Episode 11: TheMiddleKingdom   J. Marshall 2012
BCE/CE
Power in the Old Kingdom• Djoser, Sneferu, Kufhu: key leaders in the old  capital of Memphis             D                ...
Pepi II (age 6 - 100!)= feeble  = low Nile floods = famine  = decentralized into Lower and  Upper Egypt  = gave 22  nomarc...
First Intermediate Period• Nemtyemsaf II – Pepi’s son  rules only 1 year                               Scenes of starvatio...
Nomarch strength:                                 Mmmm,                                   crazy• Keti dictator of         ...
Intef I “The Great  Overlord of Upper  Egypt”      Son of Ra== 100 yrs civil war (held    strong in Thebes against Antifi,...
Upper Nile RegionIntef II= Humanitarianfamine relief       Abu /
Mentuhotep II                  2010 BCE(Named after Nubian war god)His Theban army attacks Herakleopolis  and reunifies Eg...
Mentuhotep IISolidifies power by replacing  nomarchs with HIS (less powerful)  followers.= Strong centralized government20...
How do we know?Record of rebellion suggests assassination      • Amenemhat I was MentuhotepIV’s vizier        (king’s righ...
Senusret’s story ofAmenemhat:“Blah, blah, blah;  Amenemhat was killed  by dirty dogs, blah,  blah. I am the rightful  king...
What do you          Keep your       mean my ears       friends close      are bigger than       and your      Mr. Marshal...
Senusret: I am a king who attacks to              conquer
Sobekneferu1760 BCEFirst female “king”Ends  Middle KingdomStarts2nd Intermediate Period
fin
 The Podcast History of Our World: Egypt, Episode 11: Visual Notes
 The Podcast History of Our World: Egypt, Episode 11: Visual Notes
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The Podcast History of Our World: Egypt, Episode 11: Visual Notes

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A PowerPoint collection to companion with Episode 11 of The Podcast History of Our World by Rob Monaco

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  • Nomarchs were the semi-feudal rulers of Ancient Egyptian provinces. Serving as provincial governors, they each held authority over one of the 42 nomes (Egyptian: sepat) into which the country was divided. Nome is derived from the Greek nomos, meaning a province or district, and nomarch is derived from the Greek Archon meaning prince or ruler.[1] The nomarchs exercised considerable power. The division of the kingdom into nomes can be documented as far back as the Old Kingdom (in the 3rd millennium BCE) and continued even up until the Roman period.Nomarchis is the modern Greek title for prefect, who rules the nomos (prefecture; nomarchia, his governance).[2]
  • Pharaoh wasn’t yet a term being used.
  • 2080-1976 BCE = civil war
  • Nubia was known to the ancient Egyptians by many names. Throughout Egyptian history it was called 'Kush', 'Ta-sety' (Land of the Bow), and 'the Southern Lands'. 'Nubia' was actually the name given to the land to the south of Egypt during the Roman period.
  • Relief of NebhepetreMentuhotep II (detail), Middle Kingdom, Dynasty 11, ca. 2051–2000 B.C.EgyptianPainted limestone (Mentuhotep: “the One Who Brings Life to the Heart of the Two lands”).CIRCLED: A cartouche is a hieroglyph that identifies a royal name. It is an oval with a line under it. Napoleon’s soldiers thought the symbols resembled the cartridges used in their muskets.
  • Relief of NebhepetreMentuhotep II (detail), Middle Kingdom, Dynasty 11, ca. 2051–2000 B.C.EgyptianPainted limestone (Mentuhotep: “the One Who Brings Life to the Heart of the Two lands”).CIRCLED: A cartouche is a hieroglyph that identifies a royal name. It is an oval with a line under it. Napoleon’s soldiers thought the symbols resembled the cartridges used in their muskets.
  • Photo: ruined pyramid of Amenemhet I at Lisht.
  • notice how gaunt and serious he looks...also notice his big ears. Subtle hint that he hears ALL as king.
  • HYKSOS
  • Pharaoh wasn’t yet a term being used.
  • The Podcast History of Our World: Egypt, Episode 11: Visual Notes

    1. 1. Episode 11: TheMiddleKingdom J. Marshall 2012
    2. 2. BCE/CE
    3. 3. Power in the Old Kingdom• Djoser, Sneferu, Kufhu: key leaders in the old capital of Memphis D S K
    4. 4. Pepi II (age 6 - 100!)= feeble = low Nile floods = famine = decentralized into Lower and Upper Egypt = gave 22 nomarchs(governors)power + greed
    5. 5. First Intermediate Period• Nemtyemsaf II – Pepi’s son rules only 1 year Scenes of starvation• Followed by 17 kings in 20 years = instability and famine• Oligarchy? (a few nobles)Plutocracy? (the wealthy)• Weak kings paid favours to nobles
    6. 6. Nomarch strength: Mmmm, crazy• Keti dictator of guy, myfa vorite Herakleopolis= strong ruler, but• Expanded territory• Coup d’etat on king at ThebesCoup d-etat= military takeoverde facto = “in reality”
    7. 7. Intef I “The Great Overlord of Upper Egypt” Son of Ra== 100 yrs civil war (held strong in Thebes against Antifi, another nomarch) Abu /
    8. 8. Upper Nile RegionIntef II= Humanitarianfamine relief Abu /
    9. 9. Mentuhotep II 2010 BCE(Named after Nubian war god)His Theban army attacks Herakleopolis and reunifies Egypt, ending civil war.
    10. 10. Mentuhotep IISolidifies power by replacing nomarchs with HIS (less powerful) followers.= Strong centralized government2010-1630 BCE = Middle Kingdom
    11. 11. How do we know?Record of rebellion suggests assassination • Amenemhat I was MentuhotepIV’s vizier (king’s right-hand man) • War with Nubia A • But……………………….. mercenary = soldier for hire
    12. 12. Senusret’s story ofAmenemhat:“Blah, blah, blah; Amenemhat was killed by dirty dogs, blah, blah. I am the rightful king, blah, blah…”Martyr = somebody who suffers persecution Propaganda = information meant to and death for refusing to renounce, or influence emotions, usually accept, a belief or cause, usually religious. political.
    13. 13. What do you Keep your mean my ears friends close are bigger than and your Mr. Marshall’s? enemies closer.Senusret III: moved the nomarchs to Thebes
    14. 14. Senusret: I am a king who attacks to conquer
    15. 15. Sobekneferu1760 BCEFirst female “king”Ends Middle KingdomStarts2nd Intermediate Period
    16. 16. fin
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