THE COLONIAL EXPANSION 1850-1914 What is it? The political exercised dominance and economical Who? the Capitalistic states: by Europe: Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, Holland, Spain, Portugal and Russia. BUT also USA and Japan Where? Mainly over all Africa, Oceania a large part of Asia and North America. When? From the first half of the XIX Century to the first half of the XX century. But… Why?
1898- The March of the Flag Speech. By senatorCAUSES o FACTORS the USA).Beveridge (future President of What reasons are given in the text?Political, cultural, economical, ideological, social, demographic…?
REASONS or FACTORS Industrialization Increase in productionA) ECONOMICALS and and in productivity Mechanization Overproduction Crisis Companies needed new markets - Where to sell their products - and where to find raw Materials for the factories X 10 For this reason They “encouraged” states and governments to conquer new colonies to impose a commercial monopoly
1849- Northampton Herald Advertisment CAUSES o FACTORS“Urgent. Whoever wishes to come to the wealthy andprosperous lands of Australia, either as a peasant, servant or as a miner, will be provided with a first class freeticket (Immigrant Commission for the Colonies)”Carta de Cecil Rhodes (empresari i aventurer anglès)1895.“Yesterday I went for a walk to the East End (a working class neighborhood) and attended a meeting of unemployeds. What I saw there convinced me more than ever of theimportance of Imperialism (…) We must conquer newcolonies to allocate the excess of population that we suffer. What reasons are given in the text? Political, cultural, economical, ideological, social, demographic…?
REASONS OR FACTORS High increase ofB) DEMOGRAPHIC population in Europe encourage Millions of European citizens A period of overproduction, to leave to the colonies. unemployment, and misery 1850-1914: + than 50 millions) British 17 Population Italians 10 Any 1800 180 millions Germans 5 Any 1900 430 “ Balkans 4’5 Spanish 4’4 Others 13 Emigration to other countries (USA, Canada, Australia, South Africa, North Africa, South America, etc.) was an opportunity for Europe‘s poorest.
Speech to the Parliament by J.Ferry, French Prime Minister ,1884 CAUSES o FACTORS“Gentlemen, in Europe such as it is today, in this competition of the many rivals wesee rising up around us, some by military or naval improvements, others by theprodigious development of a constantly growing population; in a Europe, or rather ina universe thus constituted, a policy of withdrawal or abstention is simply the highroad to decadence! In our time nations are great only through the activity theydeploy; it is not by spreading the peaceable light of their institutions ... that they aregreat, in the present day.Spreading light without acting (…) and seeing as a trap (…), all expansion intoAfrica or the Orient-for a great nation to live this way, (…) is to abdicate and (…) tosink from the first rank to the third and fourth.”Speech by Chamberlain, British Prime Minister, 1895.“I venture to claim two qualifications for the great office which I hold, which to mymind, without making invidious distinctions, is one of the most important that can beheld by any Englishman; and those qualifications are that in the first place I believein the British Empire, and in the second place I believe in the British race. I believethat the British race is the greatest of the governing races that the world has everseen. ” What reasons are given in the text? Political, cultural, economical, ideological, social, demographic…?
REASONS OR FACTORS AND STRATEGIC C) POLITICAL, IDEOLOGICAL… To protect the country’s trading routes and Governments and military men their companies’ policies from foreign competitors. Encourage colonization becauseIt strengthened the nationalist They got medals spirit of the country and promotions and its prestige.
D) OTHER REASONSFOR COLONIALISM THE SPIRIT OF ADVENTURE... 1841-1871- Expeditions across Africa by Livingstone, Stanley,... 1871- Darwin publishes “On the Origin of Species” 1878- Discovery of a passage between Asia and America 1895-1908- Expeditions across Central Asia 1909- Expeditions to the North Pole 1910- Expeditions to the South Pole
From “The Conquest of Civilization” p.114By James Henry BreastedNew York: Harper & Brothers, 1926On the south of the Northwest Quadrant lay the teemingblack world of Africa, separated from the Great WhiteRace by an impassable desert barrier and unfitted byages of tropical life for any effective intrusion among theWhite Race, the negro and negroid peoples remainedwithout any influence on the development of earlycivilization. We may then exclude both of these externalraces from any share in the origins or subsequentdevelopment of civilization.. What reasons are given in the text? Political, cultural, economical, ideological, social, demographic…?
E) Other reasons for Colonialism… or.... ...maybe... JUSTIFICATIONS? E.1) THE CIVILIZING E.2) RACISM MISSION Europeans believed that their The belief that one’s own racecivilization was superior and that was superior to the other races. they had the duty to impose it A belief that could only be proved to the barbarians. exerting some kind of political influence over other peoples
TYPES OF COLONIES Settler Colonies Trading Companies Protectorates The states granted private companies large territories In theory this type of to administer who were only colonies consisted on Europeans settled interested in exploiting andthemselves in the country independent native plundering the natural governments who permanently. resources of the territories. voluntarily demanded They took control of military protection to a The natives worked merely as the territory. slaves for this companies who colonial power. employed racist and In time they became draconian policies. In fact, most of these independence. protectorates became so The army and a military subordinate to the Canada governor used to rule the protecting powers that Australia colony and kept the natives they lost their New Zealand under control. independent statehood. South Africa India Algeria African Colonies Morocco Indo-China Egypt
1.- POLITICALCreation of artificial boundaries 4.- CONSEQUENCES 3.- ECONOMICAL 2.- CULTURALS Exploitation of men and women Acculturation and of their territories for the benefit of the metropolis. Land expropriation and destruction of traditional agriculture. Colonies were forced to trade with the metropolis with the consequent destruction of craftsmanship. The natives had to pay taxes and had to work in the mines or in the plantations
5.- CONSEQUENCESACROSS THE WORLD Increase in International Conflicts Cuba Morocco Crises in the Balkans…
Crises in The Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire until 1878the Balkans fell into Independent territories 1878-1908 decline since 1878. Territory occupied by Austria 1878 Areas of expansion Rússia and tension 908-14 Majority of Serbs Romania Majority of Romanian Sèrbia Many minorities Bulgària The Balkans became a very politically unstable region because many nationalist and imperialist interest concluded there.
The colonial powers also wanted a piece of the cake, specially Austria and Russia. PeaceRussia Austria Great Britain France Germany Balkan peoples Turkish The crises in the Balkans will drag Europe to the First World War..
The Crises in the Balkans (1908-1914): (summary) The Ottoman Empire was falling into decline and the Balkans became a politically unstable region.The Balkan peoples (Serbs, Bulgarians, Greeks, Romanians,...) began to fight against each other to control the region. Meanwhile, conflicts between the colonial powers(specially between Austria and Russia among others) erupted for the dominance of the new Balkan states. These crises will finally drag the World towards the Great War of 1914. For more information (http://www.sparknotes.com/history/european/1871-1914/section9.rhtml )
What was colonialism?Colonial Empires before 1914
Colonies in 1914 America What countries were involved in imperialism in America?Canal de Panamà
Colonies between 1914-19 AsiaWhat countries were involvedin colonialism?
Finally remember thatColonialism was:The political and economical dominance exercised by the capitalistic statesover all Africa, Oceania, a large part ofAsia and North America, from the firsthalf of the XIX century to the first halfof the XX century.