EDUCATION - CONSULTING - SOLUTIONS




Water Conservation & Reuse
Greywater Recycling and Rainwater Harvesting


         ...
Overview
Content
• Current Water Situation and Importance of
  Conservation
• Overview of Greywater Recycling
  – Applicat...
Fresh Water Statistics
• Only 2.5% of the water in the World is Fresh Water
• > 1.5% of fresh water is locked in Glaciers
...
Global Water Usage
Statistics
• Water use in the 20th century increased more than six fold,
  and continues to increase ab...
The Great Lakes
• The Great Lakes are the largest system of fresh surface
  water on earth, containing roughly 18% of the ...
Water Conservation
 What are some other ways we can conserve and be more
 efficient in how we use water?



              ...
Greywater Recycling
What is Greywater?
• Greywater is generally known as non-industrial wastewater
  from bathing/showerin...
Greywater Recycling
Water Usage In The Home
Water used in the bathroom accounts for over 60% of the
 water we use in our h...
Greywater Recycling
Benefits
• Conserve Water and Reduce Wastewater
• Save Money
• Reduce Demand on Your Well
• Reduce Loa...
Greywater Recycling
Greywater Recycling is the reuse of greywater in domestic and
  Industrial / Commercial / Institutiona...
Greywater Recycling
When implementing a greywater recycling system some
  considerations must be made.
Considerations
• Su...
Greywater Recycling
Considerations (cont’d)
• Dual Plumbing: Capture/distribution of greywater must be
  done through dedi...
Greywater Recycling
Residential Application: Cambridge, Ontario
System Overview
• Separate drains from Bath/Shower redirec...
Greywater Recycling
Residential Application: Cambridge, Ontario
System Overview (cont’d)
• If there is insufficient greywa...
Greywater Recycling
Residential Application: Cambridge, Ontario
Water Demand / Wastewater Reduction
Calculated statistical...
Greywater Recycling
Residential Application: Cambridge, Ontario
Water Demand / Wastewater Reduction
Based on measured wate...
Greywater Recycling
Residential Application: Cambridge, Ontario
   Measured Water Consumption / Wastewater Reduction




 ...
Greywater Recycling
Residential Application: Cambridge, Ontario
System Cost (Retrofit)
• 2 Story Retrofit – Approximately ...
Greywater Recycling
Savings Perspective

An average family of 4 using a greywater recycling system will
  save between 45,...
Greywater Recycling
Commercial Application: Correctional Facility, Mississippi
System Overview
• Separate drains from Bath...
Greywater Recycling
Commercial Application: Correctional Facility, Mississippi
System Overview (cont’d)
• An electronicall...
Greywater Recycling
Commercial Application: Correctional Facility, Mississippi
System Overview




                       ...
Greywater Recycling
Commercial Application: Correctional Facility, Mississippi
Maintenance Plan
• Alarms monitored daily v...
Greywater Recycling
Commercial Application: Correctional Facility, Mississippi
System Cost
• Total cost of system approxim...
Greywater Recycling
Applications Around the World

Germany
• Hotel Arabella Sheraton in Offenbach, Germany is saving
  app...
Rainwater Harvesting
Overview
• Rainwater harvesting is not a new technology
• Rainwater harvesting was used in ancient Ro...
Rainwater Harvesting
Benefits
• Conserve Potable Water
• Save Money
• Help control / manage stormwater flows
• Provide a p...
Rainwater Harvesting
Rainwater harvesting can provide water for many domestic
  uses and help to manage stormwater flows
A...
Rainwater Harvesting
When implementing a rainwater harvesting system some
  considerations must be made.
Considerations
• ...
Rainwater Harvesting
Considerations (cont’d)
• Storage: Above or in ground storage (i.e. concrete cistern,
  polyethylene ...
Rainwater Harvesting
Commercial Application: Metro Label, Toronto
System Overview
• Catchment Area of approximately 10,000...
Rainwater Harvesting
Commercial Application: Metro Label, Toronto
System Overview (cont’d)
• Sensors were installed in bot...
Rainwater Harvesting
Commercial Application: Metro Label, Toronto
Savings (cont’d)
Measured
• Measured Water Savings durin...
Rainwater Harvesting
Commercial Application: Metro Label, Toronto
Savings (con’t)
• Annual savings of approximately $570 a...
Rainwater Harvesting
Commercial Application: Same Project – Different Location
Savings – Waterloo Region
• Annual savings ...
Rainwater Harvesting
Adoption around the World
Belgium
• National legislation - all new construction to have rainwater
  h...
Rainwater Harvesting
Adoption around the World

US
• Texas has had tax relief for commercial/industrial RWH
  systems sinc...
THANK YOU



EDUCATION – CONSULTING - SOLUTIONS


         519-620-7385
       Geoff@ECOShift.ca
        www.ECOShift.ca

...
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Water Conservation, K Jones, GBF2008

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Water Conservation, K Jones, GBF2008

  1. 1. EDUCATION - CONSULTING - SOLUTIONS Water Conservation & Reuse Greywater Recycling and Rainwater Harvesting Green Building Festival September 2008 Geoff Jones Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  2. 2. Overview Content • Current Water Situation and Importance of Conservation • Overview of Greywater Recycling – Applications / Considerations / Benefits / Case Studies • Overview of Rainwater Harvesting – Applications / Considerations / Benefits / Case Studies Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  3. 3. Fresh Water Statistics • Only 2.5% of the water in the World is Fresh Water • > 1.5% of fresh water is locked in Glaciers • < 1% of fresh water is available through ground and surface water sources 97.50% Salt Water Glacial Fresh Water Accessible Fresh Water <1% >1.50% Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  4. 4. Global Water Usage Statistics • Water use in the 20th century increased more than six fold, and continues to increase about twice as fast as the human population is increasing • There are 1.1 billion people, or 18 per cent of the world's population, who lack access to safe drinking water (WHO/UNICEF, 2005 : 40) • Water consumption in industrialized countries runs as high as 380 liters/capita/day in the United States (USGS, 2004) and 129 liters/capita/day in Germany (Statistisches Bundesamt, 2000) • In developing countries 20-30 liters/capita/day are considered enough to meet basic human needs Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  5. 5. The Great Lakes • The Great Lakes are the largest system of fresh surface water on earth, containing roughly 18% of the world supply. • The Great Lakes support 33 million people, including nine million Canadians and eight of Canada's 20 largest cities. • The Great Lakes support 25% of Canada's agricultural capacity. • Approximately 60% of Canada's fresh water drains north, while 85% of the population lives within 300 kilometers of the southern border with the United States. • Only 1% of the waters of the Great Lakes are renewed each year by snow melt and rain. How much longer will they be referred to as “Great Lakes”? Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  6. 6. Water Conservation What are some other ways we can conserve and be more efficient in how we use water? Greywater Recycling Rainwater Harvesting Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  7. 7. Greywater Recycling What is Greywater? • Greywater is generally known as non-industrial wastewater from bathing/showering, washing dishes and laundry. • Greywater represents approximately 70% of all wastewater from domestic use. • Typically two types of Grey Water are identified. 1. Light Greywater – water from Baths/Showers, Bathroom Sinks and Laundry 2. Dark Greywater – water from Kitchen Sinks and other kitchen wastewater NOTE: Most often greywater is generically used to refer to either light or dark greywater and this classification is often not used Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  8. 8. Greywater Recycling Water Usage In The Home Water used in the bathroom accounts for over 60% of the water we use in our homes Source: Environment Canada Water Use Surveys Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  9. 9. Greywater Recycling Benefits • Conserve Water and Reduce Wastewater • Save Money • Reduce Demand on Your Well • Reduce Load on Your Septic System or Holding Tank • Delay or reduce costly infrastructure updates • Gain LEED & Built Green Points • Reduction in Municipal water treatment and pumping can result in significant reductions in electricity usage • Supply and demand not affected by environmental conditions (i.e. rainfall patterns) Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  10. 10. Greywater Recycling Greywater Recycling is the reuse of greywater in domestic and Industrial / Commercial / Institutional (ICI) applications for flushing of toilets etc. Applications • Toilet Flushing (2006 Ontario Building Code): Reuse of greywater for flushing toilets can reduce potable water use by approximately 30% • Irrigation (Code Permitting): Although not recommended for edible crops greywater is used for irrigation of plants/shrubs/grass in some areas of the world • Other Potential Future Uses (Code Permitting): With appropriate treatment greywater uses can include bath/shower, laundry, and possibly drinking water Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  11. 11. Greywater Recycling When implementing a greywater recycling system some considerations must be made. Considerations • Supply / Greywater Sources: Bath/Shower: Typically sufficient volume to address toilet flushing needs Laundry: Additional filtration for lint may be appropriate Sinks: Generally very little volume of water (not recommended in retrofits) Kitchen: Contains high amounts of food waste and grease/oil (not recommended) Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  12. 12. Greywater Recycling Considerations (cont’d) • Dual Plumbing: Capture/distribution of greywater must be done through dedicated drain/supply lines which are clearly marked to avoid cross contamination with potable water • Filtration: To remove soap residues, soap solids, hair and lint greywater typically requires some form of filtration • Treatment: To prevent bacterial growth and odors greywater typically requires some form of treatment (i.e. Chlorine etc.) • Recirculation System: During periods of inactivity recirculation ensures continued disinfection of stored greywater Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  13. 13. Greywater Recycling Residential Application: Cambridge, Ontario System Overview • Separate drains from Bath/Shower redirect greywater into a 250 liter Greywater Recycling system • Greywater is filtered and then disinfected to kill bacteria and prevent odors • Treated greywater is then provided to the toilets through dedicated, clearly marked, grey water lines • A recirculation timer allows for circulation of stored greywater to ensure continued disinfection • Excess greywater overflows into existing sewage drain Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  14. 14. Greywater Recycling Residential Application: Cambridge, Ontario System Overview (cont’d) • If there is insufficient greywater make-up water is automatically provided into the tank to ensure there is always enough water for flushing • Greywater captured from Bath/Shower is sufficient to address daily toilet flushing needs Maintenance • Wash and rotate filter approximately once a month • Replace chlorine puck every 4-6 weeks Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  15. 15. Greywater Recycling Residential Application: Cambridge, Ontario Water Demand / Wastewater Reduction Calculated statistically • According to Environment Canada toilets represent about 30% of domestic water use in the home (~42 L/d per person) • Potable water and sewage outflow reductions of approximately 76,000 liters per year for a family of 5 • Annual savings of approximately $165 a year at 2008 water rates (based on 7 flushes/person, 6L Toilets, $2.12m3) • Annual savings of approximately $370 a year at 2015 rates (based on current proposed rate increases (13.5% annual) (NOTE: Savings vary based on usage patterns, # people, toilet flush volume, and water rates) Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  16. 16. Greywater Recycling Residential Application: Cambridge, Ontario Water Demand / Wastewater Reduction Based on measured water consumption reduction • Current savings represent a 41% reduction of domestic water use in the home • Potable water and sewage outflow reductions of approximately 100,000 liters per year for a family of 5 • Annual savings of approximately $210 a year at 2008 water rates (based on demand reduction observed after 4 months) • Annual savings of approximately $480 a year at 2015 rates (based on current proposed rate increases) (NOTE: Savings vary based on usage patterns, # people, toilet flush volume, and water rates) Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  17. 17. Greywater Recycling Residential Application: Cambridge, Ontario Measured Water Consumption / Wastewater Reduction Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  18. 18. Greywater Recycling Residential Application: Cambridge, Ontario System Cost (Retrofit) • 2 Story Retrofit – Approximately $1600 (parts and labor) • System Cost approx $2200 • Total: $3800-$4000 NOTE: Total costs can vary based on family size, building design, and many other factors Cost Benefit Analysis (Retrofit) • System payback approximately 18-20 years at 2008 rates • System payback approximately 8 years at proposed 2015 rates Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  19. 19. Greywater Recycling Savings Perspective An average family of 4 using a greywater recycling system will save between 45,000 and 62,000 liters of water per year. That’s enough water to meet the basic needs of up to 8 people for 1 year in a developing country. According to UN Water For Life, in developing countries 20-30 liters per day is considered enough to meet basic human needs. Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  20. 20. Greywater Recycling Commercial Application: Correctional Facility, Mississippi System Overview • Separate drains from Bath/Shower redirect greywater into a 6600 liter Greywater Recycling system • Greywater is used for flushing of all toilets and urinals • 15 Greywater recycling systems serving 1668 beds in total • Greywater is filtered to remove soap solids, residue, hair and dirt • Greywater is disinfected using chlorine to kill bacteria and prevent odors Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  21. 21. Greywater Recycling Commercial Application: Correctional Facility, Mississippi System Overview (cont’d) • An electronically controlled, constant pressure pumping system supplies greywater to toilets and urinals • An independent pump controls recirculation of greywater in the cistern to maintain sufficient levels of chlorine as per local regulations • Excess greywater overflows into existing sewage drain • If there is insufficient greywater the make-up water system automatically ensures there is always enough water available for flushing Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  22. 22. Greywater Recycling Commercial Application: Correctional Facility, Mississippi System Overview Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  23. 23. Greywater Recycling Commercial Application: Correctional Facility, Mississippi Maintenance Plan • Alarms monitored daily via visual drive by inspection • Filters checked weekly and rotated as necessary depending on usage • Fresh water and greywater counters are monitored and logged to track water savings Savings • Savings projected to represent approximately 30% of total potable water • Potable water and sewage outflow reduction estimates of approximately 25,000,000 liters per year Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  24. 24. Greywater Recycling Commercial Application: Correctional Facility, Mississippi System Cost • Total cost of system approximately $600,000 (Cost Includes: Units, Installation, and Shipping) NOTE: System costs can vary based on site conditions, geographic location, building design, and many other factors Cost Benefit Analysis • System payback estimated at 42 months (3 ½ years) • System payback for retrofit installations estimated at 52 months (4 1/3 years) Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  25. 25. Greywater Recycling Applications Around the World Germany • Hotel Arabella Sheraton in Offenbach, Germany is saving approximately 20m3/d using greywater for toilet flushing Jordan • Greywater is used for “restricted irrigation” (WHO Standard) which applies to trees and crops that must be cooked before eaten Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  26. 26. Rainwater Harvesting Overview • Rainwater harvesting is not a new technology • Rainwater harvesting was used in ancient Rome and in many other parts of the world centuries ago • Rainwater harvesting is used in many areas throughout the world today • Rainwater is soft water deposited as part of the earth’s natural hydrological cycle Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  27. 27. Rainwater Harvesting Benefits • Conserve Potable Water • Save Money • Help control / manage stormwater flows • Provide a primary source of water where municipal water or wells are not possible • Delay or avoid costly infrastructure updates/maintenance (municipal and/or individual) • Gain LEED & Built Green Points • Reduce high water demand due to irrigation in the summer months Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  28. 28. Rainwater Harvesting Rainwater harvesting can provide water for many domestic uses and help to manage stormwater flows Applications • Irrigation : One of the most common uses for rainwater harvesting in Canada is irrigation. Water demands can increase by up to 50% during summer months. Rainwater harvesting can eliminate or significantly reduce this demand. • Toilet Flushing: Using rainwater for flushing toilets can also reduce potable water use by approximately 30% or more • Other Uses: It is also possible to use Rainwater in some areas for domestic uses such as bath/shower, laundry, dishwashing and with appropriate treatment, drinking water (always check local codes) Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  29. 29. Rainwater Harvesting When implementing a rainwater harvesting system some considerations must be made. Considerations • Supply: Rainfall patterns (supply) for the area must be assessed • Demand: Application End Uses must be determined • Catchment Area: Roof size and type have an impact on the amount of water that can be captured for a given rainfall • Pre/Post Treatment: Depending on the environment and end use application either pre-treatment/filtration, post treatment/filtration, or a combination of both may be required to maintain/improve water quality Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  30. 30. Rainwater Harvesting Considerations (cont’d) • Storage: Above or in ground storage (i.e. concrete cistern, polyethylene cistern, bladder tanks etc.) • Overflow: During overflow events design must ensure excess rainwater is properly managed • Dual Plumbing: Rainwater must be delivered through clearly marked dedicated supply lines to avoid cross contamination with potable water systems • Make-Up Water: Depending on the application it maybe necessary to provide make-up water to ensure the system doesn’t run dry (if supply is critical to end use) Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  31. 31. Rainwater Harvesting Commercial Application: Metro Label, Toronto System Overview • Catchment Area of approximately 10,000 sqft (968m2) • Rainwater Cistern capacity of 18m3 (18,000 liters) • Rainwater is used to supply 6 toilets (3/6 liter dual flush) and 1 of 2 hose bibs for light irrigation (primary irrigation is handled via an irrigation system connected to municipal water) • Flow meters were installed on both the municipal potable water line and one on the cistern water supply line to allow for demand / usage monitoring Source: TRCA May 2008 – Performance and Evaluation of Rainwater Harvesting System Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  32. 32. Rainwater Harvesting Commercial Application: Metro Label, Toronto System Overview (cont’d) • Sensors were installed in both the drawdown and sedimentation tank to monitor water levels • Estimated Total Demand: 728 L/d Women, 243 L/d Men (waterless urinals), 101 L/d hose bib = 1060 L/d Savings Calculated • Water savings calculated at 327 m3/yr during a year with normal precipitation (~798mm) • Reduction in Stormwater Run-off of approximately 42% • Reduction in municipal water use of approximately 89% Source: TRCA May 2008 – Performance and Evaluation of Rainwater Harvesting System Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  33. 33. Rainwater Harvesting Commercial Application: Metro Label, Toronto Savings (cont’d) Measured • Measured Water Savings during 2007 ranged between 20m3 and 27m3 per month (~1m3 per work day) • Cistern was able to significantly reduce potable water demand, and displace it 100% during some months • Total water saved from October 2007 – December 2007 was approximately 65m3 Source: TRCA May 2008 – Performance and Evaluation of Rainwater Harvesting System Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  34. 34. Rainwater Harvesting Commercial Application: Metro Label, Toronto Savings (con’t) • Annual savings of approximately $570 a year at 2008 rates • Annual savings of approximately $890 a year at 2015 rates (based on current proposed rate increases) Cost Benefit Analysis • System Cost (excluding internal pipework) approx $18,000 NOTE: System costs can vary based on site conditions, geographic location, building design, and many other factors • System payback approximately 32 years at current rates • System payback approximately 20 years at future proposed rates Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  35. 35. Rainwater Harvesting Commercial Application: Same Project – Different Location Savings – Waterloo Region • Annual savings of approximately $755 a year at 2008 rates • Annual savings of approximately $1500 a year at 2015 rates (based on current proposed rate increases) Cost Benefit Analysis • System Cost (excluding internal pipework) approx $18,000 NOTE: System costs can vary based on site conditions, geographic location, building design, and many other factors • System payback approximately 24 years at current rates • System payback approximately 12 years at future proposed rates Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  36. 36. Rainwater Harvesting Adoption around the World Belgium • National legislation - all new construction to have rainwater harvesting systems for the purposes of flushing toilets and external water uses Germany • In Europe, Germany is a leader in encouraging widespread utilization of rainwater catchment systems for domestic supply and other purposes • Germany legalized RWH systems in 1980 and Hamburg was the first city to provide subsidies in 1988 Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  37. 37. Rainwater Harvesting Adoption around the World US • Texas has had tax relief for commercial/industrial RWH systems since 1993 • Texas introduced a sales tax exemption in 2001 for all RWH systems (TRHEC, 2006) • Santa Fe, New Mexico requires RWH systems on all residential buildings greater than 2500sqft (TRHEC,2006, C of A, 2007) Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
  38. 38. THANK YOU EDUCATION – CONSULTING - SOLUTIONS 519-620-7385 Geoff@ECOShift.ca www.ECOShift.ca Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0

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