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Motivational elements and techniques

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  • 1. CULTIVATING MOTIVATION Motivation element Role Tip for instructors/presenters Expectancy I am motivated because I believe I can be successful in the activity Break an activity into smaller steps ! Each step should be challenging but not overwhelming Value I am motivated because performing this activity has value Provide learning/discussion experiences that are authentic and demonstrate real-world applications Attributions My beliefs about why things happen to me can motivate me Provide feedback on audience performance.  For example, "you ran a good database search because you spent a lot of time identifying keywords beforehand" ! Help your audience understand why bizarre results or mistakes happen ! Help your audience cultivate patience and problem-solving skills Social influence Social interactions can motivate me to participate Encourage teamwork, check in with groups for accountability, and assign responsibilities to individual team members Models  Following examples and prompts helps me to participate Provide examples and walkthroughs of learning strategies or problem-solving techniques Self-efficacy  I am motivated because I believe that I can learn or perform an activity Provide procedures or worked examples to help your audience see that the activity/learning is doable Needs/goals I am motivated by needs/goals that I want to meet Articulate the relevance of the activity/topic to your audience's goals and needs Mastery goal orientation I am motivated because I want to learn/master the content  Provide opportunities for your audience to choose the activities that are most relevant to their needs/goals "1
  • 2. CULTIVATING MOTIVATION Motivation element Role Tip for instructors/presenters Performance goal orientation I am motivated because I want to demonstrate my abilities or get a reward Relate the learning/activity to accomplishments and rewards Personal interest What I find interesting can motivate me Offer a choice in learning/ project activities   Encourage personalization and customization of activities Situational interest Interesting things in my environment can motivate me Use original source materials, incorporate novelty or whimsy, explore incongruent or unexpected cases Affect My moods and emotions can shape my motivation Demonstrate your own enthusiasm and positive emotions for the learning/activity Intrinsic motivation I engage in an activity because I find it enjoyable/fun Pose the learning/activity as a challenge with clear goals and rewards ! ! Pique your audience's curiosity   Provide your audience with a sense of control over the activity   Engage your audience with fantasy, such as simulations and games Extrinsic motivation I engage in an activity because it is a means to an end (like external rewards or avoidance of punishment) Relate learning/activity to organizational expectations and procedures ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Based on: Schunk, D. H., Pintrich, P. R., Meece, J. L., & Pintrich, P. R. (2008). Motivation in education: Theory, research, and applications. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson/Merrill Prentice Hall. Svinicki, M. D., McKeachie, W. J., & McKeachie, W. J. (2011). McKeachie's teaching tips: Strategies, research, and theory for college and university teachers. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. "2