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  • 1. Evolution of Man 2nd Lecture in Social Studies 2
  • 2. Civilization
  • 3. ManBearer of Civilization
  • 4. Evolution is driven by natural selection and mutation and Isolation.
  • 5. CompleteChange Turn-Around Revolutio (Revolution)
  • 6. Mother of man - 3.2 million years ago One fossil discovery above all has transformed views of how we became human. But who was Lucy, and why is she so important to human evolution?Australopithecus Afarensis
  • 7. Lucy was discovered in 1974by anthropologist ProfessorDonald Johanson and hisstudent Tom Gray in a maze ofravines at Hadar in northernEthiopia.
  • 8. Like a chimpanzee, Lucy had a smallbrain, long, dangly arms, short legsand a cone-shaped thorax with alarge belly. But the structure of herknee and pelvis show that sheroutinely walked upright on twolegs, like us.
  • 9. This form of locomotion,known as bipedalism, is thesingle most importantdifference between humansand apes, placing Lucy firmlywithin the human family.
  • 10. Charles DarwinNaturalist
  • 11. The breakthrough in his ideas came in the Galapagos Islands, 500 miles west of South America.
  • 12. ControversyDarwins theory was thathomo sapiens was simplyanother form of animal. Itmade it seem possible thateven people might justhave evolved - quitepossibly from apes
  • 13. Natural Selection 1. Adaptation: all 2. Variation: all organisms adapt to organisms are variable their environments. in their traits.3. Since not all organisms are equally well adapted to theirenvironment, some will survive and reproduce betterthan others -- this is known as natural selection. Sometimes thisis also referred to as "survival of the fittest".
  • 14. Humans have a highly developed cerebral cortex whichis responsible for memory and:attentionperceptual awarenessreasoning and problem solvinglanguageconsciousness.
  • 15. Studies suggest that the shift to bipedalismmeant the upper limbs were free to engage inother activities. This led to a sharp increase inlearning as the hands were used to manipulatethe environment around them.
  • 16. What’s the point bro?Enduring Understanding
  • 17. Homo Erectus HOMO HEIDELBERGENSIS Homo Sapien Homo FloresiensisHomo Habilis HOMO NEANDERTHALENSIS
  • 18. Hominids1 HOMO HABILIS ~ NICKNAME: Handyman LIVED: 2.4 to 1.6 million years ago HABITAT:Tropical Africa DIET: Omnivorous – nuts, seeds, tubers, fruits, some meat2 HOMO SAPIEN ~ NICKNAME: Human LIVED: 200,000 years ago to present HABITAT: AllDIET: Omnivorous - meat, vegetables, tubers, nuts, pizza, sushi3 HOMO FLORESIENSIS ~ NICKNAME: Hobbit LIVED: 95,000 to 13,000 years ago HABITAT:Flores, Indonesia (tropical) DIET: Omnivorous - meat included pygmy stegodon, giant rat4 HOMO ERECTUS ~ NICKNAME: Erectus LIVED: 1.8 million years to 100,000 years agoHABITAT: Tropical to temperate - Africa, Asia, Europe DIET: Omnivorous - meat, tubers,fruits, nuts5 PARANTHROPUS BOISEI ~ NICKNAME: Nutcracker man LIVED: 2.3 to 1.4 million yearsago HABITAT: Tropical Africa DIET: Omnivorous - nuts, seeds, leaves, tubers, fruits, maybesome meat6 HOMO HEIDELBERGENSIS ~ NICKNAME: Goliath LIVED: 700,000 to 300,000 years agoHABITAT: Temperate and tropical, Africa and Europe DIET: Omnivorous - meat, vegetables,tubers, nuts7 HOMO NEANDERTHALENSIS ~ NICKNAME: Neanderthal LIVED: 250,000 to 30,000 yearsago HABITAT: Europe and Western Asia DIET: Relied heavily on meat, such as bison, deerand musk ox
  • 19. Homo HabilisHandyman
  • 20. Evolve in Africa and now worldwideHOMO SAPIEN
  • 21. HOMO FLORESIENSIS Hobbit Went extinct recently.
  • 22. HOMO ERECTUS "up-right man"
  • 23. HOMOHEIDELBERGENSIS Goliath First humans to venture into cold Europe
  • 24. HOMO NEANDERTHALENSISNeanderthal
  • 25. Neanderthal Homo Habilis FLORESIENSISBully in school Homo Erectus Your Ex Homo Sapien Lucy Heidelbergensis