McNeill (2007) Diffusion Of Innovation Notes (Draft 01)


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McNeill (2007) Diffusion Of Innovation Notes (Draft 01)

  1. 1. Rogers (2003) Diffusion of Innovation – Notes Jeff McNeill 2007
  2. 2. Generic Process <ul><li>Universal process of social change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Across cultures, innovations, people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Four components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sources or channels of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stages of the innovation decision process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopter characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ No other field of behavior science research represents more effort by more scholars in more disciplines in more nations.” (p.xviii) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Such interactive communication technologies (such as the Internet) may be changing the diffusion process in certain fundamental ways, such as by removing, or at least greatly diminishing, the role of spatial distance in who talks to whom about a new idea.” (p.xix) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Uncertainty, Information, Innovation <ul><li>Uncertainty (p.xx) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The degree to which a number of alternatives are perceived with respect to the occurrence of an event and the relative probabilities of these alternatives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncertainty motivates individuals to seek out information, as it is an uncomfortable state. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information (p.xx) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A difference in matter-energy that affects uncertainty in a situation where a a choice exists among a set of alternatives. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Innovation (p.xx) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generates uncertainty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An idea, practice or object that is perceived as new by an individual or another unit of adoption. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presents an individual an organization with a new alternative or alternatives, as well as new mean of solving problems. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Problem <ul><li>How to speed up the rate of diffusion of an innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Water boiling in Peruvian village </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culturally inappropriate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rejection of change agent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social dimension of innovation ignored </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Diffusion of Innovation <ul><li>Diffusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The process in which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among members of a social system.” (p.5) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ It is a special type of communication, in that the messages are concerned with new ideas.” (ibid) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A kind of social change.” (p.6) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A process in which participants create and share information with one another in order to reach a mutual understanding… a process of convergence (or divergence) as two or more individuals exchange information in order to move toward each other (or apart) in the meanings that they give to certain events.” (pp.5-6) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Communication <ul><li>Signals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shannon / Shannon & Weaver </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Signs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pierce </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shared Understanding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kincaid / Rogers & Kincaid </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Mathematical Theory of Information Information Source Transmitter Receiver Destination Noise Source Message Signal Message Received Signal Select Message Encode Signal Transmit Signal Receive Signal Decode Signal Select Message 1 2 3 4 5 6
  8. 8. Semiotic Theory of Communication
  9. 9. Semiotic Theory of Communication
  10. 10. Convergence Theory of Communication Mutual A Understanding B express Participant A interpret interpret Participant B express
  11. 11. Innovation <ul><li>Innovation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ An idea, practice, or object that is perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption” (p.12) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of them are technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A design for instrumental action that reduces the uncertainty in the cause-effect relationship in achieving a desired outcome.” (p.13) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware aspect “the tool that embodies the technology as a material or physical object” (p.13) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software aspect “the information base for the tool.” (p.13) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ May be almost entirely composed of information” (p.13) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., a religious idea, news event, government policy, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Innovation Process <ul><li>“ The innovation-decision process is essentially an information-seeking and information-processing activity in which an individual is motivated to reduce uncertainty about the advantages and disadvantages of the innovation.” (p.14) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The main questions that an individual typically asks about a new idea include” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the innovation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How does it work? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why does it work? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the innovation's consequences? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What will its advantages and disadvantages be in my situation? (p.14) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Technology Cluster <ul><li>“ One or more distinquishable elements of technology that are perceived as beng closely interrelated.” (p.15) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Innovations diffusing at about the same time in a system are interdependent.” (p.15) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Perceived Attributes of Innovations <ul><li>Relative advantage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;The degree to which an innovation is perceived as better than the idea it supersedes.&quot; (p.15) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compatibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;The degree to which an innovation is perceived as being consistent with the existing values, past experiences, and needs of potential adopters.&quot; (p.15) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Complexity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The degree to which an innovataion is perceived as difficult to understand and use.” (p.16) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does it require new knowledge or skills? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Perceived Attributes of Innovations <ul><li>Trialability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The degree to which an innovation may be experimented with on a limited basis.” (p.16) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does it require irreversable commitment to try it out? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Observability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The degree to which the results of an innovation are visible to others.” (p.16) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More visibility, easier to adopt, e.g. white iPod earbud cable </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Reinvention <ul><li>“ The degree to which an innovation is changed or modified by the user in the process of adoption and implementation.” (p.17) </li></ul>