Dictators' Economies in the Inter-war Years
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Dictators' Economies in the Inter-war Years

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A comparison of the economic platforms and programs of the Soviet, Fascist and Nazi regimes in the inter-war period (for use in History 12 in B.C., Canada(

A comparison of the economic platforms and programs of the Soviet, Fascist and Nazi regimes in the inter-war period (for use in History 12 in B.C., Canada(

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  • Mussolini at the wheel of an Alpha Romeo/ The Grand Fascist Council <br />
  • Mussolini at the wheel of an Alpha Romeo/ The Grand Fascist Council <br />
  • Mussolini at the wheel of an Alpha Romeo/ The Grand Fascist Council <br />
  • Watermark = Beauty of Labour Office project of beautifying industry. <br />
  • High unemployment was addressed so that by 1938 there was a labour shortage. The autobahn was first floated in 1921 as cars became more popular, but reparations and inflation made the project impossible. Hitler got it started in 1933. <br />
  • High unemployment was addressed so that by 1938 there was a labour shortage. The autobahn was first floated in 1921 as cars became more popular, but reparations and inflation made the project impossible. Hitler got it started in 1933. <br />
  • High unemployment was addressed so that by 1938 there was a labour shortage. The autobahn was first floated in 1921 as cars became more popular, but reparations and inflation made the project impossible. Hitler got it started in 1933. <br />
  • Top Left: Workers of the National Labour Front in govt project (similar to WPA in USA); Top Centre: women prisoners at Auschwitz fill labour shortage in 1942; Top right: Polish farm workers in 1940 after occupation; Bottom left: Kdf wagon – “Strength Through Joy” program – keep the workers happy; Bottom right: synthetic rubber trade display – science helping meet the need for autarchy. <br />
  • Guns or Butter: should the economy be used to improve the standard of living by producing consumer products, or should it be used for militarization? <br />

Dictators' Economies in the Inter-war Years Presentation Transcript

  • 1. The Rise of Dictators Comparing Economic Plans J. Marshall, 2009
  • 2. Russia in 1921 Under Lenin, Russia was suffering at the end of the Civil War: – Devastated land, farms ruined, food supplies exhausted – Drought and effects of war led to famine – 50-90% of people starving – Industrial production broke down completely – Bolsheviks destroyed the economy with their enemies – Riots / open rebellion
  • 3. Lenin’s NEP • Re-established limited economic freedom in an attempt to rebuild agriculture and small industry • Heavy industry remained nationalized • It proved shrewd and successful politically and economically • Compromised with peasants to speed recovery • Returned to pre-WWI levels • Compromise with capitalism, small private operations, profit, • Remember Kulaks • Created internal political conflict “From the NEP Russia will (be)come the Socialist Russia” 1921
  • 4. Stalin • Ends NEP • “Socialism in one country” - no world revolution, internal focus • Soviet industry 50-100 years behind • 5-Year Plans (revolution from above) – – – – Build strong base of heavy industry Self-sufficiency Modern infrastructure Generate new attitudes, loyalties, and new socialist identity – 250% increase in industrial output • GOSPLAN - oversaw implementation
  • 5. Stalin • Eliminate private enterprise and capitalism, private ownership (from NEP), and propertyowning peasants • Challenge by Kulaks – Wealthy peasant class • Collectivization – – – – Agricultural plan to eliminate private ownership of land Used agricultural funds to help industry Destroyed Kulaks By 1932, almost all peasants lived on collective farms, but at a high cost – Famine resulted as people destroyed crops and slaughtered animals/Stalin sells grain overseas
  • 6. Hoarding, 1929 Collective Farm State Farm, 1932 Famine, 1933
  • 7. Stalin • Results – Collectivization brought victory for communist ideologues – Agricuture supplemented industrial growth – Collectivization called “the second serfdom” minimized power in rural areas – Millions killed or died of famine – Industry produced 4 times as much in 1937 as 1928 – Urban migration of more than 25 million – Increased government control of labor and agricutural workers – Agricultural workers won private plots (22% on 4%) – Avoided economic contraction of the west
  • 8. • Started out as a revolutionary left-wing journalist • Verbal assaults on rival socialists win him favor with conservatives Mussolini
  • 9. Mussolini • He allowed followers to believe he was opposing the Reds • Savior of law and order and property
  • 10. Mussolini • He allowed followers to believe he was opposing the Reds • Savior of law and order and property Red Ru le Capture a product ll s. Murder those who en for the law ce . Blow up barrack s. Liberate prisone rs . Burn pu bli records c of indebte dness.
  • 11. Mussolini • He allowed followers to believe he was opposing the Reds • Savior of law and order and property Red Ru le Capture a product ll s. Murder those who en for the law ce . Blow up barrack s. Liberate prisone rs . Burn pu bli records c of indebte dness.
  • 12. Cult of Personality
  • 13. Mussolini Economics • Mussolini condemned laissez-faire capitalism but also Marxist appeals to class • Introduced the corporate state--economy run as 22 separate corporations with reps from business, fascist organized labor unions, and the state. • State interest dictated policy and production priorities • Allowed private property and profit
  • 14. Mussolini Economics • Mussolini condemned laissez-faire capitalism but also Marxist appeals to class • Introduced the corporate state--economy run as 22 separate corporations with reps from business, fascist organized labor unions, and the state. • State interest dictated policy and production priorities • Allowed private property and profit
  • 15. Mussolini Economics • Mussolini condemned laissez-faire capitalism but also Marxist appeals to class • Introduced the corporate state--economy run as 22 separate corporations with reps from business, fascist M organized labor unions, and the state. • State interest dictated policy and production priorities • Allowed private property and profit
  • 16. Let the workers feel they have a voice in this top-down administration of the economy.
  • 17. Hitler • De-emphasized anti-capitalist elements to win support of middle-class • Vowed to fight Bolshevism • Germany devastated from WWI, reparations, and Great Depression • Unemployment at 43% in 1932 • He promised Germans economic, political, and international salvation • Rejected free market capitalism and advocated govt. programs to bring recovery
  • 18. Hitler’s Economic Plan • Outlawed strikes • Professional organizations were swallowed, communications and universities taken over • He promised economic recovery--work and bread and he delivered • Public works program to build infrastructure, appointed Schacht as central banker, helped restore credit and business S
  • 19. Strength Through Joy
  • 20. Hitler’s Economic Plan • Rearmament • Unemployment dropped from 6 million in 1933 to 1 million in 1936 (shortage of workers by 1938) • Improved standard of living, business profits rose sharply and recovery was tangible • 1936: 4-Year Plan – Promote self-sufficiency (autarky) in strategic commodities – Independent labor unions replaced by National Labor Front, state-run union – Projects like the autobahn
  • 21. Leftist newspaper parody of remilitarization, 1935 or Butter ? Guns
  • 22. Assignment: In a mini-essay, compare and contrast the economic policies of Stalin, Mussolini, and Hitler. Be sure to include their philosophical approaches and the outcomes that were realized. think: Government / Industry / Workers / Population-at-large
  • 23. End