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SS11 autonomy1920s
 

SS11 autonomy1920s

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A Socials 11 tutorial on the steps Canada took to become an independent nation.

A Socials 11 tutorial on the steps Canada took to become an independent nation.

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  • Imperial Conference, London, 1926
  • 1926 Balfour Declaration not to be confused with the 1917 Balfour Report – advising on the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine. Note the background shows the original Red Ensign in use from 1867-1922. The shield reflects the original four provinces. Slide 9 shows its replacement.
  • Canada: served 619,500 killed 66,655 wounded 172,950 cost $1,665,576,000 If half the population is male, and 620,000 men served, then 1 in 13 males served : if we eliminate males outside of service age 19-45, the number is closer to 1 in 6 . (half of males are war age) NOTE: many younger than 19 served – some as young as 14. Borden insisted Cda have a seat at the table – Lloyd George and Wilson objected – this would mean Britain had more seats. But Borden noted the high proportional casualty rates for Cda. USA deployed 4.3 million and lost 126,000 killed = one in 34 killed/// Cda deployed 620,00 and lost 66,655 killed = one in 9 killed = FOUR TIMES AS MANY PROPORTIONALLY.
  • Imperial War Cabinet: Borden is 3rd from right in front row). Arthur Currie German helmet later unearthed at Vimy and painted in 2000 with Cdn Machine Gun Corps logo as souvenir.
  • This one of many examples where Canada acted as a leader amongst the other dominions in terms of winning autonomy. (Smuts [S. Africa] successfully argued that the Empire should be represented at the all-important Versailles Conference of 1919 by delegates from the dominions as well as Britain.) Borden saw Canada as a middle power – a role we grew into in the UN after WW2.
  • Turkish name is Canakkale - at Dardanelles Strait: Treaty of Sevres - British people didn’t support = fall of Lloyd George
  • Turkish name is Canakkale - at Dardanelles Strait: Treaty of Sevres - British people didn’t support = fall of Lloyd George
  • (the Brits wanted to have a signature on the treaty).
  • Because of his war leadership, Byng was popular with Canadians.
  • Was Mac-King a hero for Canada? Had he moved democracy forward? Had he increased our autonomy? Or, was he self-serving? While it was at Eton that Byng first received the nickname "Bungo" — to distinguish him from his elder brothers "Byngo" and "Bango"
  • The First Balfour Declaration (1917)   Australia – Stanley Bruce Canada – W. L. M. King;  Irish Free State – W. T. Cosgrave (whose title was President of the Executive Council); Newfoundland – Walter Monroe;  New Zealand – Gordon Coates;  South Africa – J. B. M. Hertzog[1]
  • Canada was the only dominion for whom the Statute became effective immediately ; Australia adopted 1942 (backdated to 1939) ; NZ 1947 ; Irish Free State never ratified it; S Africa ratified two different act in 1934; NFLD never adopted it – came under direct UK control in 1934 (Depression) – joined Cda in 1949. The Colonial Laws Validity Act (1865) was repealed after the Statute.

SS11 autonomy1920s SS11 autonomy1920s Presentation Transcript

  • J. Marshall, 2011
  • 1. Versailles 2. Chanak 3. Halibut Treaty 4. King-Byng 5. Balfour 6. Statute of Westminster 7. Conclusion
    • 1919 Paris Peace Talks – Versailles Treaty
    • 1922 Chanak Crisis
    • 1923 Halibut Treaty
    • 1926 King-Byng Affair
    • 1926 Balfour Declaration/Imperial Conference
    • 1931 Statute of Westminster
  • 1. Versailles 2. Chanak 3. Halibut Treaty 4. King-Byng 5. Balfour 6. Statute of Westminster 7. Conclusion References: Falk’s Workbook pp 71 – 74 Counterpoints text pp 55 - 56
  • 1. Treaty of Versailles Canada gave dearly:
    • Casualties: 8 million pop.
      • 600,000 served
      • 66,000 died
      • 150,000 wounded = the lost generation
    • Cost: $1.7 billion
    • Social unrest : conscription crisis
    1. Versailles 2. Chanak 3. Halibut Treaty 4. King-Byng 5. Balfour 6. Statute of Westminster 7. Conclusion
  • British Acknowledgement
    • Imperial War Cabinet
    • Gen. Arthur Currie –
    • Corps commander treated like more
    • Cdn Corps’ “star status”
    • BUT…..
    1. Versailles 2. Chanak 3. Halibut Treaty 4. King-Byng 5. Balfour 6. Statute of Westminster 7. Conclusion
  • 1. Versailles 2. Chanak 3. Halibut Treaty 4. King-Byng 5. Balfour 6. Statute of Westminster 7. Conclusion Borden at Versailles table
    • Borden argued:
    • The Canadian Corps’ exceptional war record as storm troopers had brought Canada international recognition.
    • Names like Vimy and Passchendaele had cemented our place in history.
    • Our great SACRIFICE warranted a separate seat.
  • 2. Chanak Crisis, 1922 Greek defeat put Turks near British and French garrison in DMZ = call for war against Turkey WE NEED HELP… Canada! Mustafa Kemal Ataturk David Lloyd George 1. Versailles 2. Chanak 3. Halibut Treaty 4. King-Byng 5. Balfour 6. Statute of Westminster 7. Conclusion
  • 2. Chanak Crisis 1. Versailles 2. Chanak 3. Halibut Treaty 4. King-Byng 5. Balfour 6. Statute of Westminster 7. Conclusion Mackenzie King insisted that the issue be debated and by the time it was, the crisis was over. How is this lack of unconditional support different than other “calls to arms” for Canada?
  • 3. Halibut Treaty
    • Past boundary disputes:
      • Maine/New Brunswick
      • Alaska/B.C.
      • San Juan Islands (Washington/B.C.)
    • 1923 USA/Canada negotiate a joint management model to address declining halibut stocks
    • International Pacific Halibut Commission (4 members: 2 Cdn/2 US)
    • 1 st international treaty negotiated independent of Britain (but not ratified by US Senate)
    1. Versailles 2. Chanak 3. Halibut Treaty 4. King-Byng 5. Balfour 6. Statute of Westminster 7. Conclusion … I’ll establish my own ambassador in Washington if the Brits continue to meddle in our affairs!
  • 4. The King-Byng Affair
    • See pp. 54 (cartoon) and 55 of Global Forces text
    • 1925 election
    • King refuses to resign as P.M ., and with Progressive support , formed a minority govt (he had even lost his seat!)
    • Progressives pull support in 1926 after excise/liquor scandal and Tories call for vote of censure.
    • King asks Byng to call election, instead.
    • Byng refuses /asks Meighen to form gov’t – soon loses vote in HC.
    • Meighen asks for election and one is granted.
    • King campaigns vs. “ undemocratic process” and wins MAJORITY !
    Liberals 101 Conservatives 116 Progressives 24 1. Versailles 2. Chanak 3. Halibut Treaty 4. King-Byng 5. Balfour 6. Statute of Westminster 7. Conclusion Hero of Vimy
    • Byng was following precedent in fulfilling role as both rep of British + Cdn govt
    • First time a GG had refused the PM
    • By winning, King showed the will of the nation and this became a landmark event.
    • Precedent changed to give primacy to the PM = de facto head of Cda
    So What? 1. Versailles 2. Chanak 3. Halibut Treaty 4. King-Byng 5. Balfour 6. Statute of Westminster 7. Conclusion Poor Bungo
    • Byng was following precedent in fulfilling role as both rep of British + Cdn govt
    • By winning, King showed the will of the nation and this became a landmark event.
    • Precedent changed to give primacy to the P.M. = de facto head of Cda
    So What? 1. Versailles 2. Chanak 3. Halibut Treaty 4. King-Byng 5. Balfour 6. Statute of Westminster 7. Conclusion This is a MUST KNOW
  • 5. 1926 Balfour Declaration/Report ( the second one )
    • 1926 Imperial Conference, London
    • Former British P.M. recommends: give the Dominions their independence.
    • “ A colony became a nation”
    1. Versailles 2. Chanak 3. Halibut Treaty 4. King-Byng 5. Balfour 6. Statute of Westminster 7. Conclusion The UK and the dominions “are autonomous Communities within the British Empire, equal in status, in no way subordinate one to the other in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs, though united by a common allegiance to the Crown, and freely associated as members of the British Commonwealth of Nations.”
  • 6. Statute of Westminster 1. Versailles 2. Chanak 3. Halibut Treaty 4. King-Byng 5. Balfour 6. Statute of Westminster 7. Conclusion
    • 1931 British act of parliament – enacts Balfour
    • did not affect any element of the BNA Act since the provinces couldn’t agree on change until 1982!
    • = de facto and immediate independence of Canada
    • “ No Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom passed after the commencement of this Act shall extend or be deemed to extend , to a Dominion as part of the law of that Dominion, unless it is expressly declared in that Act that that Dominion has requested, and consented to, the enactment thereof.”
  • 1. Versailles 2. Chanak 3. Halibut Treaty 4. King-Byng 5. Balfour 6. Statute of Westminster 7. Conclusion 1919 1922 1923 1926 1926 1931 A C B D E F 7. Conclusion
  • 1. Versailles 2. Chanak 3. Halibut Treaty 4. King-Byng 5. Balfour 6. Statute of Westminster 7. Conclusion 1919 1922 1923 1926 1926 1931 A C B D E F 7. Conclusion
  • Writing a “So-what” paragraph response:
    • Identify the topic and add interest through mystery.
    • Deal with the supporting points one at a time but ensure to give the so-what (significance) of each.
    • Reemphasize the main argument and add a creative closing statement.
    T opic S entence What So-What Closer … .
    • In the dozen years that followed the fighting of the First World War, a series of national and international events resulted in Britain making Canada an independent country.
    T opic S entence Example response:
    • In the dozen years that followed the fighting of the First World War, a series of national and international events resulted in Britain making Canada an independent country.
    T opic S entence Example response:
    • First, because of Canada’s war record and significant sacrifices in France and Belgium, P.M. Borden insisted on a separate seat at the Paris Peace Talks and a signature on the Versailles Treaty. In addition to international prestige, this signaled increased recognition by Britain of Canada’s growing maturity as a nation state.
    What So-What Example response:
    • First, because of Canada’s war record and significant sacrifices in France and Belgium, P.M. Borden insisted on a separate seat at the Paris Peace Talks and a signature on the Versailles Treaty. In addition to international prestige, this signaled increased recognition by Britain of Canada’s growing maturity as a nation state.
    What So-What Example response:
    • Canada entered the 1920s as a subordinate Dominion within the British Empire, but just a decade later, she emerged as an equal and independent nation of the Commonwealth, ready for the challenges of a turbulent world.
    Closer Example response:
    • Canada entered the 1920s as a subordinate Dominion within the British Empire, but just a decade later, she emerged as an equal and independent nation of the Commonwealth, ready for the challenges of a turbulent world.
    Closer Example response:
    • Canada entered the 1920s as a subordinate Dominion within the British Empire, but just a decade later, she emerged as an equal and independent nation of the Commonwealth, ready for the challenges of a turbulent world.
    Closer Example response:
    • In the dozen years that followed the fighting of the First World War, a series of national and international events resulted in Britain making Canada an independent country. First, because of Canada’s war record and significant sacrifices in France and Belgium, P.M. Borden insisted on a separate seat at the Paris Peace Talks and a signature on the Versailles Treaty. In addition to international prestige, this signaled increased recognition by Britain of Canada’s growing maturity as a nation state.
    • Canada entered the 1920s as a subordinate Dominion within the British Empire, but just a decade later, she emerged as an equal and independent nation of the Commonwealth, ready for the challenges of a turbulent world.
    T opic S entence What So-What Closer … .
  • Companion on-line flash cards and test practice activities via Quizlet:
    • http://bit.ly/vxNbW0
  • end
  • 1. Versailles 2. Chanak 3. Halibut Treaty 4. King-Byng 5. Balfour 6. Statute of Westminster 7. Conclusion 1919 1922 1923 1926 1926 1931 A C B D E F 7. Conclusion Versailles Chanak Halibut King-Byng Balfour Westminster