The
League of
Nations:
J. Marshall 2013
Collective Security
• New world order: “to make the world
safe for democracy.”
• 14 Points: “guarantees of political
indep...
3 Goals
• International cooperation: meet in
an assembly
• Arbitration: submit disputes to 3rd
party
• Collective security...
Article 10 Article 12 Article 16
to stop external
aggression and
respect territorial
integrity and
existing
independence o...
MEMBERSHIP
• 1919 Allies (incl. Japan) +
Dominions and India =
original members
• 1926 + GeGermrmanyany (leaves 1933)
• 19...
Successes Failures
• Supervised Saar for 15
years
• Managed Danzig for 15
years
• 1921 settled
Sweden/Finland dispute
over...
Reparation Adjustments
Dawes Plan 1924 Young Plan 1930
5-point plan:
•Allies out of Rhur
•Germany to pedge
govt $ to repar...
• Russia no longer an ally
• USA isolationist
• British becoming revisionist
• Keep Germany weak: 1923 occupation of Rhur
...
Other efforts at peace
• Locarno Pact, 1925 (guarantee borders)
• Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928 (denounce war)
• Washington Co...
The
Arguments
   
   
3. Isolationism
-The League suggested America was promising to 
send its troops to settle every little conflict around...
FlawsFailures
USA did not ratify Paris Peace
Unanimous was vote required to act
Tradition of nationalism/self-
interest...
The League
in Cartoons
   
1. Why
elephants?
2. Why the
names?
3. What is being
parodied?
What clues are given to
identify the characters?
What event, policy or
movement is being
illustrated?
Is the cartoonist tr...
To what cliché is the
cartoonist alluding?
What does the
cartoonist seem to
be saying?
What hints does the
cartoonist give...
This slide seems to
contradict the tone
of the others. How
could that be?
Are symbols
used?
How is the
world
divided?
What is the
intended
message?
There are
two clichés
being
parodied; can
you id...
What
does this
cartoon
suggest?
Where and
when was
this
cartoon
published?
League of Nations
League of Nations
League of Nations
League of Nations
League of Nations
League of Nations
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League of Nations

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A History 12 lesson covering the League and the Treaty of Versailles. Some American political cartoons are included at the end.

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  • The Tsar of Russia had the idea of a similar league when he sponsored the first Hague Conference in 1899 (this created the Hague Court of Arbitration). Many statesmen pondered such a league: ex. Gen Smuts of S.Africa and Lord Robert Cecil, Brit Undersecretary of State for Foreign Affairs. BUT Woodrow Wilson made the idea widely popula.r
  • First Assembly at Geneva 1920 = 43 members 1926 = 59 members 1933 Germany leave (Hltler in power) USSR only member expelled: 1940 USSR expelled for attack on Finland 1932 Lytton (Brit.) Commision (with an Amer. Ger. Ital. and Rus) announced blame on Japan in 1933 – Japanese delegation walked out after an angry reply stating Japan’s claim and denying she would let the world interfere (claimed she won it from Russia)
  • Italy had seized Corfu
  • Both were USA bankers Dawes: Payments to start at 250 million and rise to 600 million. The loan was 200 million. All troops were out of Rhur by 1925. Young: When Germany defaulted in 1932, the Lausanne Conference set a new total of $750 million which Germany never paid. The ACTUAL TOTAL OF PAYMENT RECEIVED WAS ABOUT 5 BILLION.
  • Many Brits thought the Treaty was too harsh on Germany. In 1922 Brit, Belgium, and Italy voted 3 to 1 against France to occupy the Rhur (80% of German coal and steel) when Germany couldn’t pay reparations. Poincare hoped to bring Gerny to her knees – instead massive passive resistance. Maginot line failure 1) not build along common French-Belgian border 2) planned for static warfare – ended at Sedan (tanks and planes)
  • Locarno: UK, Fr, Bel, It, Ger: existing borders + DMZ. Also to make no war (UK to guarantee) 1924-1929 = only REAL peace in interwar period. Kellogg-Briand/Pact of Paris : supported by USA – NOT a formal treaty – declaration by 15 nations (incl GER and USSR) – simply denounced war) Wash Conf. = Wash Treaty, 1922 with USA, UK, FR, It, Jap: = build no new battleships for 10 years, Tonnage reduced to a ratio (Japan mad) London Conf = Same 5 countries meet to reduce tonnage. Fr and It got in quarrel and left. The 3 others agreed to reduce ALL types of ships. Geneva Conf = 60 nations! (incl USA, GER, USSR pleadge arms reduction BUT 1933 Hitler in power – takes GER out of Confer. + out of League.
  • The yellow sides are adapted from www.johndclare.net/League_of_Nations3_Whyno
  • Hoare-Laval - pg 18 of Falk handbook
  • The yellow sides are adapted from www.johndclare.net/League_of_Nations3_Whyno
  • William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was the 27th President of the United States. He continued to advocate world peace through international arbitration, urging nations to enter into arbitration treaties with each other and promoting the idea of a League of Nations even before the First World War began. When World War I did break out in Europe in 1914, however, Taft founded the League to Enforce Peace. He was a co-chairman of the powerful National War Labor Board between 1917 and 1918. Although he continually advocated peace, he strongly favored conscription once the United States entered the War, pleading publicly that the United States not fight a "finicky" war. He feared the war would be long, but was for fighting it out to a finish, given what he viewed as "Germany's brutality."
  • Henry Cabot Lodge (May 12, 1850 – November 9, 1924) was a US statesman, a Republican politician, and a noted historian from Massachusetts. While the title was not official, he is considered to be one of the first Senate Majority leaders and was the first Senate Republican Leader. He is best known for his positions on foreign policy, especially his battle with President Woodrow Wilson in 1919 over the Treaty of Versailles, which the United States Senate never ratified. Philander Chase Knox (May 6, 1853–October 12, 1921) was an American lawyer and politician who served as Attorney General and U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania and was Secretary of State from 1909-1913. William Edgar Borah (June 29, 1865 – January 19, 1940) was a prominent Republican attorney and longtime United States Senator from Idaho noted for his oratorical skills and isolationist views. Borah emerged as leader of the "Irreconcilables," a group of senators noted for their uncompromising opposition to the treaty and the League. During 1919 Borah and Johnson toured the country speaking against the treaty in response to Wilson's own speaking tour supporting it. Borah's impassioned November 19, 1919, speech on the Senate floor in opposition to the treaty and League of Nations was contributive to the Senate's ultimate rejection of it.
  • Re:Abe Lincoln chopping down the cherry tree.
  • A pipe dream.
  • Wilson as the conductor of the League.
  • Being pulled in all directions. My hands are tied.
  • The Rabbit. “My offensive equipment being practically nil, it remains for me to fascinate him with the power of my eye.” Punch Magazine, 1920
  • League of Nations

    1. 1. The League of Nations: J. Marshall 2013
    2. 2. Collective Security • New world order: “to make the world safe for democracy.” • 14 Points: “guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.” Wilson insisted the Covenant be in all five Paris peace treaties
    3. 3. 3 Goals • International cooperation: meet in an assembly • Arbitration: submit disputes to 3rd party • Collective security: sanctions vs. force
    4. 4. Article 10 Article 12 Article 16 to stop external aggression and respect territorial integrity and existing independence of all members NO INTERFERENCE if worry of war, members agree to arbitration OR enquiry of disputes + no war until 3 months after Council’s decision COOLING OFF war on one is war on all and all will cut off trade and commerce with offender. SANCTIONS AS ENFORCEMENT
    5. 5. MEMBERSHIP • 1919 Allies (incl. Japan) + Dominions and India = original members • 1926 + GeGermrmanyany (leaves 1933) • 1933 JaJappanan leaves • 1934 + UUSSRSSR (expelled 1940) • UUSSAA never joined
    6. 6. Successes Failures • Supervised Saar for 15 years • Managed Danzig for 15 years • 1921 settled Sweden/Finland dispute over Aland Islands • 1923 settled Greece/Italy dispute over Island of Corfu • 1925 settled possible Greece/Bulgaria war • Internation Labour Office improved child labour, min. wages, working hours • Mandatory powers usually unwilling to give up control/disallowed League inspection • World Court could be opted out • Countries left rather than comply • Collective security lacked “bite” Ex. Manchuria 1931 Abyssinia 1935
    7. 7. Reparation Adjustments Dawes Plan 1924 Young Plan 1930 5-point plan: •Allies out of Rhur •Germany to pedge govt $ to reparations •Payments start low but get higher •Payments still tied to German prosparity •Foreign loan to get Germany started Reduction •Total cut from $33 to $29 billion •Occupation of DMZ to end *** This was carried out and the Allies lost their pressure point with Germany ***In 1932 Germany defaulted; Hitler cancelled payments 1937.
    8. 8. • Russia no longer an ally • USA isolationist • British becoming revisionist • Keep Germany weak: 1923 occupation of Rhur • Maginot Line • Treaties of mutual assistance: a) Belgium 1920, b) Poland 1921, c) Little Entente: Czech. 1924 Rumania 1926 Yugoslav. 1927
    9. 9. Other efforts at peace • Locarno Pact, 1925 (guarantee borders) • Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928 (denounce war) • Washington Conf., 1921 (restrict size of navies) • London Conference, 1930 (…navies) • Geneva Disarm. Conf., 1932 (arms reductions) disarmament
    10. 10. The Arguments    
    11. 11.     3. Isolationism -The League suggested America was promising to  send its troops to settle every little conflict around  the world.  Americans had been appalled at the  carnage of the First World War.   -Should America be dragged into such disputes? = NO   
    12. 12. FlawsFailures USA did not ratify Paris Peace Unanimous was vote required to act Tradition of nationalism/self- interest or: old habits die hard Failure: Manchuria 1931 (Lytton Commission) Failure: Abyssinia 1935
    13. 13. The League in Cartoons    
    14. 14. 1. Why elephants? 2. Why the names? 3. What is being parodied?
    15. 15. What clues are given to identify the characters? What event, policy or movement is being illustrated? Is the cartoonist trying to sway your opinion? Is there any bias?
    16. 16. To what cliché is the cartoonist alluding? What does the cartoonist seem to be saying? What hints does the cartoonist give to ensure the audience gets the intended message?
    17. 17. This slide seems to contradict the tone of the others. How could that be?
    18. 18. Are symbols used? How is the world divided? What is the intended message? There are two clichés being parodied; can you identify them?
    19. 19. What does this cartoon suggest?
    20. 20. Where and when was this cartoon published?
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