Social Studies 11: Canada and the 1930s
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Social Studies 11: Canada and the 1930s

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A secondary school lesson about Canada and the Great Depression.

A secondary school lesson about Canada and the Great Depression.

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  • Aboriginals - only $5/month - expected to live off of the land - but now they’re on reserves? Chinese - only half the relief as a white man Jews - anti-Semitism - stereotypes about “money handlers/ + immigrants in general - 10,000 deported before all immig stopped in 1931
  • Poster = Don’t allow the links of the chain welded by “the blacksmith” to rust
  • Abandoned prairie farm, newspaper,engineless automobile, roasted wheat used for a hot drink, broiled chestnuts
  • Italian Fasci - bundle of sticks with axe - Roman judicial symbol of power and strength Swastika Nationalist symbol of arrows and _____________.
  • Fable: first mice voted for black cat = Tories;next white cat = Liberals; eventually a mouse to run the gov’t. The mouse leader was called a Bolshevik and imprisoned. The speech ends by saying you can lock up people and mice, but not ideas!
  • BC had a warmer climate
  • City’s tar boiler/ havoc in the streets after the riot/ rioters converge on a man being grabbed by police

Transcript

  • 1. CANADA IN THE 1930s The Great Depression: just do SOMETHING! J. MARSHALL, 2008
  • 2. Outline
    • The reasons for the Crash
    • The beginning was the worst
    • Mackenzie King’s vs. R.B. Bennett’s response
    • Herbert Hoover’s vs. F.D. Roosevelt’s response
    • Birth of new political parties in Canada
    • The people take action
  • 3. 1) Reasons for the Crash and other factors that led to depression
    • The stock market was a relatively new thing - stocks vs. gold (traders and buyers were inexperienced)
    • Buying on margin - a license to print money
    • Panicked selling over almost a week caused the Wall St. market to collapse on Black Tuesday, Oct 29, 1929
    The crash did not cause the Depression - it did make the suffering worse.
  • 4. Other economic problems
    • The price of wheat had been falling since 1927: over-production didn’t drop so prices did - farmers’ mortgages suffered: no cash means no new tractors
    • Manufacturers were over-producing consumer goods = few consumers = layoffs = less spending money = fewer consumers
    • USA protectionist tariffs = trade barriers for all
    • Germany’s inability to pay reparations affected the Allies’ ability to repay loans to USA
  • 5. 2) The Beginning was Worst
    • Canada’s economy was very closely connected to the USA - trading/branch plants/investors:
      • Wheat (40% of world supply)
      • Newsprint (65% of world supply)
    • As the economy failed people lost their jobs and the ability to pay rent: vagrancy meant jail time
    • To collect POGEY or the “DOLE” ( Relief vouchers) one had to publicly declare her poverty: why would so may do without relief?
    • Private charity/soup kitchens
  • 6. Women and their children suffered as men looked for work, often “riding the rods” Laissez Faire - let it be
  • 7. Immigrants
    • See page 79 re: “The Disadvantaged” - report on two groups and describe their hardships:
  • 8. Data source: Counterpoints , p. 80 Working with data: see page 80 in Counterpoints
  • 9. Percentage of Canadian National Income Spent on Relief: 1930 - 1937 Data source: Counterpoints , p. 80
  • 10.  
  • 11. Dust Bowl: Drought 1928 - 1936
  • 12. 3) King vs. Bennett
    • King thought the Depression would be short-lived. He did little.
    • Bennett promised action, but as a millionaire, he didn’t understand the plight of the people.
    • Bennett did answer letters and give charity but he looked down on government “handouts.” As a businessman he dismissed Keynes’ economics as illogical.
  • 13. Mackenzie King’s Liberals fall very short
    • Federalism: why didn’t King give money to the provinces?
    • See the quotation about Tory governments on pg. 81.
    “ A nation like an individual, to find itself must lose itself…to those of this government, I would not give them a five-cent piece .” 1930 KING LOST THE ELECTION: Bennett’s Tories won a MAJORITY
  • 14. A nice house warming gift from Mackenzie-King to the incoming PM
  • 15. Dark Depression Humour
    • Bennett barnyard
    • Bennett blanket
    • Bennett buggy
    • Bennett coffee
    • eggs Bennett
    + How could Bennett’s wealth be a political handicap in a depression? abandoned prairie farm newspaper engineless car roasted wheat broiled chestnuts
  • 16. 4) Herbert Hoover vs. Roosevelt
    • Hoovervilles
    • Hoover’s strategy was to lower interest rates - the problem was too big!
    • FDR’s 100 days in 1933
      • Close banks for three days
      • New Deal = “alphabet agencies”
      • Every letter to the President will be answered
      • End Prohibition
      • create CONFIDENCE and give LEADERSHIP
  • 17.
    • John Maynard Keynes
    • (“Canes”)
    FDR listened to the economist Keynes: “ SPEND YOUR WAY OUT OF DEPRESSION.”
  • 18. Tennessee Valley Authority Public Works Admin Works Progress Admin Agricultural Adjustment Admin National Recovery Admin
  • 19. 5) New Political Parties
    • In Canada it was we saw the birth of the CCF, Social Credit, and Union Nationale
    • In Germany and Spain, fascists came to power and joined Italy in the creation of a new world order
  • 20. The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation
    • Some Progressives
    • Regina Manifesto
    • July, 1933
    • J.S. Woodsworth
    • Tommy Douglas
  • 21. J.S. Woodsworth
    • Minister in Gibson’s Landing, 1917
    • Pacifist/anti-conscription
    • 1921 MP: Indep Labour Party of Cda
    • Anti-violence (thus not Comm Party)
    • Sat with Progressives, 1925 (helped enact Old Age Pension, 1927
    • Lost favour when he wouldn’t support Cda going to war in 1939
  • 22. Tommy Douglas
    • Premier of Saskatchewan, 1944-1961
    • Scottish-born Baptist minister
    • 1st socialistic gov’t in North America
    • INTRODUCED UNIVERSAL MEDICARE
    • Fable of Mouseland
    • 1st leader of NDP, 1961-71 (when CCF joined with Cdn Labour Congress
    • In 2004, voted “Greatest Canadian” in national CBC poll
  • 23. Regina Manifesto
    • In small groups we shall now examine the preamble of Manifesto and its parts.
    • First: underline the main points argued in the preamble.
  • 24. Review of Preamble:
    • The CCF is concerned with supplying human need not ______________.
    • The present capitalist system is inherently ____________ & _____________ and has inequities in _____________ and _____________ where power lies with the _____________ and the ______________.
    • The new social order will reject regimentation and not interfere with _________________ or _______________ but will have more ______________ and each citizen will become ______________.
    • The CCF will achieve this through _________________ because it doesn’t believe in _______________. The old parties (______________ and ______________) are instruments of ______________________. The CCF is a democratic movement of _____________, _____________ and ________________________.
    • The CCF will be self-financed and seek to achieve its goals solely through _____________________ methods
  • 25. Which two parties were the “old” parties? “ What! The kids and Missus and I have to get out…after no crops and no prices, where shall we go?”
  • 26. Major James Coldwell MP Leader of CCF from 1942 - 1960 Coldwell and farmer labor assures: we hold title ; thank God, my fear of losing home gone Grab all
  • 27. See cartoon activity sheet 4-1 CCF Social Credit Union Nationale Led by JS Woodsworth; supported farmers, labourers,socialists, intellectuals,discontent-ed Liberals; its politics included public ownership of KEY industries, social programs for the needy, government spending on public works Led by “Bible Bill” Aberhart ; it appealed to many voters in Alberta, where he was elected in 1935; its policies included citizens receiving a $25 monthly dividend to buy goods. The additional money was intended to simulate the economy. Led by Maurice Duplessis ; supported by people in rural areas and nationalists; its policies included the belief that the English minority controlled Quebec’s economy
  • 28. Fascism secret police , one party state , dictatorship , Militarism Italy, 1922 Germany, 1933 Spain, 1939 Mussolini Hitler Franco
    • Blame 1911 democracy for problems
    • Black Shirts March on Rome (threat of socialists)
    • 1929 Pact with Pope
    • Crush unions - Corporate State
    • Abyssinia, 1936
    • Albania, 1938
    • Brown Shirts
    • Arian supremacy
    • Rebuild military = jobs
    • Challenge Versailles
    • Test tactics in Spanish Civil War
    • Anschluss
    • Lebensraum/ self-determination
    • Falange vs elected Republic
    • International Brigades
    • Proxy war (blitzkrieg) for Condor Legion and Italian Air Force - Guernica
    • Did not fight in WW2
  • 29.
    • Can you put in order Hitler’s steps to war?
  • 30. Life in Hitler’s Nazi Germany Positive Aspects Negative Aspects Mega-projects/rearmament = employment Direction = Hope in desperate times Versailles abandoned = return of national pride/saved reparation payments Annexations = wealth and power Self-determination for Germans = corrects some misplaced persons from Versailles Versailles abandoned = militarization/isolation Nuremburg Decrees/racism = loss of human/citizen rights Loss of democracy = one party state Brown Shirts/mob violence = loss of security Book burnings = loss of freedom Unions outlawed = loss of freedom
  • 31. Canada’s Failure of the St.Louis Anti-Semitic advisors (from the South) to FDR persuaded him to block a USA landing - Mackenzie King who was visiting Washington with the Royal Family also gave in. Canada accepted fewer than 5000 Jewish refugees during the Second World War. Brazil accepted 27,000!
  • 32.
    • 6) The People Take Action
    • “ On to Ottawa Trek”
    • Dissatisfaction with 1932 Relief Camps - designed to keep potential trouble makers out of the cities - think Winnipeg 1919 - ironically, the camps concentrated large groups of men who were easily organized.
    • 20¢/day = slave labour
    • Young men were mobile - concentrated in Vancouver (why would 1/3 of 150 camps be in BC?): history of unrest - Vancouver 1932
  • 33. On to Ottawa: Kamloops 3 June, 1935
  • 34. On July 1st a meeting was called at Market Square
    • Only about 300 strikers attended - but almost 2000 people gathered.
    • Most strikers stayed at the exhibition grounds
    • Bennett had ordered the protest stopped - he didn’t want trouble in Ottawa.
    Strikers at the exhibition grounds
  • 35. Regina Riot: 1 July, 1935
    • The RCMP hid in 3 vans and the Regina Police hid in a garage. At 8 p.m. a whistle blew and they charged, beginning hours of hand-to-hand fighting. In the end 1 plain clothes policeman was dead. 120 strikers were arrested.
  • 36. Outcome:
    • The next day the RCMP surrounded the stadium with machine guns - strikers were cut off from food and water.
    • The strikers called the Premier for a meeting - they were arrested but released to meet
    • National newspapers reported the police initiated riot
    • Premier Gardner blamed Bennett for the trouble. He ordered the men be fed and negotiated a disbandment to the strike.
    • The men boarded trains an returned west.
    • Bennett said, the Trek was "not a mere uprising against law and order but a definite revolutionary effort on the part of a group of men to usurp authority and destroy government." - the Tories were defeated that year in the 1935 federal election.
  • 37. Bloody Sunday: Sit down strike, Vancouver, 1938 How are the police achieving order?
  • 38. End