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Prof Dr Anne Bamford- Tread softly because you tread on my dreams: Closing…


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Through the innovative programmes of Ireland’s national cultural institutions large number of people participate in the making and sharing of arts, culture and heritage every year. Extensive bodies of …

Through the innovative programmes of Ireland’s national cultural institutions large number of people participate in the making and sharing of arts, culture and heritage every year. Extensive bodies of research exist that show the benefits of arts education to the child, the school and the broader society. From a range of scientific and cultural fields, there has emerged a clear understanding of the characteristics needed within creative and cultural endeavours and the conditions that support favourable growth of knowledge, skills, attitudes and dispositions in these fields. Despite this, the gulf between policy and practice or lip service and action, have remained large. Having just completed a review of creative arts education within higher education in Dublin, it is clear that there is a gap between the aspirations of policy and of the people and the practices within the formal and informal educational world. It is time to re-think in educational structures in a way that reflects the latest research and the drivers within current and future society.

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  • The remainder of this paper will focus on the last point made – that of a need to determine quality before measuring impact - as this appears to be absolutely crucial in arts research. For example, if 3 people each go to 3 different concerts. The first concert is wonderful, the second average and the third woeful. If one was to undertake impact measurement of the effects of concerts on this cohort (i.e. N=3), the results would probably conclude there was no impact as the effect of the good and bad concert would cancel themselves out. In actual fact, the researcher was probably really seeking to know the effects of good concerts on individuals or groups. If this was so, it is first necessary to define the parameters of quality. These parameters would be applied to the concert to first determine which of the 3 were of good quality, and, once selected, the researcher could then proceed to measure the impact on the 3 people all attending the good concert. Ideally, then perhaps the researcher would benchmark the impacts of that concert on the 3 participants against the impact on 3 people attending the woeful concert. In the arts, it is not possible to commence meaningful impact measurement or evaluation – using any method – without first determining the quality of the experience and how it was received. Given the value of determining quality as a forerunner to being able to effectively ascertain impact, a great deal of emphasis needs to be placed on how, as an arts education community we can develop frameworks for quality to inform the research process. To be quite blunt about this, the international research (Bamford, 2006) showed quite consistently over all measures of impact that if quality of arts or cultural provisions were poor the effect on impact was not – as perhaps had been previously assumed –zero. In fact statistically, regardless of the claimed impact, there seemed to between 17-28% (averaged at around 22%) negative impacts of poor quality programmes. Put crudely, this meant that in a global sense about ¼ of all the arts and cultural education a child receives is likely to have a negative impact (i.e. make them less creative, less confident, less imaginative, attend school less and so on). It could thus be reasonably assumed that much of the impact measurement that has been completed to date has failed to account for this 22% negative effect.
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    • 2. Everyone has the right freelyto participate in the culturallife of the community, toenjoy the arts
    • 3. United Nations, Universal Declaration of Human Rights,10 December 1948. United Nations, InternationalCovenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights,adopted by General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of16 December 1966 and entry into force 3 January 1976.UNESCO, Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity,adopted on 20 November 2001. See,legal instruments. UNESCO, Convention on theProtection and Promotion of the Diversity of CulturalExpressions, adopted on 20 October 2005. UNESCO,Convention on the Protection of the World Cultural andNatural Heritage, adopted on 16 November 1972.UNESCO, Convention for the Safeguarding of theIntangible Cultural Heritage, adopted on 27 October2003.Council of Europe treaty series, no. 199,Framework Convention on the Value of Cultural Heritagefor Society, Faro, 27 October 2005. United Nations,Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging toNational or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities,92nd plenary meeting, 18 December 1992
    • 4. DEFINITIONS OF THE ARTS IN IRELAND• Visual Arts: including fine art, decorative arts• Film & Media: including broadcasting and animation• Design: including fashion, craft, architecture, built environment, spatial,product, fashion and graphic design, design for stage and screen• Performing Arts: including acting, dance, drama, music• Literature and Languages; including creative writing, cultural criticism• Creative Technologies: including communication technologies, gamingand applied technical arts• Cultural and Heritage: including curatorial practice, tourism, artsmanagement, culinary arts and enterprise
    • 5. NOW LET US EXAMINE...• Merit• Worth• Value• Effect• Impact
    • 9. IMPACTImpact falls under some generic areas• Social Impact: Impact on human welfare such as health, education, orsocial exclusion (Jermyn 2001; Matarasso 1997; Mills and Brown 2004;Reeves 2002)• Economic impact: Impact on the individual or community economiessuch as effects on employment or contribution to Gross DomesticProduct (Kalvina 2004; Reeves 2002; Scott 2005; Throsby 2004)• Intrinsic impact: internal impact inherent within an experience such asjoy, imagination, captivation, pleasure, imagination, meaning-making,social bonds or empathy (Mc Carthy et al 2004)
    • 10. TEN ASPECTS OF QUALITY:• Levels of risk taking• Partnerships• Flexibility of organisational structures• Permeable personal and organisational boundaries• Shared and collaborative planning• Detailed reflection and evaluation practices• Accessibility• Utilization of local contexts• Opportunities for presentation/publication• Professional development
    • 11. WHERE?• Private (at home);• Populist (movie theatre),• Virtual (i-pod),• Institutionalised (e.g.schools,galleries/theatres)• Non-designated (e.g. disco,church),• The everyday (e.g. urbanspace)
    • 13. PERSONAL
    • 14. CURIOSITY• Observing a task• Investigating• Asking questions• Seeking related materials• Demonstrating levels of interest• Extending the nature of his/her involvement with people/activities/theprovision• Initiating involvement and interaction• Extending the length of time he/she remains interested in an activity• Interacting and communicating
    • 15. CONFIDENCE• Level of talking during activities• When they approach and ask questions• Initiation of talk with different people• Trying new things – “having a go”• Showing another how to do something• Willingness to interact• If they asked for materials to make/do something• The ease with which relationships are formed and who they are formedwith• The extent to which they use the provision independently
    • 16. INDEPENDENCE• Carry on doing things by themselves• Select activities by themselves• Patterns of play and interaction• Links made between activities and how these are discussed• Initiated planning• Self direction and independent repetition• Cooperative learning and helping one another• Physical bearing and presence• Taking risks• Initiating new ideas• Imaginative use of resources and space
    • 17. CONCENTRATION• Length of time taken at any one activity• Body language in group activities• The degree of interest in an activity• Ability to question or add to discussions• Involvement• Nature of activities undertaken and any changes
    • 18. SOCIAL
    • 19. AN INCREASING ‘SENSEOF COMMUNITY’• Work and play cooperatively• Get involved in group activities• Make connections between events in their lives and at home and atthe cultural space• Make connections between what has happened and what is going tohappen
    • 20. PARTNERSHIPS• Partnerships between differing levels of educational provision – e.g. greatercoordination between schools, FE, institutes of technology and universities• Partnerships between differing sectors – e.g. better connections between theindustrial, cultural and educational sectors• Partnerships between institutions in the same sector and at the same level –e.g. consolidation of undergraduate and post-graduate offers and/or merging ofinstitutions• Partnerships internationally – e.g. consolidation of undergraduate and post-graduate offers and/or amalgamations of institutions across national borders
    • 21. CULTURAL
    • 22. SENSE OF IDENTITY ANDCULTURE• Observations of what they wear and the roles they play• Discussion e.g. How they talk about their home/lives andthe connections they make between their lives andexperiences• The connections that they make between their own beliefsand culture and those of others• Listening e.g. How they speak with each other / staffregarding what they do
    • 23. INNOVATION
    • 24. PILLARS OF INNOVATIONTHE EUROPEAN INNOVATION SCOREBOARD (EIS) BASED ON 29 INDICATORS OF INNOVATION• Human capital• Openness and diversity• Cultural environment• Technology• Institutional and regulatory environment• Creative outputs
    • 25. HUMAN CAPITAL• Hours on arts and cultural education in schools• Number of arts schools per million people• Tertiary students studying in the field of culture• Cultural employment as a % of overall employment
    • 26. ECONOMIC
    • 27. EMPLOYABILITYSurveys show that soft skills such as adaptability were more valuable toemployers than education or qualificationsNESTA have received evidence that suggests the soft skills employers arelooking for are (in order of stated importance):• Communication skills• Team working skills• Confidence
    • 28. CONTEXT• In 2011, the ‘wider arts sector (the arts plus film and video, publishingand libraries, museums and archives) were reported to employ 13,000persons. A broader delineation of creative industries that includesadvertising, radio and television and software in addition to the ‘widerarts’ classification employed 48,000, representing around 7% of totalemployment in Ireland.• A further study reported that the creative industries (including the ‘widerarts’) contributed 2.8% to Irish Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2011.Of this, software constitutes 62% of the Gross Value Added.• In any one year, more than 3300 students participate in programmes thatare uniquely practice or performance-based, creative arts courses.
    • 29. ECONOMIC CONTEXT• A study by McAndrew and McKimm (2010) estimated that there were nearly 5,000professional artists in the Republic of Ireland (ROI), 1,688 librarians, archivists and curatorsand 11,180 software engineers.• The survey showed that half were female, over 40% worked in more than one art form, 30%were born outside ROI and half lived in Dublin.• In terms of education and training, 70% were graduates, of whom 40% had a postgraduate orprofessional qualification (approximately three times more than in the ROI labour force); 70%had received specific education or training as an artist. In terms of earnings, average incomefrom work as an artist was €20,501 for males and €9,789 for females. Both earned a furtheraverage €10,000 from non-arts work, mostly teaching. These earnings (with notableexceptions in the ICT design and media sectors) are considerably lower than for otherprofessional occupations for males and females, taking age and educational qualifications intoaccount The survey did not include craftspeople.• The median is regarded as the better measure as it reflects ‘typical’ earnings: the average israised by the very uneven distribution of the few high fliers. Median earnings for male artistswas €11,148 and for females, €5,952.
    • 30. EMPLOYMENT• The report Economic Significance and Potential of the CraftsSector in Ireland (Indecon, 2010) estimated that in 2009, therewere over 10,000 craftspeople (makers) in ROI working in 1,700craft enterprises, of which 20% were in Dublin. GVA from craftenterprises with more than 3 employees (the way the statistics arecollected) was just under €179 million. The report showed thatthere had been a fall in craft employment over the previous fewyears.
    • 32. PORTRAIT OF AN ARTS-RICH 20 YEAROLDCATTERALL 2009 USA• More likely to enrol in college/highereducation (> 17.6%)• More likely to volunteer (15.4%)• More likely to have strong friendships(8.6%)• More likely to vote (20%)• 10% less likely to not be in eitheremployment or education at aged 20.
    • 33. PORTRAIT OF AN ARTS-RICH 26 YEAROLDCATTERALL 2009 USA,• Continue to do better than people who attendednon-arts-rich schools.• Found better jobs(Arts poor students were 5 timesas likely to reportdependence on publicassistance at age 26.)
    • 34. EDUCATION OUT OF STEP…• Increased effort has to bemade to establishsynergies betweenknowledge, skills andcreativity. With fewexceptions educationalpolitics gets no further thanpaying lip service to theseideas.
    • 35. SCHOOL ARTS EDUCATION• “The second level curriculum is 40 years old. There is a lack of synchronisation betweenschool art and the level needed for entrance to Art College.”• A lack of creative education especially at the second level has a particularly negative impacton excellence at the third level and beyond. Too much time is spent at the third level catchingup on things that should have been done at the second level. Better arts education in schoolswould also free up more expensive resources at the third level so there is significant value-added economic benefit for good early arts education. Visual education in the school is almostnon-existent so later education has to start from scratch. While it was suggested that there isan imaginative primary curriculum, it was noted that for the most part the teachers are notconfident to teach it. For example; “There are no drama teachers in Irish schools. So wherewould children learn the basic skills they need and know if they have a talent or an interest?”
    • 36. SCHOOL ARTS EDUCATION• Ireland also needs to invest more in the continuous improvement of the quality of teaching, therole of research in teacher education, and international cooperation in all of its teachereducation institutions.• Currently, one-year postgraduate programmes for teachers of Art and Design are provided bythe National College of Art and Design in Dublin, by Crawford College of Art and Design inCork (CIT), and by the College of Art and Design in Limerick (LIT). A one-year programme forWood Technology teachers is provided by Galway Mayo Institute of Technology (GMIT). Arecent review of teacher education has suggested that ‘with regard to Art, the Panelrecognises the distinctive Art elements of teacher education programmes for Art. However,based on the principle that a common programme should be followed by all post-primaryteacher education students in each consortium, the Panel recommends that ITE programmesfor Art should be university-accredited and university-based. This means that teachereducation courses in Art should be planned and delivered jointly by personnel from auniversity and the art institute.
    • 37. ETHICAL
    • 38. CHANGES IN THE ARTS• Few of privilege to few of privilege• Few of privilege to many• Many to many• Is there still a place for privilege?
    • 39. Figure Non-Norwegian-speaking background in the cultureschools
    • 40. CATALYTIC
    • 41. BRAIN ACTIVATION• Highly creative individuals had significantlyhigher activation in both the left and rightcerebral hemispheres, specifically in the areasassociated with fluency, originality andflexibility• Higher activation in these areas could berelated to the vivid experience of insight,emotions and perceptions present in highlycreative individuals.• These combined with higher symbolicabilities possessed mainly in the activatedfrontal lobes might enable highly creativeindividual to translate their experiences intocreative works.Rosa Aurora Chavez-Eakle 2009
    • 42. When I make art I feel alive. It is SO good. Itis good to show what you can do. I feel like Ihave a lot to give. I can sing. It is vital to me.I really wish I could give you the words foryour report about just how important the artsare to me, but it is not just about theEnglish. I have the same problem inNorwegian. I really cant say what it means.The arts are beyond words. When I am onstage it comes out through my singing andthrough my dancing. Then you can see whatI mean, but I really want you to capture thatthing you cant describe in your report.Pupil comment made during the study, January 2011
    • 43. PROGRESSION AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENTCREATIVE ARTS LEARNING IS A CONTINUUM BUT…• School arts education• Informal provisions• Further education• Apprenticeships• Graduates• Post graduates• ResearchThere has been inadequate acknowledgement of the needs for arts learning to build upon thelearning that has occurred before it. Excellence in the creative arts is only achieved through acontinued process of consolidation of concepts and skills and by revisiting past learning withgreater levels of analysis and reflection.
    • 45. There seemed to be between17-28% (averaged ataround 22%) negativeimpacts of poor qualityprogrammes. Put crudely,this meant that in a globalsense about ¼ of all thearts and cultural educationa child receives is likely tohave a negative impact
    • 46. THE UNCREATIVE ARTS?• In European culture, certain activities areassumed to be more creative or artisticthan others. Painting a picture, writing apoem, or creating a sculpture is oftendeemed creative, even when performed inan ordinary or mediocre manner.Mathematics, science, or engineering arerarely classed as creative or artistic, unlessthey are done exceptionally well.
    • 48. QUALITY? OR…
    • 49. RECOMMENDATIONS1) Greater focus of learning rather than on courses2) Robust quality assurance and accountability3) Remove the separation between the various tiers (levels) ofthe system4) Greater coherence and consolidation in creative arts offers5) Removing the barriers that prevent flexibility6) Better partnerships with industry7) Graduate tracking8) Coherence and consolidation
    • 50. THINGS TO BE DONE….• Immediately improve collaboration across the arts and media education sector• Develop access transfer and progression agreements between different levelsof education• Examine arts offerings, avoid duplication and develop synergies amongstaff/actors• Conduct more robust workforce and employability analyses• Students in the arts should receive greater education in business and marketingskills.• Collaborations with industry are required to build integrated approaches tolearning within the creative industries
    • 51. THE CLOTHS OF HEAVENHad I the heavens embroidered cloths,Enwrought with golden and silver light,The blue and the dim and the dark cloths Of night and light and the half-light;I would spread the cloths under your feet:But I, being poor, have only my dreams;I have spread my dreams under your feet;Tread softly because you tread on my dreams.W. B. Yeats