Japan/Asia Surrendered August 1945 after First (and only) use of atomic weapons: August 6 – Hiroshima, August 9 – Nagasaki
Japan/AsiaLoses all territories since 1895General MacArthur oversees drafting of new constitution Emperor looses god-like status (though not war criminal) Japan demilitarized Minimal war crimes (compare to Germany)1951 - Regains independence
Long-standing changesDifference between the west and east would quickly start the Cold War Nuclear weapons complicate issueUnited Nations: works for world peace & improve the lives of the people of the world. (Replaces League of Nations)
Long-standing changes Nationalism and anti-colonialism = desires for independence and self-determination See: India, Africa, Asia Advances in science and technology (synthetic rubber, radar, synthetic materials, jet engines, atomic weapons/energy) New world powers, new threats, new rules lead to … COLD WAR
IRON CURTAINFrom Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in theAdriatic an iron curtain has descendedacross the Continent. Behind that line lieall the capitals of the ancient states ofCentral and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin,Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade,Bucharest and Sofia; all these famous citiesand the populations around them lie in whatI must call the Soviet sphere, and all aresubject, in one form or another, not only toSoviet influence but to a very high and insome cases increasing measure of controlfrom Moscow.
What was the Cold War?A state of economic, diplomatic, and ideological discord among nations without armed conflict after World War II.But, no direct fighting (“hot war”) between superpowers…but in Vietnam, Korea, etc. Why?
Cold War Beginsa non-military battle of diplomacy and propaganda between the United States and Soviet Union- Many of the smaller wars were called proxy wars because the U.S. and U.S.S.R. never fought face to face
U.S. vs. USSR (Soviet Union) U.S. U.S.S.RCapitalism CommunismPrivate property State ownsDemocratic Totalitarian
SimilaritiesBoth the US & USSR: wanted to defeat Hitler wanted their values and economic and political systems to prevail wanted a sphere of influence agreed that capitalism and communism could not coexist believed the other to be a threat to their own existence
DifferencesSoviets thought capitalism brought imperialism and warAmericans thought communism was totalitarian and bent on subjugating other nations
New World Classifications “First World” Countries: Industrialized, wealthy countries (Western Europe, Canada, US, Australia) “Second World” Countries: Communist / Communist-controlled countries (USSR, Soviet-bloc countries, China) “Third World” Countries: Poor, unindustrialized countries that have some sort of natural resource to exploit. (Congo, Iraq) “Fourth World” Countries: Poor, unindustrialized countries that have little- to no resources to exploit (Haiti)
Nuclear WeaponsSoviets began their nuclear program in 1943US hoped to regulate nuclear arms after WWII - but clearly held the advantageSoviets refused to participate, started arms race
The Ideological Struggle Soviet & US & the Eastern Bloc Western Nations Democracies [“Iron Curtain”] GOAL GOAL spread world-wide “Containment” of Communism Communism & the eventual collapse ofMETHODOLOGIES: the Communist world. Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] [George Kennan] Arms Race [nuclear escalation] Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] “proxy wars” Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]
What’s at stake? If a 25 megaton bomb was dropped on downtown San Diego the following would be the result
What’s at stake?12 psi Radius: 6.5 miles Some building foundations left 98% of the population within this area are dead
What’s at stake?5 psi Radius: 10.7 miles Virtually everything is destroyed All single family homes are gone 50% of population is dead, 40% is injured
FIGHTING COMMUNISMCONTAINMENT POLICY: The U.S. would work to stop the spread of communism. 1. Truman Doctrine 2. Marshall Plan 3. NATO and other alliances
4. The Truman Doctrine & Domino TheoryTruman Doctrine: U.S. would aid countries around the world who are fighting communism (like Greece and Turkey).Domino Theory: If the U.S. will not fight communism, then countries will fall to communism like dominos.
The ‘Truman Doctrine’ Truman had been horrified at the pre-war Allied policy of appeasement and was determined to stand up to any Soviet intimidation. The Truman Doctrine in March 1947 promised that the USA “would support free peoples who are resisting subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures”. Triggered by British inability to hold the line in Greece, it was followed by aid to Greece and Turkey, and also money to help capitalists to stop communists in Italy and France. It signalled the end of “isolationst” policies.
The Marshall Plan 1948Plan to aid Europe— in ruins Prevent countries from falling to communists Aid American business$17 billion to 16 countries in Europe (not Soviet Union)
The ‘Marshall Plan’ The Marshall Plan offered huge sums to enable the economies of Europe to rebuild after World War II, and, by generating prosperity, to reject the appeal of Communism. The Soviet Union (USSR) prevented Eastern European countries from receiving American money.
NATO vs. WARSAW PACTNorth Atlantic Treaty Organization: defense alliance among U.S. and Europe against the Soviet Union. Still exists.Warsaw Pact: Defense alliance among Soviet Union and its satellite governments in Eastern Europe.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization(1949) United States Luxemburg Belgium Netherlands Britain Norway Canada Portugal Denmark 1952: Greece & France Turkey 1955: West Germany Iceland 1983: Spain Italy
Warsaw Pact (1955) } U. S. S. R. } East Germany } Albania } Hungary } Bulgaria } Poland } Czechoslovakia } Rumania
Post War Japan: U.S. occupied – under General MacArthur New constitution Democracy with Emperor as figurehead Rebuild economy Abolished army and navy
The Red Scare Intense fear of Communists taking over U.S. China became a Communist country in 1949. Soviets developed an atomic bomb in 1949. Rosenbergs convicted of selling atomic secrets to Soviet Union. Executed 1953.
Korean War [1950-1953]Kim Il-Sung Syngman Rhee“Domino Theory”
MacArthur at Inchon landing• U.S. General Douglas MacArthur led the U.N. force,approximately 80% of which were U.S. soldiers.
Korean War, 1950-53 Divided north and south at 38th parallel at end of WWII. In 1950, Communist North Korea invaded South Korea. The U.S. and United Nations, aided the South; China aided the North Koreans. Treaty signed in 1953, keeping dividing line at 38th parallel (still today). 33,000 American soldiers died, 100,000 wounded.
Ending the War:U.N. troops regained South Korea by March of 1951.• Gen. MacArthur wanted to attack China with supportof Chinese nationalists.• President Truman disagreed with MacArthur aboutattacking China.
• Truman fired MacArthur for defying him by publiclytaunting and threatening the Chinese.
Space Race Began when Soviets beat the U.S. into space Soviet satellite Sputnik launched in 1957 Explorer I, the first U.S. satellite, was launched in 1958. The National Defense Act of 1958 approved federal funding of education in math, science and foreign languages. Reforms in education –
The Arms Race:A “Missile Gap?” } The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in 1949. } Now there were two nuclear superpowers!
Nuclear Arms Race Hydrogen bomb invented – both U.S. and Soviets had them 1,000 times more powerful than atomic bomb—vaporized an island. Dangers of fallout and radiation Many built bomb shelters!!
Premier Nikita KhrushchevAbout the capitaliststates, it doesntdepend on youwhether we(Soviet Union) exist.If you dont like us,dont accept ourinvitations, and dont De-Stalinizationinvite us to come Programto see you. Whetheryou like it our not, history is on ourside. We will bury you. -- 1956
An Historic Irony: SergeiKhrushchev, American Citizen Who buried who?