sustainable neighborhoods, Scott Demark, GBF2008


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sustainable neighborhoods, Scott Demark, GBF2008

  1. 1. G Sustainable Neighbourhood Planning: Lessons Learned Toronto Green Building Festival, September 10, 2008
  2. 2. Purpose Convey the lessons learned from recent attempts as planning “sustainable” communities VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  3. 3. AGENDA • Halsall‟s Role in Planning • Frameworks to understand “sustainable” communities – One Planet Living – LEED-ND • Lessons - Case study examples • Primary blockers to net-zero • Integrating sustainability into the planning process • Discussion VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  4. 4. Halsall’s Role in Planning • Facilitator • Generalist: High-level strategy in all engineering disciplines • Change Agent to Triple People Planet Bottom Line Thinking Profit VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  5. 5. Halsall Deliverables • Identify and Communicate Sustainability Drivers • Develop the Framework (“Green DNA”) and Precedents • Move team to Commit to Green DNA • Critique/Filter emerging plans against Green DNA • Green Development Strategy – Energy – Water: potable, storm, foul – Buildings and Infrastructure – Transportation – Lifestyles • Connect Developer to Partners • LEED ND VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  6. 6. Frameworks for “Sustainability” • What is a “sustainable neighbourhood”? • Why is it important? • How could you measure it? • Discuss two Frameworks – One Planet Communities and LEED-ND VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  7. 7. Spectrum of Green Developments VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  8. 8. Why do we need to change the way we Plan? Our Ecological Deficit (or Overshoot) October 9 Globally, our Ecological Footprint is 30% larger than what the planet can regenerate… and climbing steadily. VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  9. 9. Context If everyone consumed as much as the average person in Canada we would need 4.5 planets to support us + + + + =? VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  10. 10. Canada 7.5 ha/person Global Capacity 1.8 ha/person VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  11. 11. The Impact of our Planning Decisions Energy Built Env. Agr. Land Forest Total Food 0.4 0 0.9 0 1.3 Housing 0.5 0.1 0 1 1.6 Transport 1 .1 0 0 1.1 50% Consumer Goods .6 0 .2 .2 1.0 Resources in Services .4 0 0 0 .4 Total 2.9 .2 1.1 .6 5.4 (2003 Data) Ecological footprint of avg. Cdn ha/capita Sustainable Level= 1.8 ha/capita VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  12. 12. Planning Legacy VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  13. 13. One Planet Communities • London based NGO: BioRegional • Formed by WWF and BioRegional • BedZed • Greg Searle – NA Director • VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  14. 14. Ten Principles of One Planet Communities VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  15. 15. Ten Principles of One Planet Communities VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  16. 16. 1 Zero Carbon OPTIMIZE ENERGY DEMAND • Insulation levels in excess of Building Regulation minimums • • Footprint: .61 planets / 21% High levels of airtightness with efficient natural ventilation strategies; Using energy-efficient internal lights, external lights and domestic appliances • CHP + energy efficiency + Influencing user behaviour through visible metering and lifestyles program MEET OPTIMIZED DEMAND WITH SUSTAINABLE SOURCES • • green lifestyles = 37% CO2 Maximising use of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) site energy centre through district heating solution Provision for bay water use for cooling in all commercial blocks – ducts provided around cores in all • commercial areas Reduction. Windfarm Offset = Reduce energy demand of white water rafting feature – e.g. Archimedes screw • 8,000 Tons CO2 annually. Offsetting remaining carbon emissions through off-site wind generation to achieve carbon-neutral status VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  17. 17. 5 Local and Sustainable Food Creating demand for local organic food • Encouraging regular farmers‟ market at the public level of the Alsop pier • • Footprint: .72 planets / 24% Encouraging on-site restaurant to use local and organic produce Encouraging food box deliveries through community extranet and drop-off/ pick-up space provided • Local, organic food supply + Extensive coverage of food related issues in community extranet and in the community information centre Food growing activity on site • on-site gardens + windfarm „Orchard Car Park‟ – fruit orchards will form most of the „forest‟ on southern side of boardwalk • offset = Zero food-related Window and balcony boxes provided for each residence to encourage herb growing Reducing net food emissions to Zero • emissions Our wind farm is sized to offset the minimised food related emissions, in addition to transport and energy related emissions VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  18. 18. 9 Equity and Fair Trade • Homes to a wide range of income groups, from eco-studios to luxury penthouses • Amenities for different age groups – from young children‟s play facilities to playing fields and mountain • Invest locally in youth, skills biking for teenagers, to a gym for working people During construction, a set of multi-skilled construction teams comprising local young people could be • development & materials; formed to work throughout the various development phases The construction phase will involve local industry and labour as possible within the overall aims of providing sustainable construction practices • create an inclusive Fair trade retailers such as Co-op, Starbucks and Oxfam will be encouraged to open within the development • community; engage fair The community extranet will provide information on local fair trade retailers, suppliers, organisations and initiatives • trade retailers The community extranet could facilitate „time bank‟ schemes where people offer services eg. gardening, care services, help with shopping etc. to each other in exchange for similar services; the currency is the time spent providing the services VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION copyright 2004
  19. 19. Current OPC Projects VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  20. 20. What is LEED-ND? • LEED for Neighbourhood Development • Certifies development projects based on smart growth, new urbanism, and green building principles. • Projects can be whole, fractions of, or multiple neighbourhoods VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  21. 21. LEED-ND • Currently a Pilot run by the USGBC with 238 projects (24 of these are in Canada) - expected general release in 2009 • CaGBC Task Force is working simultaneously with US pilot to develop the system in Canada in 2010 VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  22. 22. LEED-ND Credit Categories • Smart Location and Linkages – Proximity to water/wastewater infrastructure, housing, jobs, and schools – Conservation of species, ecological communities, and wetlands • Neighbourhood Pattern & Design – Compact, diverse, and affordable development – Walkability, public transit, public spaces – Local food production VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  23. 23. LEED-ND Credit Categories • Green Construction & Technology – LEED certified buildings – Building and infrastructure energy efficiency – Application of LEED-NC credits on a neighbourhood scale (i.e. heat island reduction, construction waste management, stormwater management) • Innovation and Design Process VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  24. 24. OPL vs. LEED OPL: LEED ND: • Very active lifestyles • Concentrates on where, program how, and what you build • Completely non- vs. lifestyle prescriptive • Prescriptive – pre- • Active and collaborative requisites geared to urban partnership model (not infill 3rd party certification) • Certification by 3rd party – • Select few, super-green like all LEED programs projects • Intended to drive market • Very expensive transformation through a range of early adopters VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  25. 25. Lessons Through Case Studies • Rockcliffe Redevelopment • LEED ND: » Point Nord » Batawa • One Planet Commuties » Meadowbrook VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  26. 26. CFB Rockcliffe: Ottawa • Canada Lands Corporation CFB Rockcliffe • DND surplus land • Mixed use development • Cancelled – Native Land Claims Dispute Parliament Hill VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  27. 27. Rockcliffe Redevelopment •4500 residential units •Community Energy Plan •1Mm2 commercial •Grid tied – but near net •Sustainable village concept zero energy • LEED-ND Gold Target Image KPMB VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  28. 28. Rockcliffe: Key Lessons • Team must commit early to a Framework – a decision process, measures, and targets • Municipality needs a champion – politically and at the implementation level – road standards, street lights, maintenance, pipe sizes, density etc. • Local Electric Distribution Company plays a critical role in Energy decisions • Provincial regulations have unintended consequences for alternative infrastructure • Condo Act does not allow developers to tie future owners to investment for sustainability initiatives VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  29. 29. Batawa, Eastern Ontario • Batawa Development Corporation • Former Company Town • Preliminary Design Phase • Eco-Village Concept 2 hrs to Toronto Lake Ontario VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  30. 30. •LEED ND and Principles impacted •Difficult to achieve LEED Prereq. for S.L.L. design decisions •Road Standards – snow/ice •Questionable site – ANSI lands •Transportation •Economic viability 5-10km to jobs – no existing transit •Density vs. Absorption Image: Bousfields/Montgomery Sisam VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  31. 31. Batawa: Key Lessons • Municipality can only make decisions based on lowest cost – Example: Batawa needs water and sewage upgrades. Modifying existing regional plants and connecting with pipes and pumps is more economically viable than local solutions – but relies on unsustainable technologies • 3rd party utility model could work – but developer concerned about potential buyer‟s perception. • LEED ND is not a good „fit‟ for exurban sites • Existing residents excited by Green, but not committed to changes if it affects them VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  32. 32. Pointe Nord, Montreal • Proment Corporation City Centre • Previously Developed • New Bell campus • Primarily residential • Community Design Completed • Phase 1 Building Design Started • 10-year phased Project build-out VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  33. 33. Bell Campus – opens late „08 Residential VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  34. 34. • Developed a Conceptual Community Energy Plan • 3rd Party Energy Provider in place (Corix) • ND has had Minimal impacts on design to date LEED ND • Maximum credit for Neighbourhood Design (density) • SLL P4-challenge • Poor Linkage – but good Transit plan • Appropriate infill – but hard to meet ND requirements VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  35. 35. Point Nord: Key Lessons • Density is critical for alternative infrastructure (central plant) and supports pro-forma • Market absorption of dense form may be a gamble • Is high density the best for the social aspects of sustainability? To be tested, but LEED encourages this with the current point structure • Municipal (Verdun) participation critical for transportation infrastructure and public lands • LEED ND pre-requisites difficult where suburban densities exist, even on an ideal “infill” site like this. VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  36. 36. One Planet Communities: Meadowbrook • Groupe Pacific • On its way to being an OPC, pending further public consultation • Net Zero Carbon and Waste etc. • L‟OEUF with BNIM and Engineers VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  37. 37. Image: L‟OEUF • Plan centered on new commuter train station and associated retail • High Density Residential • Leave maximum amount of Natural Area • If it was LEED ND – Platinum VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  38. 38. Meadowbrook: Key Lessons • BioRegional, WWF (and others) do not accept large- scale Hydro as Carbon Neutral. • Energy systems – Hydro provinces , Manitoba, Quebec and BC selling electricity below cost. Very complicated. • Any energy scheme must compete against 6¢/kWh hydro • Density=Traffic=Fear: NIMBYism (as always) is a powerful force in a democracy. If we are to densify our suburbs, we have to overcome this. • “Green” may be the only way to unlock this development – but the risk/return is questionable. VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  39. 39. General Lessons The Primary Blockers to Near Net Zero Communities: • Economics • Codes VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  40. 40. Typical Developer’s View of Building Green Rate of Return Trad. Dev Green Dev 20% 0 Risk of this Risk development VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  41. 41. Most Developers View of Building Green Rate of How can the developer lower Return their perception of risk? Trad. Dev Green Dev 20% 0 Risk of this Risk development VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  42. 42. General Lessons: Economics • Even if the Developer understands the balance of the Triple Bottom Line - you can‟t count on the consumers or the government to be there. Social Environ mental Social Environm ental Economic Economic VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  43. 43. Economic Considerations • Green or Smart Growth Development is only successful if it sells • Absorption not proven in Eastern Canada, studies show premium for green is not marketable to the masses...yet • Premium for land, cost of green construction, alternative infrastructure – ALL add Risk • “LEED ®” has brand power – possibly a way to ensure a premium VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  44. 44. General Lessons: Codes • Codes do not eliminate risk – they move it in space and time • Codes developed to protect the public have unintended consequences for sustainable infrastructure • Changing codes to improve pedestrian environment difficult • Changing codes for Infrastructure difficult VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  45. 45. Integrating Sustainability into Planning • Sustainability is not an overlay it must be embedded in the planning process • Sustainable communities cost more because they are paying the “true” cost of infrastructure – Accept this and find means to fund. • Integrated Design – including the Municipality, Utilities, and Public • Need visionary developers and political leaders – Example Dockside Green VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  46. 46. Integrating Sustainability into Planning • Regional governments need to study the full life cycle costs of investing in distributed, sustainable infrastructure vs. large centralized systems • Politicians and bureaucrats – take some risk with codes on a pilot basis. We need leaders. • Incremental changes on every planning project increases awareness and acceptance – push the Green agenda on all projects VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  47. 47. Discussion Photos from: SolarRegion Freiburg. Sustainable City – Freiburg. Retrieved on March 31, 2008, from BioRegional. (2008). Sonoma Mountain Village: North America’s first endorsed One Planet Community. Retrieved March 31, 2008, from Sonoma Mountain Village. North America’s First Truly Sustainable Community: Sonoma Mountain Village Arieff, A. (2006). Sustainability Begins at Home. The New York Times. Retrieved March 31, 2008, from VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION
  48. 48. Thank You • Contact me at: • • VISION • DEPTH • INNOVATION