspiration  Cuticles get thicker  Plants abort flowers and seeds  Plants shrivel up  Plant crown goes dormant  Death occurs after variable length drought  Recovery time from drought: weeks to months
  13. 13. Penstemon digitalis Aquilegia canadensis
  14. 14.  Stormwater detention and filtration  Effectiveness depends on  Stormwater retention  Rainfall intensity  Saturated conductivity of growing medium  Plant density  Denser plantings prevent surface runoff
  15. 15.  Storm water quality improvement  Buffers water pH  Filters pollutants  Organic compounds  Heavy metals  Particulate matter
  16. 16. Reduction by deposition on foliage Particularly effective for  Particulates  NO, NO22011 Lancaster University Study Particulates up to 60% reduction NO, NO2 up to 40% reduction
  17. 17. Sustainable Sites credit 7.2 Heat island Effect: RoofLower roof temperatures  Reduced heat transfer into buildings  Lower HVAC loads  Reduced roofing membrane stress  Improved photo voltaic cell performance  Lower temperatures above the roof
  18. 18. How does a green roof compare to a white roof?  Lower surface temperature in the summer sun  Higher temperature in the winter  Effectiveness does not depend on cleanliness  Does not cause glare  Does not bounce solar radiation to other surfaces  Does not deteriorate under UV light
  19. 19. Intensive ExtensiveGrowing medium depth 300mm and deeper 65mm to 150mmSaturated load 400 kg/m2 and over 50 – 250 kg/m2Plants Trees and shrubs Succulents, grasses, perennialsMaintenance High lowIrrigation Always Depends on design
  20. 20.  Four critical factors  Drainage  Growing medium  Plants  Plant coverageNothing else matters  A stressed green roof doesn’t function properly!  A dead green roof doesn’t function !!!!
  21. 21.  Built in place systems Pre-grown blankets Modules Hybrid Modules Stoney Creek Library London
  22. 22. • Built up system• Hand planted• Slow growing due to heat and cold• Vulnerable to weeds• High maintenance 27
  23. 23. Ottawa, ON, 1 season oldGrand Rapids, MI 1 yr old
  24. 24. • Takes a long time to grow in• Mini monocultures of deciduous plants leave soil exposed• Lacks succession in design 29
  25. 25. CMC GatineauMEC 1998 Mature built in place green roofs
  26. 26. Blanket installation Blanket system assembly
  27. 27. Blankets as part of a built in place system
  28. 28. What industry wide protocols exist? 5 ASTM Standards (All based on German FLL Standard)  ASTM E2396-05 standard test method for saturated permeability of granular drainage media  ASTME2397-05 Standard practice for determination of dead loads and live loads associated with green roof systems  ASTM E2398-05 Standard Test method for water capture and media retention of geocomposite drain layers for green roof systems  ASTM E2399-05 Standard Test method for maximum media Density for dead load analysis of green roof systems  ASTM E2400-06 Standard guide for selection, installation and maintenance of green roof systems
  29. 29.  Toronto Green Roof Standard  Only comprehensive enforceable green roof standard in North America FM Global approvals standard 4477 for vegetative roof systems FLL Guideline for the planning, execution and upkeep of green roof sites, release 2008
  30. 30.  Drainage Growing Media Plant Selections Edge effect Irrigation Wind uplift performance Maintenance requirements
  31. 31. Typical drainage layersFor built in place
  32. 32. Typical drain layer used under mats
  33. 33. Engineered growing medium •Designed to remain on the roof, very durable •No stabilizing agents should be needed •No short term lightweight fillers •No perlite or vermiculite •No horticultural foam or Styrofoam beads •No more than 5-6% organic matter (by pyrolysis test) •No hydrogels (not legal in Canada for growing media)• Falls within FLL Standard parameters
  34. 34. Poor Growing medium choice •Too coarse •Too little organic matter •Tough for plants to establish
  35. 35. April 2010Poor Growing medium choice •Too much organic matter •Poor aeration when saturatedPlants grow too fast initiallyPlants start dying after about 4-5 years May 2010
  36. 36. Very shallow growing medium
  37. 37.  Growing media specifications  Be as specific as you can  Demand an FLL test report  At time of submission  Just prior to installation  For modules at time of filling  Ask for physical samples  Only accept substitutions is they meet the above criteria
  38. 38. Get to know your supplier and their suppliers Plant producer  Quality of plants  Propagation facilities  Production capacity  Handling equipment Delivery equipment (for module suppliers) Installation equipment  Blower trucks  Conveyor belts  Delivery racks
  39. 39. Stock beds
  40. 40. Production Capacity and equipment
  41. 41. Depends on:  Depth of growing medium  Design of the green roof  Intended purpose of the green roof  Irrigation or not
  42. 42. Succulents Grasses PerennialsMedia <75mm With irrigation no NoMedia 75 to 150mm yes With irrigation With irrigationMedia >150mm yes some some Combination plantings are preferred • Better winter survival • Better drought survival • Healthier plants
  43. 43. Plant installation limitations Succulents Grasses PerennialsSeed Takes a long yes some timeCuttings Small window no NoPlugs Spring and fall Spring and fall Spring and fallmats Spring and fall Spring and fall noPregrown modules Above 2 C Above 2 C Above 2 C
  44. 44. 150mm depth, no irrigation• Aster• Solidago• Juniperus horizontalis• Scabiosa• Geranium• Sedums• Alliums• Sempervivums• Calamintha• Nepeta• Agastache
  45. 45. 2006 Timber Press Snodgrass&Snodgrass Best North American book on extensive green roofsRegional LiveRoof Plant Selections Guide
  46. 46. Eglinton West Station
  47. 47. Victoria Park Station
  48. 48. Stoney Creek YMCA & Library, London
  49. 49. Toronto City Hall podium
  50. 50. • Exposed Edges• No soil connectivity• Plants dry out along edges• Plant roots are affected by cold• Slower growth as a result 68
  51. 51. • Exposed plastic and gaps between modules negatively affect plant performance 69
  52. 52.  Michigan State research (to be presented at CitiesAlive) Based on 30 minute irrigation events  Overhead irrigation  25% more water applied than drip or sub  20-30% run-off of total applied  Even distribution  Drip irrigation  25% less water applied  80% plus run-off of total applied  Poor distribution  Sub irrigation  Worse in all respects than sprinkler or drip
  53. 53. Drip lines with 6” spacing (normal is 12”)After 10 minutes After 60 minutes Waste water
  54. 54. Appropriate use of drip irrigation
  55. 55. Drip irrigation failure
  56. 56.  Relative costs and embedded energy  Line spacing  Sub: under entire green roof system  Drip: 300mm spacing between lines  Sprinkler: Up to 12 metre spacing between lines  Installed cost in TO  Sub: $40 -$60/m2  Drip: $20-$35/m2  Sprinkler: $15-$20/m2  Maintenance  Sub: near impossible  Drip: clogged lines need to be replaced  Sprinkler: easy maintenance and malfunction detection
  57. 57.  City of Toronto requires  Wind uplift study of each building according to OBC signed by a professional engineer  Wind uplift pressures in kPa (or psf) 2015 version of National Building code will require wind uplift rating for:  Roofing systems  HVAC units  PV installations  Green roofs  Pavers
  58. 58. How wind uplift pressure is calculated:  Formulas in OBC  Mathematical exercise  Scale wind tunnel testing  Usually done for building models of unusual shape  Full size dynamic testing  Testing on full scale products  Test protocol developed by NRC Canada  CSA A123.21-10
  59. 59.  CSA A123.21-10  Dynamic wind uplift test protocol  Test rating may be required for all green roof systems.  Untested systems will be rated at dry weight of system  Only one system tested to date.
  60. 60. Regent Park Block 24
  61. 61. Mature plants resist scour
  62. 62. Low maintenance planting
  63. 63. Medium maintenance planting
  64. 64. High maintenance planting
  65. 65. High maintenance
  66. 66.  Nutrition Preliminary findings at U of G  Maintenance concentration of macro nutrient important  Source of nutrients is unimportant  Healthiest plants at modest levels of nutrition  Starving plants does not toughen them  Overfeeding plants kills them
  67. 67. Install pavers, edging and irrigation before the plantings
  68. 68. Overhanging roofs require irrigation
  69. 69. Stone Pavers Installed against a South Facing WallPrevent scorching
  70. 70. Roof with Exposed Membrane Roof without Exposed Membrane
  71. 71. Distressed and Dead Plants Due to Excessive Foot Traffic
  72. 72. Severe traffic damage by other tradesAvoidable by proper sequencing
  73. 73. Plant Death Caused by Roof Vent Air stream
  74. 74. Roof Access Point with Stone Pavers
  75. 75. The Blank Canvas •membrane replaced •EFVM installed •Asphalt flood coat applied
  76. 76.  Installation Day 1
  77. 77. Installation End of Day 2
  78. 78. Installation End of Day 4
  79. 79.  Greening can happen anywhere on any scale Exercise due diligence in selection and execution Don’t be afraid of innovative ideas
  80. 80. Contact InformationKees GoversLiveRoof Ontario Inc23078 Adelaide RdMount Brydges, ONN0L 1R0 Canada(519) 245-4039kees@liveroofontario.cawww.LiveRoof.ca Toronto Police Academy

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