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Water Conservation, K Jones, GBF2008
 

Water Conservation, K Jones, GBF2008

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    Water Conservation, K Jones, GBF2008 Water Conservation, K Jones, GBF2008 Presentation Transcript

    • EDUCATION - CONSULTING - SOLUTIONS Water Conservation & Reuse Greywater Recycling and Rainwater Harvesting Green Building Festival September 2008 Geoff Jones Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • Overview Content • Current Water Situation and Importance of Conservation • Overview of Greywater Recycling – Applications / Considerations / Benefits / Case Studies • Overview of Rainwater Harvesting – Applications / Considerations / Benefits / Case Studies Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • Fresh Water Statistics • Only 2.5% of the water in the World is Fresh Water • > 1.5% of fresh water is locked in Glaciers • < 1% of fresh water is available through ground and surface water sources 97.50% Salt Water Glacial Fresh Water Accessible Fresh Water <1% >1.50% Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • Global Water Usage Statistics • Water use in the 20th century increased more than six fold, and continues to increase about twice as fast as the human population is increasing • There are 1.1 billion people, or 18 per cent of the world's population, who lack access to safe drinking water (WHO/UNICEF, 2005 : 40) • Water consumption in industrialized countries runs as high as 380 liters/capita/day in the United States (USGS, 2004) and 129 liters/capita/day in Germany (Statistisches Bundesamt, 2000) • In developing countries 20-30 liters/capita/day are considered enough to meet basic human needs Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • The Great Lakes • The Great Lakes are the largest system of fresh surface water on earth, containing roughly 18% of the world supply. • The Great Lakes support 33 million people, including nine million Canadians and eight of Canada's 20 largest cities. • The Great Lakes support 25% of Canada's agricultural capacity. • Approximately 60% of Canada's fresh water drains north, while 85% of the population lives within 300 kilometers of the southern border with the United States. • Only 1% of the waters of the Great Lakes are renewed each year by snow melt and rain. How much longer will they be referred to as “Great Lakes”? Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • Water Conservation What are some other ways we can conserve and be more efficient in how we use water? Greywater Recycling Rainwater Harvesting Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • Greywater Recycling What is Greywater? • Greywater is generally known as non-industrial wastewater from bathing/showering, washing dishes and laundry. • Greywater represents approximately 70% of all wastewater from domestic use. • Typically two types of Grey Water are identified. 1. Light Greywater – water from Baths/Showers, Bathroom Sinks and Laundry 2. Dark Greywater – water from Kitchen Sinks and other kitchen wastewater NOTE: Most often greywater is generically used to refer to either light or dark greywater and this classification is often not used Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • Greywater Recycling Water Usage In The Home Water used in the bathroom accounts for over 60% of the water we use in our homes Source: Environment Canada Water Use Surveys Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • Greywater Recycling Benefits • Conserve Water and Reduce Wastewater • Save Money • Reduce Demand on Your Well • Reduce Load on Your Septic System or Holding Tank • Delay or reduce costly infrastructure updates • Gain LEED & Built Green Points • Reduction in Municipal water treatment and pumping can result in significant reductions in electricity usage • Supply and demand not affected by environmental conditions (i.e. rainfall patterns) Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • Greywater Recycling Greywater Recycling is the reuse of greywater in domestic and Industrial / Commercial / Institutional (ICI) applications for flushing of toilets etc. Applications • Toilet Flushing (2006 Ontario Building Code): Reuse of greywater for flushing toilets can reduce potable water use by approximately 30% • Irrigation (Code Permitting): Although not recommended for edible crops greywater is used for irrigation of plants/shrubs/grass in some areas of the world • Other Potential Future Uses (Code Permitting): With appropriate treatment greywater uses can include bath/shower, laundry, and possibly drinking water Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • Greywater Recycling When implementing a greywater recycling system some considerations must be made. Considerations • Supply / Greywater Sources: Bath/Shower: Typically sufficient volume to address toilet flushing needs Laundry: Additional filtration for lint may be appropriate Sinks: Generally very little volume of water (not recommended in retrofits) Kitchen: Contains high amounts of food waste and grease/oil (not recommended) Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • Greywater Recycling Considerations (cont’d) • Dual Plumbing: Capture/distribution of greywater must be done through dedicated drain/supply lines which are clearly marked to avoid cross contamination with potable water • Filtration: To remove soap residues, soap solids, hair and lint greywater typically requires some form of filtration • Treatment: To prevent bacterial growth and odors greywater typically requires some form of treatment (i.e. Chlorine etc.) • Recirculation System: During periods of inactivity recirculation ensures continued disinfection of stored greywater Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • Greywater Recycling Residential Application: Cambridge, Ontario System Overview • Separate drains from Bath/Shower redirect greywater into a 250 liter Greywater Recycling system • Greywater is filtered and then disinfected to kill bacteria and prevent odors • Treated greywater is then provided to the toilets through dedicated, clearly marked, grey water lines • A recirculation timer allows for circulation of stored greywater to ensure continued disinfection • Excess greywater overflows into existing sewage drain Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • Greywater Recycling Residential Application: Cambridge, Ontario System Overview (cont’d) • If there is insufficient greywater make-up water is automatically provided into the tank to ensure there is always enough water for flushing • Greywater captured from Bath/Shower is sufficient to address daily toilet flushing needs Maintenance • Wash and rotate filter approximately once a month • Replace chlorine puck every 4-6 weeks Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • Greywater Recycling Residential Application: Cambridge, Ontario Water Demand / Wastewater Reduction Calculated statistically • According to Environment Canada toilets represent about 30% of domestic water use in the home (~42 L/d per person) • Potable water and sewage outflow reductions of approximately 76,000 liters per year for a family of 5 • Annual savings of approximately $165 a year at 2008 water rates (based on 7 flushes/person, 6L Toilets, $2.12m3) • Annual savings of approximately $370 a year at 2015 rates (based on current proposed rate increases (13.5% annual) (NOTE: Savings vary based on usage patterns, # people, toilet flush volume, and water rates) Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • Greywater Recycling Residential Application: Cambridge, Ontario Water Demand / Wastewater Reduction Based on measured water consumption reduction • Current savings represent a 41% reduction of domestic water use in the home • Potable water and sewage outflow reductions of approximately 100,000 liters per year for a family of 5 • Annual savings of approximately $210 a year at 2008 water rates (based on demand reduction observed after 4 months) • Annual savings of approximately $480 a year at 2015 rates (based on current proposed rate increases) (NOTE: Savings vary based on usage patterns, # people, toilet flush volume, and water rates) Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • Greywater Recycling Residential Application: Cambridge, Ontario Measured Water Consumption / Wastewater Reduction Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • Greywater Recycling Residential Application: Cambridge, Ontario System Cost (Retrofit) • 2 Story Retrofit – Approximately $1600 (parts and labor) • System Cost approx $2200 • Total: $3800-$4000 NOTE: Total costs can vary based on family size, building design, and many other factors Cost Benefit Analysis (Retrofit) • System payback approximately 18-20 years at 2008 rates • System payback approximately 8 years at proposed 2015 rates Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • Greywater Recycling Savings Perspective An average family of 4 using a greywater recycling system will save between 45,000 and 62,000 liters of water per year. That’s enough water to meet the basic needs of up to 8 people for 1 year in a developing country. According to UN Water For Life, in developing countries 20-30 liters per day is considered enough to meet basic human needs. Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • Greywater Recycling Commercial Application: Correctional Facility, Mississippi System Overview • Separate drains from Bath/Shower redirect greywater into a 6600 liter Greywater Recycling system • Greywater is used for flushing of all toilets and urinals • 15 Greywater recycling systems serving 1668 beds in total • Greywater is filtered to remove soap solids, residue, hair and dirt • Greywater is disinfected using chlorine to kill bacteria and prevent odors Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • Greywater Recycling Commercial Application: Correctional Facility, Mississippi System Overview (cont’d) • An electronically controlled, constant pressure pumping system supplies greywater to toilets and urinals • An independent pump controls recirculation of greywater in the cistern to maintain sufficient levels of chlorine as per local regulations • Excess greywater overflows into existing sewage drain • If there is insufficient greywater the make-up water system automatically ensures there is always enough water available for flushing Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • Greywater Recycling Commercial Application: Correctional Facility, Mississippi System Overview Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • Greywater Recycling Commercial Application: Correctional Facility, Mississippi Maintenance Plan • Alarms monitored daily via visual drive by inspection • Filters checked weekly and rotated as necessary depending on usage • Fresh water and greywater counters are monitored and logged to track water savings Savings • Savings projected to represent approximately 30% of total potable water • Potable water and sewage outflow reduction estimates of approximately 25,000,000 liters per year Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • Greywater Recycling Commercial Application: Correctional Facility, Mississippi System Cost • Total cost of system approximately $600,000 (Cost Includes: Units, Installation, and Shipping) NOTE: System costs can vary based on site conditions, geographic location, building design, and many other factors Cost Benefit Analysis • System payback estimated at 42 months (3 ½ years) • System payback for retrofit installations estimated at 52 months (4 1/3 years) Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • Greywater Recycling Applications Around the World Germany • Hotel Arabella Sheraton in Offenbach, Germany is saving approximately 20m3/d using greywater for toilet flushing Jordan • Greywater is used for “restricted irrigation” (WHO Standard) which applies to trees and crops that must be cooked before eaten Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • Rainwater Harvesting Overview • Rainwater harvesting is not a new technology • Rainwater harvesting was used in ancient Rome and in many other parts of the world centuries ago • Rainwater harvesting is used in many areas throughout the world today • Rainwater is soft water deposited as part of the earth’s natural hydrological cycle Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • Rainwater Harvesting Benefits • Conserve Potable Water • Save Money • Help control / manage stormwater flows • Provide a primary source of water where municipal water or wells are not possible • Delay or avoid costly infrastructure updates/maintenance (municipal and/or individual) • Gain LEED & Built Green Points • Reduce high water demand due to irrigation in the summer months Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • Rainwater Harvesting Rainwater harvesting can provide water for many domestic uses and help to manage stormwater flows Applications • Irrigation : One of the most common uses for rainwater harvesting in Canada is irrigation. Water demands can increase by up to 50% during summer months. Rainwater harvesting can eliminate or significantly reduce this demand. • Toilet Flushing: Using rainwater for flushing toilets can also reduce potable water use by approximately 30% or more • Other Uses: It is also possible to use Rainwater in some areas for domestic uses such as bath/shower, laundry, dishwashing and with appropriate treatment, drinking water (always check local codes) Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • Rainwater Harvesting When implementing a rainwater harvesting system some considerations must be made. Considerations • Supply: Rainfall patterns (supply) for the area must be assessed • Demand: Application End Uses must be determined • Catchment Area: Roof size and type have an impact on the amount of water that can be captured for a given rainfall • Pre/Post Treatment: Depending on the environment and end use application either pre-treatment/filtration, post treatment/filtration, or a combination of both may be required to maintain/improve water quality Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • Rainwater Harvesting Considerations (cont’d) • Storage: Above or in ground storage (i.e. concrete cistern, polyethylene cistern, bladder tanks etc.) • Overflow: During overflow events design must ensure excess rainwater is properly managed • Dual Plumbing: Rainwater must be delivered through clearly marked dedicated supply lines to avoid cross contamination with potable water systems • Make-Up Water: Depending on the application it maybe necessary to provide make-up water to ensure the system doesn’t run dry (if supply is critical to end use) Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • Rainwater Harvesting Commercial Application: Metro Label, Toronto System Overview • Catchment Area of approximately 10,000 sqft (968m2) • Rainwater Cistern capacity of 18m3 (18,000 liters) • Rainwater is used to supply 6 toilets (3/6 liter dual flush) and 1 of 2 hose bibs for light irrigation (primary irrigation is handled via an irrigation system connected to municipal water) • Flow meters were installed on both the municipal potable water line and one on the cistern water supply line to allow for demand / usage monitoring Source: TRCA May 2008 – Performance and Evaluation of Rainwater Harvesting System Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • Rainwater Harvesting Commercial Application: Metro Label, Toronto System Overview (cont’d) • Sensors were installed in both the drawdown and sedimentation tank to monitor water levels • Estimated Total Demand: 728 L/d Women, 243 L/d Men (waterless urinals), 101 L/d hose bib = 1060 L/d Savings Calculated • Water savings calculated at 327 m3/yr during a year with normal precipitation (~798mm) • Reduction in Stormwater Run-off of approximately 42% • Reduction in municipal water use of approximately 89% Source: TRCA May 2008 – Performance and Evaluation of Rainwater Harvesting System Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • Rainwater Harvesting Commercial Application: Metro Label, Toronto Savings (cont’d) Measured • Measured Water Savings during 2007 ranged between 20m3 and 27m3 per month (~1m3 per work day) • Cistern was able to significantly reduce potable water demand, and displace it 100% during some months • Total water saved from October 2007 – December 2007 was approximately 65m3 Source: TRCA May 2008 – Performance and Evaluation of Rainwater Harvesting System Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • Rainwater Harvesting Commercial Application: Metro Label, Toronto Savings (con’t) • Annual savings of approximately $570 a year at 2008 rates • Annual savings of approximately $890 a year at 2015 rates (based on current proposed rate increases) Cost Benefit Analysis • System Cost (excluding internal pipework) approx $18,000 NOTE: System costs can vary based on site conditions, geographic location, building design, and many other factors • System payback approximately 32 years at current rates • System payback approximately 20 years at future proposed rates Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • Rainwater Harvesting Commercial Application: Same Project – Different Location Savings – Waterloo Region • Annual savings of approximately $755 a year at 2008 rates • Annual savings of approximately $1500 a year at 2015 rates (based on current proposed rate increases) Cost Benefit Analysis • System Cost (excluding internal pipework) approx $18,000 NOTE: System costs can vary based on site conditions, geographic location, building design, and many other factors • System payback approximately 24 years at current rates • System payback approximately 12 years at future proposed rates Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • Rainwater Harvesting Adoption around the World Belgium • National legislation - all new construction to have rainwater harvesting systems for the purposes of flushing toilets and external water uses Germany • In Europe, Germany is a leader in encouraging widespread utilization of rainwater catchment systems for domestic supply and other purposes • Germany legalized RWH systems in 1980 and Hamburg was the first city to provide subsidies in 1988 Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • Rainwater Harvesting Adoption around the World US • Texas has had tax relief for commercial/industrial RWH systems since 1993 • Texas introduced a sales tax exemption in 2001 for all RWH systems (TRHEC, 2006) • Santa Fe, New Mexico requires RWH systems on all residential buildings greater than 2500sqft (TRHEC,2006, C of A, 2007) Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0
    • THANK YOU EDUCATION – CONSULTING - SOLUTIONS 519-620-7385 Geoff@ECOShift.ca www.ECOShift.ca Copyright © 2008 ECOShift – 6819109 Canada Inc GBF2008 Version 1.0