IPA Chart


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IPA Chart 2005. The International Phonetic Alphabet may be freely copied on condition that acknowledgment is made to the International Phonetic Association (Department of Theoretical and Applied Linguistics, School of English, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124, GREECE).

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IPA Chart

  1. 1. THE INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET (revised to 2005) CONSONANTS (PULMONIC) © 2005 IPA Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Post alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal pb td Ê∂ cÔkgqG / Plosive m µ n = ≠ N – Nasal ı r R Trill | « v Tap or Flap F B f v T D s  z S Z ßΩ çJxVX ©? hH Fricative ÒL Lateral fricative √ ® ’ j ˜ Approximant l  ¥ K Lateral approximant Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant. Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible. CONSONANTS (NON-PULMONIC) VOWELS Front Central Back Clicks Ejectives Voiced implosives i y ÈË ¨u ∫ > Close ’ Bilabial Examples: Bilabial IY U ˘ Î p’ Dental Bilabial Dental/alveolar eP e∏ Øo ˙ t’ ! Close-mid (Post)alveolar Palatal Dental/alveolar ´ ¯ ƒ k’ Palatoalveolar Velar Velar E{ ‰ øO ≤ Ï s’ ò Open-mid Alveolar lateral Uvular Alveolar fricative å œ OTHER SYMBOLS a” AÅ Open ∑ Voiceless labial-velar fricative Ç Û Alveolo-palatal fricatives Where symbols appear in pairs, the one w   Voiced labial-velar approximant » Voiced alveolar lateral flap to the right represents a rounded vowel. Á Voiced labial-palatal approximant Í Simultaneous S and x SUPRASEGMENTALS Ì Voiceless epiglottal fricative quot; Primary stress Æ  ¿  Voiced epiglottal fricative Affricates and double articulations ( kp ts Secondary stress can be represented by two symbols ÆfoUn´quot;tIS´n  ÷   Epiglottal plosive ( joined by a tie bar if necessary. … e… Long Ú eÚ N( Half-long DIACRITICS Diacritics may be placed above a symbol with a descender, e.g. * e* 9 n9 d9 ª bª aª 1 Dental t 1 d1 Extra-short Voiceless Breathy voiced ˘ Minor (foot) group 3 s3 t 3 0 b0 a0 ¡ Apical t ¡ d¡ ≤ Voiced Creaky voiced Major (intonation) group Ó tÓ dÓ £ t £  d£ 4 Laminal t 4 d4 . Aspirated Linguolabial ®i.œkt Syllable break 7 More rounded O7 W tW dW ) Nasalized e) ≈ Labialized Linking (absence of a break) ¶ O¶ ∆ t∆ d∆ ˆ Nasal release dˆ Less rounded Palatalized ™ u™ ◊ t◊  d◊ ¬ Lateral release d¬ TONES AND WORD ACCENTS ˆ Advanced Velarized LEVEL CONTOUR e _ â e ä 2 e2 ≥ Pharyngealized t≥   d≥ } No audible release d} Extra Rising or Retracted high  or e! ê e$ ë  · e· ù Velarized or pharyngealized : High Falling   Centralized e@ î e% ü High + Mid-centralized e+ 6 e6  ( ®6 = voiced alveolar fricative) Mid rising e~ ô efi ï Raised Low Low ` n` § e§ ( B§ = voiced bilabial approximant) rising e— û e& ñ$ Syllabic Lowered Extra Rising- low falling 8 e8 5 e5 Õ ã Non-syllabic Advanced Tongue Root Downstep Global rise ± ´± a± ∞ e∞ õ à Upstep Global fall Rhoticity Retracted Tongue Root