Early Designs Built with:• Manufactured materials• Transported from greater distancesBasic natural ventilation principles arestill used:• Narrow footprints• Operable windowsBegin to rely more on:• Mechanical Systems• Elevators• Electric lighting
Sick Building Syndrome• world oil shortage – 1970• Shift towards saving energy
LET IT BREATH! Y2K & Beyond: Operable Windows Natural Ventilation Shallow Floor PlatesVanDusen Botanical Garden Visitor Centre, Vancouver, BCArchitect: Perkins & Will
Low Energy Buildings North American Building Energy Code Development, December 2011
ENERGY CODES AND INDUSTRY TRENDS: ARE THEY LINKED??
Current StandardsOntario Building Code• SB-10 Supplement (2012) – ASHRAE 90.1 (2010) & ASHRAE 189National Building Code of Canada• National Energy Code for Buildings 2011Toronto Green Building Standard• ASHRAE 90.1 – 2010 / MNECBLEED Canada 2009• ASHRAE 90.1 – 2007
Additional Energy References• LEED – New Release - 2013• New Building Institute Core Performance Guide• EnergyStar Commercial - Under review• CEE (Center for Energy and Environment)• FEMP (Federal Energy Management Program) – Under review• ASHRAE 189.1 and ASHRAE 189.2 - New Release• ASHRAE Building Rating System - New Release• ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guides - New Release• California Green Buildings Standards Code (CALGREEN) - New Release• GBI – Green Building Assessment Protocol for Commercial Buildings - New Release• IECC – International Green Construction Code (IGCC) - New Release
Trends – North AmericaUS DOE Section 201:In 2014 – 2015 ASHRAE 90.1 to be 50%below the baseline (ASHRAE 90.1-2004/IECC 2006)Every three years afterwards to 2030,American Energy Code Trends anadditional 5% reduction each edition.
Trends - ASHRAE 90.1 Improvements in Standards, Advanced Energy Design Guidelines & ASHRAE Board of Director’s Goals
Canadian PerspectiveProvinces with enforceable building energy codes today:• Ontario – OBC / SB-10 Standard (ASHRAE 90.1-2010)• British Columbia (ASHRAE 90.1-2004)No other Province in Canada as of today has an enforceable Commercial Building Energy Consumption Codeadopted in their Provincial Building Codes. Quebec is very close to adopting an Energy Code Nova Scotia is studying the adoption of an Energy Code Manitoba and Alberta are moving towards a commercial building Energy Code
National Energy Code for Buildings• NECB 2011 was evaluated by a consultant and is currently showing a 27% improvement over MNECB-1997• On par with ASHRAE 90.1-2010 with some differences• To be upgraded every 5 years with the intent of aligning with Provincial Building Code Update years
HOW DO YOU DRIVE THE INDUSTRY TOWARDS A CULTURE OF ACCOUNTABILITY??
Rear View Mirror (2008) Measured and Design Model EUIs for 70 LEED medium energy type 120 Actual = Design --> Optimistic Actual EUI 100 models buildings. NBI 2008 80 60 40 Pessimistic 20 models 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Design EUI (kBtu/sf)
Energy Intensity Requirements• Standard European Energy Code Requirement• City of Vancouver: Energy Use Intensity (EUI) (kWh/m2/Year) in energy bylaw for 2016
Energy Labeling of BuildingsEnergy Labeling of Building EnergyConsumption Performance alreadyrequired in Seattle & multiple US Cities
Measurement & Verification• Benchmarking Essential• Building Energy Labeling Compliance• Energy Use Disclosure• Net Zero Energy Buildings – looking beyond LEED®• Living Building Challenge as leading edge standard for sustainability – beyond energy
CAN ENERGY CODES GET HIGHPERFORMANCE BUILDINGS INTO THE MAINSTREAM?
Empire State Building |New York |USA New York Mayor Bloomberg harnessed the green power of Earth Day to unveil a plan that would require NYC buildings – responsible for 80% of the city’s emissions – to undergo regular energy audits and retrofits, as needed, in order to become more energy efficient.
Empire State Building | New York USA• Chiller plant was retrofitted and downsized instead of replaced and upsized• Recommended upgrade or replacement of major building systems;• identified seven more economically viable projects that provided: – overall 3-year payback – 38% energy use reduction. – Reduced cooling load requirements by 33% (1,600 tons) – Reduced peak electrical demand by 3.5 megawatts
Empire State Building | New York USAEnergy Focused Retrofits• Radiator Insulation and Steam Trap Savings: $491,191• Windows Retrofit: $338,508• Direct Digital Controls and Demand Control Ventilation: $858,305• Chiller Plant Retrofit: $675,714• Tenant Energy Management: $386,709• Tenant Daylighting, lighting and plugs: $940,862• VAV Air Handling Units: $702,507Total: $4.3 Million savings to date5% Improvement on guarantee target for 2012
Closing Thoughts …The award winning new project today will operate at the worst it should ever perform… in it’s lifetime Kevin Hydes, 2009
Building projects can take anywhere from 3 to 5 years to go through land purchase,rezoning, and development permit process to turnover.
We need to be looking ahead to Future Proof the Energy Performance of our buildings.
http://www.z2building.com/z2tour.phpIntegral Group - San Jose Office | USACASE STUDIES