A shocked mandarin in Manchu robe in the back, with Queen Victoria (UK), Wilhelm II (Germany), Nicholas II (Russia), Marianne (France), and a samurai (Japan) stabbing into a plate with Chine ("China" in French) written on it.Imperialism in China Smithtown High School WestGlobal History and Geography 10
DO NOW: “Our dynastys majestic virtue has penetrated unto every country under Heaven, and Kings of all nations have offered their costly tribute by land and sea. As your Ambassador can see for himself, we possess all things. I set no value on objects strange or ingenious, and have no use for your countrys manufactures.” - 1793, Qianlong to King George IIIQUESTIONS:1. According to this quote, what was the reaction of the Chinese to possible increased trade with Britain?2. What was the attitude of the Chinese towards foreigners in the early 1800s?
Questions:1. What does Britain want from China?2. What does Lord MaCartney refuse to do in China?3. In your own words, summarize what Qianlong’s scroll stated.
I. In the early 1800s, China had little interest in trading with Western nations.A. Led by the Qing, or Manchu Dynasty self-sufficientB. China was _________________________________________________ a. healthy agricultural economy ___________________________________________________ b. extensive mining and manufacturing industries ___________________________________________________ c. produced silks, cottons, and fine porcelain ___________________________________________________C. Ethnocentric - the belief that ones own group/culture is superior ______________________________________________
II. The only place China allowed foreigners to do business was the port of GuangzhouA. British imported millions of pounds of _______ each year from China teaB. Britain exported goods worth much less opiumC. British smuggled ___________ into China for non-medical useD. Qing Emperor sent a letter to Queen Victoria about the ________ problem. opiumTASK: Imagine you are the emperor of China. Write a letter to QueenVictoria of England. In your letter, explain the opium problem and alsoinclude what you would like her to do about the issue.
Britain’s Response to the Letter E. Britain _______________ did not respond Predict: What do you think will happen next?
DO NOW:A. B. 1. Identify which ship(s) belong to the British, and which belong to the Chinese. 2. Which ships do you think would be victorious in battle? Why?
III. Opium War (1839)A. Battle took place mostly at seaB. China’s outdated ships versus Britain’s steam-powered strong navy Treaty of Nanjing in 1842C. China loses and signs _______________D. ________________: Treaty of Nanjing 1. Ceded the island of Hong Kong to the British _______________________________________________ 2. Extraterritorial rights given to U.S. and other foreign ________________ citizens in 1844 (meaning foreign residents are excused from the laws of a country) 3. Opium trade continued
Questions:1. What was handed over to Western control?2. The clip states that the “emperors were powerless to stop” the opium trade. Why?
IV. Internal ProblemsA. Population in China was rising faster than ___________________ agricultural productionB. Chinese government was corruptC. Opium addiction was rising steadily The population had grown to 430 million by 1850 – a 30% gain in only 60 years.
V. Taiping Rebellion (1850-1862) (Taiping means “great peace”) A. Led by ____________________________ Hong Xiuquan B. Influenced by________________________ Christian missionaries C. He wanted an end to poverty D. Organized an army of peasants from southern China (1 million strong by 1853) Nanjing E. 1853 - captured the city of ________ and declared it his capital F. The Qing regain control in 1864Results: over 20 million lives were lost1. ________________________________________________ much fertile farmland was destroyed2. ________________________________________________
VI. Rule of Dowager Empress Cixi A. Rules China from 1861-1908 B. Committed to traditional Chinese values Video Clip
VII. Other Nations Step In To ChinaA. China had weak military technology and both economic and political problemsB. Many European powers and Japan gain _________________ in China spheres of influence (A region in which the foreign nation controlled trade and investment) Open Door PolicyC. In 1899 the United States declares the__________________ (Policy proposed that China’s door be open to merchants of all nations)
Questions:1. What did the secret society, known as the “Fists of Righteous Harmony” want to do?2. What do you believe was the main motivation of the foreign troops for putting down the rebellion?
VIII. Boxer Rebellion (1900)A. Secret society formed called the ________________________ Society of Harmonious Fists - resented special privileges granted to foreigners and ChineseChristians “Death to the foreign devils”B. Surrounded European section of Beijing shouting ____________________C. Defeated by soldiers from Britain, France, Germany, Austria, Italy, Russia, Results: and U.S. Japan, 1. Boxer Protocol was signed in 1901 (China to pay reparations) 2. Nationalism increased in China 3. Realization that reforms were needed in order to survive