Traditional China

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Ancient Chinese Civilization and the First Three Dynasties

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Traditional China

  1. 1. Traditional China Family-Centered and the Four Early Dynasties
  2. 2. Objectives: To enumerate the different contributions and signifcant features of the four early dynasties of China; To compare and contrast the civilization and culture of China to India To emulate Chinese values like fairness, piety and discipline To express verbally their appreciation on the role of the family in the formaton of Chinese Civilization
  3. 3. Enduring Understanding One s reflection or failure in life were as much reflection upon the family as they were upon the individual.
  4. 4. Review Indus Valley Civilization
  5. 5. Review Indus Valley Civilization
  6. 6. Aryan conquest
  7. 7. India
  8. 8. China
  9. 9. One of the oldest civilization
  10. 10. Chinese civilization and culture
  11. 11. What chinese culture and contributions portrayed in the opening ceremony in beijing olympics 2008?
  12. 12. Chinese River valley civilization
  13. 13. What sustained the civilization?
  14. 14. A piece of thread in the mother s hand Up and down the son s clothes it ran One stitch follows another By a mother concerned; Waiting for her son s early return. How can his heart feeble as a straw, Return the sunny warmth of his mother at all
  15. 15. Family-Centered society Ancestor Worship Filial Piety
  16. 16. Chinese family Each person was, first of all, a member of a family. One ssuccesses or failures in life were as much reflection upon the family as they were upon the individual. CONCEPT OF FACE
  17. 17. Traditional Roles in the family Age brought prestige and wisdom The oldest male ruled with unquestioned authority
  18. 18. Famiy Government Father Leader Son Constituents Where did the power come from?
  19. 19. Mandate of Heaven
  20. 20. Mandate of Heaven Is a contract The descendants of the ruler would inherit the authority The mandate ended when emperor no longer discharged his duties
  21. 21. Mandate of Heaven The descendants of the ruler would inherit the authority Is a contract The mandate ended when emperor no longer discharged his duties
  22. 22. Mandate of Heaven Is a contract The descendants of the ruler would inherit the authority Dynasty The mandate ended when emperor no longer discharged his duties
  23. 23. Mandate of Heaven Is a contract The mandate ended when emperor no longer discharged his duties The descendants of the ruler would inherit the authority
  24. 24. ( Sha ) Xia Dynasty Mythical Dynasty The Xia Dynasty was in oral histories,but no archaeological evidence was found of it until 1959.
  25. 25. Mythical Dynasty No More... 1959
  26. 26. Xia Dynasty
  27. 27. Xia Dynasty The Xia were agrarian (farming) people, with bronze weapons and pottery. The ruling families used elaborateand dramatic rituals to confirm their power to govern.
  28. 28. Xia Dynasty shamans (spiritual leaders and communicators with deities)
  29. 29. Shang Dynasty Considered by many historians as the first dynasty of China
  30. 30. Oracle Bones They are the first group of people from China of which written records are found.
  31. 31. Shang Dynasty The Shang worshipped the "Shang Ti." Sacrifice to the gods and the ancestors was also a major part of the Shang religion. When a king died, hundreds of slaves and prisoners were often sacrificed and buried with him. People were also sacrificed in lower numbers when important events, such as the founding of a palace or temple
  32. 32. Chou ( Joe ) Dynasty The Chou began as a semi-nomadic tribe thatlived to the west of the Shang kingdom.Due to their nomadic ways, they learned how towork with people of different cultures.After a time, they settled in the Wei River valley, wherethey became vassals (servants who owe and paytributes) of the Shang.
  33. 33. The Chou (Zhou) eventuallybecame stronger than the Shang, and in about 1040 B.C.E. they defeated the Shang in warfare.
  34. 34. 1. The Chou began a different form of governing, whichwas basically feudal ( meaning few people owned lots of land and controlledthe vast majority of people living and working on it. )2. The landowners were under control of the king.Descent became patriarchal (the father as the authority),3. The Chou also brought their religion with them. Theybanned human sacrifice.4. They practiced the cult of Heaven.5. The worship of sun and stars was the most importantthing.
  35. 35. Cult ofheaven
  36. 36. change in governing style the Chou Dynasty ruled vast lands in China and they need to delegate authority to friends and relatives. Provide army to the leader
  37. 37. threat to central rule Local lords could withhold tax money and build strong military forces, weakening the power of the ruler
  38. 38. Solution Ruler demanded that the local lords pay tribute gifts to show their loyalty. Lords should stay in the capital for certain period of time
  39. 39. Threat from the nomadic tribes from the north Always on the lookout for better grassland for their herds, they periodically tried to invade China.
  40. 40. Northern Invaders 1 advantage
  41. 41. Great wall of china
  42. 42. scholars rise to power Chou moved east and the lost most of their power New group called SCHOLARS arose to fill the void power : capacity to read and write
  43. 43. k ung fu-tzu Latinized name: CONFUCIUS
  44. 44. CONFUCIUS Was not a religious leader Because his writings do not try to answer questions about god or life after death
  45. 45. his basic tenet Individual had an obligations to family and society
  46. 46. Enduring Understanding One s reflection or failure in life were as much reflection upon the family as they were upon the individual.
  47. 47. social and political conditions during confucius time Lawlessness and political uncertainty were contributing to the breakdown of the family and society. People no longer follow their fixed role in society or in their family
  48. 48. answer !  According to Confucius- to return to an earlier time, when society rested with males and elders and proper rules of conduct governed the relationships between people. The need to bring back Law and Order
  49. 49. 5 primary social relationships !  Ruler and Subject !  Father and Son !  Husband and Wife !  Elder and Younger Brothers !  Friend and Friend Objective: The need to bring back Law and Order
  50. 50. 5 primary social relationships Superior Subordinate Ruler and Subject !  For Confucius: Father and Son Superior s Obligation: is to set a ! !  Husband and Wife good moral example for the subordinate !  Elder and Younger Brothers to follow so that someday, he !  Friend and Friend will be able to lead well too. The need to bring back Law and Order
  51. 51. morality in the government !  Leaders should set a good example for the subjects; !  If a ruler is upright, all will go well without disorder. !  Introducing moral merit as a quality for leadership
  52. 52. Moral merit is LEARNED and not INHERITED It made ability rather than wealth or birth the quality that could move people up or down the social ladder.
  53. 53. Who is Lao-Tzu ?
  54. 54. Lao-Tzu Opposite to Confucius Confucius Lao-Tzu Credit society for Blamed society shaping for restricting the the individuals individual freedom
  55. 55. tao te ching Way of Life Lao-Tzu wrote that individual originally lived in harmony in nature, free of rules and regulations and untroubled knowledge. The purpose of life was to regain that naturalharmony by discovering the Tao (Dow) or the Way of the universe.
  56. 56. Tao Is a natural force that is sensed or felt rather than learned from the words of a teacher Many Taoist became hermits and lived i the mountain and forests, seeking harmony with nature.
  57. 57. But confucius disagreed with taoism It is man that can make the way great, not the way that can make the man great.
  58. 58. legalism 3rd school of thought Han Fei-Tzu Principal thinker
  59. 59. Philosophy: 1. Strengthen the Government 2. Less importance-welfare of the people. 3. Those who are helpful to the state will be rewarded; 4. Those who opposed should be punished or eliminated

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