Social Studies 11: Canada and the 1930s


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A secondary school lesson about Canada and the Great Depression.

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  • Aboriginals - only $5/month - expected to live off of the land - but now they’re on reserves? Chinese - only half the relief as a white man Jews - anti-Semitism - stereotypes about “money handlers/ + immigrants in general - 10,000 deported before all immig stopped in 1931
  • Poster = Don’t allow the links of the chain welded by “the blacksmith” to rust
  • Abandoned prairie farm, newspaper,engineless automobile, roasted wheat used for a hot drink, broiled chestnuts
  • Italian Fasci - bundle of sticks with axe - Roman judicial symbol of power and strength Swastika Nationalist symbol of arrows and _____________.
  • Fable: first mice voted for black cat = Tories;next white cat = Liberals; eventually a mouse to run the gov’t. The mouse leader was called a Bolshevik and imprisoned. The speech ends by saying you can lock up people and mice, but not ideas!
  • BC had a warmer climate
  • City’s tar boiler/ havoc in the streets after the riot/ rioters converge on a man being grabbed by police
  • Social Studies 11: Canada and the 1930s

    1. 1. CANADA IN THE 1930s The Great Depression: just do SOMETHING! J. MARSHALL, 2008
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>The reasons for the Crash </li></ul><ul><li>The beginning was the worst </li></ul><ul><li>Mackenzie King’s vs. R.B. Bennett’s response </li></ul><ul><li>Herbert Hoover’s vs. F.D. Roosevelt’s response </li></ul><ul><li>Birth of new political parties in Canada </li></ul><ul><li>The people take action </li></ul>
    3. 3. 1) Reasons for the Crash and other factors that led to depression <ul><li>The stock market was a relatively new thing - stocks vs. gold (traders and buyers were inexperienced) </li></ul><ul><li>Buying on margin - a license to print money </li></ul><ul><li>Panicked selling over almost a week caused the Wall St. market to collapse on Black Tuesday, Oct 29, 1929 </li></ul>The crash did not cause the Depression - it did make the suffering worse.
    4. 4. Other economic problems <ul><li>The price of wheat had been falling since 1927: over-production didn’t drop so prices did - farmers’ mortgages suffered: no cash means no new tractors </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturers were over-producing consumer goods = few consumers = layoffs = less spending money = fewer consumers </li></ul><ul><li>USA protectionist tariffs = trade barriers for all </li></ul><ul><li>Germany’s inability to pay reparations affected the Allies’ ability to repay loans to USA </li></ul>
    5. 5. 2) The Beginning was Worst <ul><li>Canada’s economy was very closely connected to the USA - trading/branch plants/investors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wheat (40% of world supply) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newsprint (65% of world supply) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As the economy failed people lost their jobs and the ability to pay rent: vagrancy meant jail time </li></ul><ul><li>To collect POGEY or the “DOLE” ( Relief vouchers) one had to publicly declare her poverty: why would so may do without relief? </li></ul><ul><li>Private charity/soup kitchens </li></ul>
    6. 6. Women and their children suffered as men looked for work, often “riding the rods” Laissez Faire - let it be
    7. 7. Immigrants <ul><li>See page 79 re: “The Disadvantaged” - report on two groups and describe their hardships: </li></ul>
    8. 8. Data source: Counterpoints , p. 80 Working with data: see page 80 in Counterpoints
    9. 9. Percentage of Canadian National Income Spent on Relief: 1930 - 1937 Data source: Counterpoints , p. 80
    10. 11. Dust Bowl: Drought 1928 - 1936
    11. 12. 3) King vs. Bennett <ul><li>King thought the Depression would be short-lived. He did little. </li></ul><ul><li>Bennett promised action, but as a millionaire, he didn’t understand the plight of the people. </li></ul><ul><li>Bennett did answer letters and give charity but he looked down on government “handouts.” As a businessman he dismissed Keynes’ economics as illogical. </li></ul>
    12. 13. Mackenzie King’s Liberals fall very short <ul><li>Federalism: why didn’t King give money to the provinces? </li></ul><ul><li>See the quotation about Tory governments on pg. 81. </li></ul>“ A nation like an individual, to find itself must lose itself…to those of this government, I would not give them a five-cent piece .” 1930 KING LOST THE ELECTION: Bennett’s Tories won a MAJORITY
    13. 14. A nice house warming gift from Mackenzie-King to the incoming PM
    14. 15. Dark Depression Humour <ul><li>Bennett barnyard </li></ul><ul><li>Bennett blanket </li></ul><ul><li>Bennett buggy </li></ul><ul><li>Bennett coffee </li></ul><ul><li>eggs Bennett </li></ul>+ How could Bennett’s wealth be a political handicap in a depression? abandoned prairie farm newspaper engineless car roasted wheat broiled chestnuts
    15. 16. 4) Herbert Hoover vs. Roosevelt <ul><li>Hoovervilles </li></ul><ul><li>Hoover’s strategy was to lower interest rates - the problem was too big! </li></ul><ul><li>FDR’s 100 days in 1933 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Close banks for three days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Deal = “alphabet agencies” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Every letter to the President will be answered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End Prohibition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>create CONFIDENCE and give LEADERSHIP </li></ul></ul>
    16. 17. <ul><li>John Maynard Keynes </li></ul><ul><li> (“Canes”) </li></ul>FDR listened to the economist Keynes: “ SPEND YOUR WAY OUT OF DEPRESSION.”
    17. 18. Tennessee Valley Authority Public Works Admin Works Progress Admin Agricultural Adjustment Admin National Recovery Admin
    18. 19. 5) New Political Parties <ul><li>In Canada it was we saw the birth of the CCF, Social Credit, and Union Nationale </li></ul><ul><li>In Germany and Spain, fascists came to power and joined Italy in the creation of a new world order </li></ul>
    19. 20. The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation <ul><li>Some Progressives </li></ul><ul><li>Regina Manifesto </li></ul><ul><li>July, 1933 </li></ul><ul><li>J.S. Woodsworth </li></ul><ul><li>Tommy Douglas </li></ul>
    20. 21. J.S. Woodsworth <ul><li>Minister in Gibson’s Landing, 1917 </li></ul><ul><li>Pacifist/anti-conscription </li></ul><ul><li>1921 MP: Indep Labour Party of Cda </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-violence (thus not Comm Party) </li></ul><ul><li>Sat with Progressives, 1925 (helped enact Old Age Pension, 1927 </li></ul><ul><li>Lost favour when he wouldn’t support Cda going to war in 1939 </li></ul>
    21. 22. Tommy Douglas <ul><li>Premier of Saskatchewan, 1944-1961 </li></ul><ul><li>Scottish-born Baptist minister </li></ul><ul><li>1st socialistic gov’t in North America </li></ul><ul><li>INTRODUCED UNIVERSAL MEDICARE </li></ul><ul><li>Fable of Mouseland </li></ul><ul><li>1st leader of NDP, 1961-71 (when CCF joined with Cdn Labour Congress </li></ul><ul><li>In 2004, voted “Greatest Canadian” in national CBC poll </li></ul>
    22. 23. Regina Manifesto <ul><li>In small groups we shall now examine the preamble of Manifesto and its parts. </li></ul><ul><li>First: underline the main points argued in the preamble. </li></ul>
    23. 24. Review of Preamble: <ul><li>The CCF is concerned with supplying human need not ______________. </li></ul><ul><li>The present capitalist system is inherently ____________ & _____________ and has inequities in _____________ and _____________ where power lies with the _____________ and the ______________. </li></ul><ul><li>The new social order will reject regimentation and not interfere with _________________ or _______________ but will have more ______________ and each citizen will become ______________. </li></ul><ul><li>The CCF will achieve this through _________________ because it doesn’t believe in _______________. The old parties (______________ and ______________) are instruments of ______________________. The CCF is a democratic movement of _____________, _____________ and ________________________. </li></ul><ul><li>The CCF will be self-financed and seek to achieve its goals solely through _____________________ methods </li></ul>
    24. 25. Which two parties were the “old” parties? “ What! The kids and Missus and I have to get out…after no crops and no prices, where shall we go?”
    25. 26. Major James Coldwell MP Leader of CCF from 1942 - 1960 Coldwell and farmer labor assures: we hold title ; thank God, my fear of losing home gone Grab all
    26. 27. See cartoon activity sheet 4-1 CCF Social Credit Union Nationale Led by JS Woodsworth; supported farmers, labourers,socialists, intellectuals,discontent-ed Liberals; its politics included public ownership of KEY industries, social programs for the needy, government spending on public works Led by “Bible Bill” Aberhart ; it appealed to many voters in Alberta, where he was elected in 1935; its policies included citizens receiving a $25 monthly dividend to buy goods. The additional money was intended to simulate the economy. Led by Maurice Duplessis ; supported by people in rural areas and nationalists; its policies included the belief that the English minority controlled Quebec’s economy
    27. 28. Fascism secret police , one party state , dictatorship , Militarism Italy, 1922 Germany, 1933 Spain, 1939 Mussolini Hitler Franco <ul><li>Blame 1911 democracy for problems </li></ul><ul><li>Black Shirts March on Rome (threat of socialists) </li></ul><ul><li>1929 Pact with Pope </li></ul><ul><li>Crush unions - Corporate State </li></ul><ul><li>Abyssinia, 1936 </li></ul><ul><li>Albania, 1938 </li></ul><ul><li>Brown Shirts </li></ul><ul><li>Arian supremacy </li></ul><ul><li>Rebuild military = jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge Versailles </li></ul><ul><li>Test tactics in Spanish Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Anschluss </li></ul><ul><li>Lebensraum/ self-determination </li></ul><ul><li>Falange vs elected Republic </li></ul><ul><li>International Brigades </li></ul><ul><li>Proxy war (blitzkrieg) for Condor Legion and Italian Air Force - Guernica </li></ul><ul><li>Did not fight in WW2 </li></ul>
    28. 29. <ul><li>Can you put in order Hitler’s steps to war? </li></ul>
    29. 30. Life in Hitler’s Nazi Germany Positive Aspects Negative Aspects Mega-projects/rearmament = employment Direction = Hope in desperate times Versailles abandoned = return of national pride/saved reparation payments Annexations = wealth and power Self-determination for Germans = corrects some misplaced persons from Versailles Versailles abandoned = militarization/isolation Nuremburg Decrees/racism = loss of human/citizen rights Loss of democracy = one party state Brown Shirts/mob violence = loss of security Book burnings = loss of freedom Unions outlawed = loss of freedom
    30. 31. Canada’s Failure of the St.Louis Anti-Semitic advisors (from the South) to FDR persuaded him to block a USA landing - Mackenzie King who was visiting Washington with the Royal Family also gave in. Canada accepted fewer than 5000 Jewish refugees during the Second World War. Brazil accepted 27,000!
    31. 32. <ul><li>6) The People Take Action </li></ul><ul><li>“ On to Ottawa Trek” </li></ul><ul><li>Dissatisfaction with 1932 Relief Camps - designed to keep potential trouble makers out of the cities - think Winnipeg 1919 - ironically, the camps concentrated large groups of men who were easily organized. </li></ul><ul><li>20¢/day = slave labour </li></ul><ul><li>Young men were mobile - concentrated in Vancouver (why would 1/3 of 150 camps be in BC?): history of unrest - Vancouver 1932 </li></ul>
    32. 33. On to Ottawa: Kamloops 3 June, 1935
    33. 34. On July 1st a meeting was called at Market Square <ul><li>Only about 300 strikers attended - but almost 2000 people gathered. </li></ul><ul><li>Most strikers stayed at the exhibition grounds </li></ul><ul><li>Bennett had ordered the protest stopped - he didn’t want trouble in Ottawa. </li></ul>Strikers at the exhibition grounds
    34. 35. Regina Riot: 1 July, 1935 <ul><li>The RCMP hid in 3 vans and the Regina Police hid in a garage. At 8 p.m. a whistle blew and they charged, beginning hours of hand-to-hand fighting. In the end 1 plain clothes policeman was dead. 120 strikers were arrested. </li></ul>
    35. 36. Outcome: <ul><li>The next day the RCMP surrounded the stadium with machine guns - strikers were cut off from food and water. </li></ul><ul><li>The strikers called the Premier for a meeting - they were arrested but released to meet </li></ul><ul><li>National newspapers reported the police initiated riot </li></ul><ul><li>Premier Gardner blamed Bennett for the trouble. He ordered the men be fed and negotiated a disbandment to the strike. </li></ul><ul><li>The men boarded trains an returned west. </li></ul><ul><li>Bennett said, the Trek was &quot;not a mere uprising against law and order but a definite revolutionary effort on the part of a group of men to usurp authority and destroy government.&quot; - the Tories were defeated that year in the 1935 federal election. </li></ul>
    36. 37. Bloody Sunday: Sit down strike, Vancouver, 1938 How are the police achieving order?
    37. 38. End
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