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Introduction to The Great Depression and the New Deal

Introduction to The Great Depression and the New Deal






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  • RELIEF / / RECOVERY / / REFORM <br />
  • Owners let tenants use the land for a share of the crops produced. <br />
  • Using handouts, have students names the agencies on the stamp. <br /> Ex. re. success: private power companies were opposed to the TVA <br />
  • Hoover Dam <br />
  • Harry Hopkins – use handouts to discover which agencies he ran: <br /> Ie. first = FERA = May 1933 Fed Emerg Relief Agcy(p. 120 from Howarth text) <br /> next = WPA = April 1935 Works Progress Admin p.121 Howarth text) <br />
  • Caption: Meanwhile What About the Main Line Express? <br /> Source/Date: Saturday Evening Post, August 18, 1934 <br /> Ultimate Source(if different): <br /> Creator: Herbert Johnson <br /> Remarks: One of many anti-New Deal cartoons in the Post. All the utopian, dreamy experiments are holding up the business express -- a common conservative critique. <br />
  • Anti-New Deal Cartoon, 1936 <br />
  • Title New Deal: Cartoon, 1943 Artist Granger <br /> Description NEW DEAL: CARTOON, 1943. American cartoon by Clifford Berryman, 1943, illustrating President Roosevelt&apos;s remark that &apos;Dr. Win the War&apos; was supplanting &apos;Dr. New Deal&apos; in the priorities of his administration. <br />

Introduction to The Great Depression and the New Deal Introduction to The Great Depression and the New Deal Presentation Transcript

  • The New Deal Blessing or Curse? J. MARSHALL, 2008
  • Reasons for the Crash and other factors that led to depression • The stock market was a relatively new thing stocks vs. gold (traders and buyers were inexperienced) • Buying on margin - a license to print money • Panicked selling over almost a week caused the Wall St. market to collapse on Black Tuesday, Oct 29, 1929 ke did ma ot caus dn rash di e. The c g wors rin e suffe th it ssion e e Depr e th
  • Other economic problems • The price of wheat had been falling since 1927: over-production didn’t drop so prices did farmers’ mortgages suffered: no cash means no new tractors • Manufacturers were over-producing consumer goods = few consumers = layoffs = less spending money = fewer consumers • USA protectionist tariffs = trade barriers for all • Germany’s inability to pay reparations affected the Allies’ ability to repay loans to USA
  • The Beginning was Worst: Looking at Canada • Canada’s economy was very closely connected to the USA - trading/branch plants/investors: – Wheat (40% of world supply) – Newsprint (65% of world supply) • As the economy failed people lost their jobs and the ability to pay rent: vagrancy meant jail time • To collect POGEY or the “DOLE” (Relief vouchers) one had to publicly declare her poverty: why would so may do without relief? • Private charity/soup kitchens
  • Laissez Faire - let it be Women and their children suffered as men looked for work, often “riding the rods”
  • Herbert Hoover 1928-1932 • Rich/Republican • Blindsided by the Depression • Didn’t want to threaten the “American Way of Life” (free enterprise) = Hoovervilles
  • On the eve of FDR’s inauguration
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt 1932-1945 • Democrat • Called Keynes a “fool” (interesting) • “Nothing to fear…” • New Deal - 3 Rs • First 100 Days Relief Recovery Reform
  • FDR listened to the economist: “SPEND YOUR WAY OUT OF DEPRESSION” John Maynard Keynes (“Canes”) ug ig eno b ent is m govern e problem Only h l with t to dea h
  • Herbert Hoover vs. Roosevelt • Hoovervilles • Hoover’s strategy was to lower interest rates the problem was too big! • FDR’s 100 days in 1933 – – – – – Close banks for three days New Deal = “alphabet agencies” Every letter to the President will be answered End Prohibition create CONFIDENCE and give LEADERSHIP
  • min nal Recovery Ad Natio Tennessee V alley Authority W o r ks Public Admin Works Progress Admin gricultural A Adjustment Admin
  • Mass Communication • Fireside Chats the soap box is dead! • All letters to the President will be answered! (1000s / day)
  • Millions were Suffering • Sharecroppers were displaced ex. Grapes of Wrath
  • Eleanor Roosevelt
  • Alphabet Agencies • Success was mixed C po or eS at r te? ta
  • What did they do? WPA? Make work?
  • How successful were they? • Is a minimum wage a good thing? • Predict outcome for workers? …for owners? …for the country? Blue Eagle!
  • W5 ? GOP?
  • Separating myth from reality…
  • FDR Hopkins “Just in case they ever wanted to slow down,” Mar 5, 1936
  • 1937 saw a new recession.
  • Meanwhile What About the Main Line Express?
  • Bias?
  • When did the debt rise the most?
  • Search for arguments on the effectiveness of The New Deal: • • • • Statistics New Deal Effectiveness New Deal Criticism New Deal New Deal Extended the Depression • Benefits of the New Deal • Damage of the New Deal