SAR Radio Communications

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A lesson for members of the Sunshine Coast Search Rescue members in training (British Columbia, Canada).

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  • In DUPLEX comms, the difference between the two frequencies is called the OFFSET.
  • SAR Radio Communications

    1. 1. Introduction to GSAR Communications J. Marshall 2008
    2. 2. Topics 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Radio Equipment The “Net” 24 hr Clock/Phonetic Alphabet Voice Procedure Radio Logs Emergency Signals Mock Deployment
    3. 3. Radio Waves p. 9-3/4 VLF KHz LF KHz MF KHz HF MHz VHF MHz PEP UHF GHz
    4. 4. BC SAR RESOURCE KIT RADIO FREQUENCIES VHF RADIO CH We use PEP 1 & 2 Simplex vs. Duplex? TX and RX on same freq = SIMPLEX TX on one freq and RX on a second freq = DUPLEX 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 USAGE PEP 1 PEP2 PEP 3 PEP 4 N. SHORE RESCUE N. SHORE RESCUE WASHINGTON SAR BC PARKS NSR SEYMOUR RPTR NSR BOWEN RPTR CHILLIWACK SAR RPTR HOPE SAR RPTR KENT/HARR. SAR RPTR C.F.V. SAR RPTR MARINE 22A MARINE 16 RX TX TONE 149.495 149.525 148.655 148.685 158.865 158.910 155.160 155.220 158.865 158.910 149.495 149.495 149.495 149.495 157.100 156.800 SIMPLEX SIMPLEX SIMPLEX SIMPLEX SIMPLEX SIMPLEX SIMPLEX SIMPLEX 151.700 149.525 148.655 148.655 148.655 148.655 SIMPLEX SIMPLEX 114.8 114.8 114.8 114.8 127.3 127.3 SIMPLEX SIMPLEX SIMPLEX SIMPLEX SIMPLEX SIMPLEX 114.8 110.9 123 127.3 110.9 127.3 127.3 67 114.8 77 71.9 UHF RADIO 1 2 3 4 5 6 PEP UHF 1 PEP UHF 1 (Coquitlam) PEP UHF 1 (Squamish) PEP UHF 1 (N.S.R.) PEP UHF 1 PEP UHF 2 462.9500 462.9500 462.9500 462.9500 462.9500 457.2375
    5. 5. LF Waves vs. VHF Waves Waves can be bounced Radio waves travel in a straight line.
    6. 6. Power • Handheld 2-5 watts (Mobile/base radios much higher) • Meteorological conditions, terrain, power (watts) and antenna rig of TX + the sensitivity/antenna of RX will determine the range possible
    7. 7. Repeaters p. 9-6/7 Note: GSAR teams can act as human repeaters by relaying messages between two stations that cannot communicate.
    8. 8. 2. Equipment TYPES  BASE - fixed locations (buildings)  Mobile - vehicles/watercraft/aircraft  Portable - hand-held GSAR teams Send a signal = transmitter Receive a signal = receiver Both = transceiver
    9. 9. Radio Parts p. 9-4/5 • On/off (accidental discharging) • Squelch (saving power, auto feature on some radios) • Channel/Frequency Selector (memory, confusion during mutual aid ops = say PEP 1 vs Channel 1, legally non-hams can’t change frequencies outside of assigned PEP frequencies) • PTT (key-pause-talk) • Antenna (helical vs. telescoping + pointing, care) • Battery (memory, spares, cold-weather ops)
    10. 10. 3. The “Net”Sunshine Command Remember: 1. Go through Command 2. Be concise 3. Less is more avoid useless calls Sunshine 06 Sunshine 12 Sunshine Who? Sunshine 14
    11. 11. Typical Operational “Net” Ce llul ar Co m s Penak Talon JRCC Sunshine Command Sunshine 06 Sunshine 08 Sunshine 12 Sunshine 14
    12. 12. 4a. 24 hr Clock Say the four digits, then say hours: ex. “0430 hours” z lways “ A ” ver “oh ero”, ne Say 1-9-0-0-hours, not “nineteen hundred hours” Say “decimal” not “point”
    13. 13. 4b. Phonetic Alphabet • • • • • Use only if necessary Odd ones: Oss-cah, Vic-tah Say “I spell…” Say “decimal” Practice
    14. 14. 5. Voice Procedure p. 9-9/11 V.P. is a concise and formalized version of everyday communication. For example: Hi guys, I’m Bob; how do you do? Hello R.T., it’s Sue; what’s up, eh? Command this is Sunshine 08, send sitrep, over.
    15. 15. Fatalities • Frequencies can be monitored and family members can overhear SAR radios – take care… ndi Co LT A DE tion
    16. 16. Example: affirmative/negative Station Called This is This is Message Over/Out Sunshine 09 this is Sunshine Command Have you reached the parking lot at the trail head? over. Sunshine Command this is Sunshine 09 Affirmative, over. Sunshine 09 this is Sunshine Command Roger, out.
    17. 17. Example: confirm Station Called This is This is Message Over/Out Sunshine 06 this is Sunshine Command Confirm the subject’s mother told you he had a blue tarp with him, over. Sunshine Command this is Sunshine 06 Affirmative, over. Sunshine 06 this is Sunshine Roger, out.
    18. 18. Example: correction Station Called This is This is Message Over/Out Sunshine 20 this is Sunshine Command Move now to GR 123758, correction move to GR 123578, over. Sunshine Command this is Sunshine 20 Roger, moving to GR 123578, over. Sunshine 20 this is Sunshine Command Roger, out.
    19. 19. Example: go ahead (send) Station Called This is This is Message Over/Out Sunshine Command this is Sunshine 02 Message, over. Sunshine 02 this is Sunshine Command Go ahead, over. Sunshine Command this is Sunshine 02 Roger, ……….., more to follow, over. Sunshine 02 this is Sunshine Command Roger, go ahead, over…
    20. 20. Example: how do you read? (or) radio check Station Called This is This is Message Over/Out Sunshine 11 this is Sunshine Command How do you read? over. Sunshine Command this is Sunshine 11 I read you loud and clear, (loud and broken) (weak and unreadable) over. Sunshine 11 this is Sunshine Command Roger, out.
    21. 21. Example: say again Station Called This is This is Message Over/Out Sunshine 11 this is Sunshine Command Ensure you have the following: GPS, spare radio battery, first aid kit, saline and headlamp, over. Sunshine Command this is Sunshine 11 Roger, say again, all after, first aid over. kit, Sunshine 11 this is Sunshine Command Roger, I say again after first aid kit: saline and headlamp, Don’t ever say “repeat” or you’ll never sound cool like an air traffic controller. over…
    22. 22. Example: standby (wait) Station Called This is This is Message Over/Out Sunshine 09 this is Sunshine Command Message to follow, (get paper to copy?) over. Sunshine Command this is Sunshine 09 Standby, (Wait,) over. Sunshine Command this is Sunshine 09 Go ahead, (Send message now,) over… N.B.: If you want a station to wait more than 10 seconds, say “Standby, out.” Call them back when you are ready - this keeps the net open.
    23. 23. Example: verify Station Called This is This is Message Over/Out Sunshine Command this is Sunshine 02 Will you verify that the subject’s jacket was found at the parking lot by Sunshine 05, over. Sunshine 02 this is Sunshine Command Standby, out to you; Sunshine 05 this is Sunshine Command Confirm that it was you who found the subject’s jacket in the parking lot, over. Sunshine Command this is Sunshine 05 Affirmative, over. Sunshine 05 this is S. Command Roger, out to you; Sunshine 02 this is S. Command I verify, the subject’s jacket… over…
    24. 24. Example: radio check - multiple stations Station Called This is This is Message Over/Out All Sunshine call signs this is Sunshine Command Radio check, over. Sunshine Command this is Sunshine 01 Sunshine 02 Sunshine 03 Roger, Roger, Roger, over. over. over, - Pause of 5 seconds - Sunshine 05 Sunshine 06 Roger, Roger, over. over. All Sunshine stations, except Sunshine 04 this is Sunshine Command Roger, out to you; Sunshine 04 this is Sunshine Command Radio check, over. Sunshine Command this is Sunshine 04 You are weak but readable, over…
    25. 25. 6. Radio Logs TIME STATION I.D. STN. THIS IS CALLED SUBJECT 20:15 Command SC 06 Found fresh bike tire tracks on trail to lake; will follow tracks. 20:17 Command SC 12 Found white water bottle with “On the Edge” logo 200m north of 20:18 SC 12 parking lot at lake. Request info on subj’s gear. Command Police confirm Subj may have same type of water bottle. (Police IC left 20:20 hrs - will rtn in approx 20 mins) 20:26 Command SC 06 Found red Brody mnt bike like Subj’s with broken front forks at bottom of a trail ladder. Checking for signs of Subj. 20:27 SC 12 Command SM ordered SC 12 to move to SC 06’s loc to help search area where bike found. Loc = GR 903256. 20:35 20:39 Command Command SC 06 SC 12 Sc 12 has arrived SC 06’s loc and is assisting in area search. Subj located / unconscious; SC 06 starting F.A.; vitals and loc to follow but request heavy F.A. kit with oxygen be brought. 20:40 SC 14 Command Report to Command to move heavy F.A. and oxygen to SC 06. (SC 14 dispatched to SC 06 at GR 905257 at 20:45 hrs)
    26. 26. 7. Emergency Signals A) The distress signal - life or limb • MAYDAY, MAYDAY, MAYDAY, this is Sunshine 01, Sunshine 01, Sunshine 01, We are at Victor’s Landing My team has been hit by an avalanche, over. • Sunshine 01, Sunshine 01, Sunshine 01, This is Sunshine Command, Sunshine Command, Sunshine Command, Received MAYDAY, over. ALL STATIONS CEASE ALL TRAFFIC until agency in command (ex. Coast Guard) clears the emergency.
    27. 27. 7. Emergency Signals cont. B) The urgency signal – safety of ship, vehicle, plane, person • PANPAN, PANPAN, PANPAN, this is Sunshine 02, We are at the Chapman Creek Bridge One member of our team has fallen and is injured, over. • Sunshine 02, This is Sunshine Command, Received PANPAN; I am standing by to receive details, over. ALL STATIONS CEASE ALL TRAFFIC until emergency is over.
    28. 28. 7. Emergency Signals cont. C) The safety signal - safety of navigation or weather • SECURITY, SECURITY, SECURITY, this is Penak, All GSAR teams should be advised that extreme westerly winds and snow are forecasted in the search area for the next twelve hours, over. • Penak, This is Sunshine Command, Received SECURITY, and I will confirm that all GSAR teams understand, over.
    29. 29. 7. Emergency Signals cont. D) the signal for accidents during mock operations and training scenarios:  NoDuff, NoDuff, NoDuff This is Sunshine 08 We are at the rappel site A member has been hit by a falling rock, over.  Sunshine 08 this is Sunshine Command Received No Duff, send details, over ALL STATIONS CEASE ALL TRAFFIC until emergency is over.
    30. 30. Confidentiality of Comms • Remember that you must not discuss operational correspondence outside of your GSAR unit
    31. 31. 8. Questions and Practice

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