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  • 1. 1Finding toxicology informationfor Green Science Policy Institute research studentsChemistry & Chemical Engineering LibraryJune 13, 2012ContentsWelcome ..................................................................................................................................................... 1Finding background information...................................................................................................... 2 Using encyclopedia and handbooks ............................................................................................ 2 Finding books ...................................................................................................................................... 3Find toxicity and other data in a chemical directory/dictionary ......................................... 4Find journal articles ............................................................................................................................... 5Finding the journal article (the full-text)....................................................................................... 8Other useful databases for finding journal articles ................................................................... 9Finding public policy and advocacy information about a chemical ................................. 10Final tips .................................................................................................................................................. 10WelcomeWelcome to the UC Berkeley Library! In terms of collection size, we are the 5thlargest amongst research libraries. We have over 11 million items across 29libraries.The libraries you are most likely to visit for your research are: Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Public Health DoeAbout this class You will follow worksheets to gain hands-on experience finding toxicological information. If you have any questions, ask the instructor for help. After each exercise, please do not move to the next section. Wait for a group discussion of the exercise.
  • 2. 2ObjectivesThis worksheet will guide you through the research workflow for findingtoxicological research literature. There are three goals: 1. Use an encyclopedia and dictionary to find background and introductory information on your chemical. 2. Find a book for more in-depth information 3. Find journal articles for research studies on your chemical topicFinding background informationUsing encyclopedia and handbooksWhen you’re just getting started on a research topic that you are unfamiliar with, tryfinding some background/introductory materials first.You can search encyclopedia, dictionaries, and handbooks for backgroundinformation on a chemical.Here are some resources: Wikipedia, http://www.wikipedia.org/ – In general, you don’t rely on Wikipedia articles for academic writing – but it’s a great resource for finding related scholarly literature. McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology, http://www.accessscience.com/index.aspx Ullmanns Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, http://uclibs.org/PID/12130 Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Elsevier, 2005), Public Health Library, Reference, RA1193 .E639 2005 Search the library catalog, OskiCat http://oskicat.berkeley.edu, for more encyclopedia and dictionaries.[Demonstration]Searching Ullmann’s Encyclopedia for flame retardantsReview discussion Look for references and citations listed in the encyclopedia article. Get ideas of different terms and words to use to help you search.
  • 3. 3Finding booksBooks can provide more in-depth information than an encyclopedia or dictionary.Let’s find a book on the topic of flame retardants and their impact on children. 1. Visit OskiCat at http://oskicat.berkeley.edu/. OskiCat is a library catalog that lets you find the books, journals, and electronic resources that are available at UC Berkeley. 2. In the search box, enter the keywords of our topic:flame retardant* child* a. Why are we adding the *? We’re doing a truncationsearch.We’ve truncated the terms retardant* and child* b. retardant* will search for words that begin with the letters retardant. It will find these words: retardant and retardants. c. child* will search for child, children, and children’s. 3. Click on the first search result. a. To view the online copy, under Link to online version(s), select the link. 4. Return to the OskiCat page, and click the Back to Results button at the top. 5. Click the second search result and view the record. a. There is a table that lists the Location and Call number. These are important details for retrieving the print item from the library shelf. b. To find books on a similar topic, click on one of the Subject headings near the bottom of the page. This finds books on that similar topic.Good to know ● Google Books, http://books.google.com/, lets you search within the text of the book. Try the Find in a library link.Review discussion ● Use truncation to expand the terms you are searching by.
  • 4. 4 ● You can search OskiCat by keywords, title, author, and more. ● Click on subject headings/terms to find related books.Find toxicity and other data in a chemical directory/dictionaryWe’re going to examine the flame retardant TCP (i.e., Tricresyl Phosphate). 1. Visit Wikipedia at http://www.wikipedia.org/ and search for TCP. 2. There are many terms that go by TCP. Look under Chemical Compounds, and click on Tricresyl phosphate. 3. In the article, on the right hand side table under Identifiers, look for the CAS number. a. Record the CAS number here: ________________________ b. The CAS number is a unique identification number that makes searching for chemicals a lot easier. A chemical can have many different names, but it only has one CAS Registry number. 4. Now visit the free chemical directory/dictionary ChemIDplus, http://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/ 5. In the Substance Identification box, look in the drop-down menu, and select Registry Number. In the search box, enter the CAS number for TCP. Click the Search button. 6. In the TCP record, on the left hand side, click the Full Record box. 7. A pop up window will open. Browse the record and review the toxicity data (with literature citations), physical properties, and other chemical names. 8. Close the pop-up window to return to the main TCP record. 9. In the middle of the page, you see links to information from other database resources. (FYI: You can learn about the differences between these databases by clicking on the “info” button next to the database name.) 10. Let’s find biomedical literature about TCP from the PubMed database. a. In the listing of databases, click on PubMed.
  • 5. 5 b. Expand the pop-up window and review some of the journal articles about TCP.Review discussion ● CAS Registry Numbers are standardized identifiers. They help you find information more easily. While a chemical can have many names, it will have only one CAS number. ● A chemical directory/dictionary can provide chemical property data, chemical structure diagrams, toxicity data, and links to the research literature. ● Other helpful chemical dictionaries and directories include: ○ ChemSpider, http://www.chemspider.com/ ○ Combined Chemical Dictionary, http://uclibs.org/PID/20834Findjournal articlesYou search a database to find journal articles on your research topic.You may already be familiar with Google Scholar, http://scholar.google.com/, butwe’re going to search the TOXNET database today. TOXNET has different searchoptions and lets you find journal articles that may not be in Google Scholar. TOXNETalso specializes in toxicology research literature and data.Let’s search on the topic of: The impact of flame retardants on children and pets 1. We begin by identifying the keywords. Keywords are the important words that express your research question. In this case, they are: flame retardants,children, andpets. We will use truncation again and search with the terms: flame retardant* child* pets 2. Visit TOXNET, http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/
  • 6. 63. In the search box, enter the keywords like so flame retardant* AND (child* OR pets) a. The brackets, AND, and OR terms let you search in a special way. This search will find journal articles that meets two conditions: (1) the title or abstract has the term flame retardant,and (2)the title or abstract has either one of the terms child or pets. b. This is known as a Boolean search. In your spare time, learn more about this technique at, http://lib.colostate.edu/tutorials/boolean.html4. Click the Search button.5. In the results before you, TOXNET searches a number of different databases. a. Under the heading References from Biomedical Literature, you can see it searched TOXLINE and DART which are databases of journal literature. b. Further below are searches in databases of chemical, toxicological, and environmental health data.6. Under the heading References from Biomedical Literature, click on TOXLINEto find toxicology journal articles.We have over 150 results.7. Click on a journal article title. This opens a record with the full details about the article. a. Read the Abstractfor a summary of the article. b. Most records have Medical Subject Headings listedas well. These terms may offer new topics/ideas/keywords to improve your search. And if you click on a subject heading, they will retrieve articles on that topic.8. Since we have over 150 results, let’s reduce the number of records to review by placing a limit. Limits are restrictions you place on your search results; they will remove less relevant records for you. a. At the top of the page, click on the Limitsbutton. b. Review some of the options for limiting results.
  • 7. 7 c. Let’s look for articles from the past year. In the option Only search documents added in the last ____ months, enter 12. d. Click Search. As you see in the search results, adding limits will filter out the articles that meets your particular interests.Good to know tips You can search for a specific chemical in TOXNET by CAS Registry Number. If you don’t find enough search results, you can expand your search.One approach is to start a new search and use more general search terms. The more general your search terms are, the more results you get. For example, California is more general than San Francisco, animal is more general than cat, and flame retardant is more general than TCP.Review discussion You search databases to find titles, abstracts, and page details of journal articles. Often times, you’ll find links to the full text article, but this is not the case for TOXLINE. You have a number of options for retrieving the full-text of journal articles. You can refine your search by using limits and Boolean operators. You can also narrow your search results by adding more search terms. To find related articles, click on subject headings to find articles on a similar topic. Better yet, look for a link to related citations/articles.
  • 8. 8Finding the journal article (the full-text)Databases help you find the titles and abstracts of journal articles – not always theactual full text of the journal article.There are several ways to find the full text.Option 1: UC-eLinksIn a database, look for a UC-eLinks button or link. Clicking it will search for anelectronic copy of the article.(Please note: If UC Berkeley does not subscribe to that journal, UC-eLinks willinform you that the article is not available.)Option 2: Look for a full-text linkFor example, in TOXLINE, clink on the link to a PubMed citation (if available). In theupper right hand corner, look for links to the full text article or to the journalpublisher. Click on them for access.Option 3: Search Google ScholarSearch by the article’s title in Google Scholar,http://scholar.google.com/Option 4: Search OskiCatOskiCat is the catalog of UCB Library’s collections. You search by the journal’s title,not by the article title. In an OskiCat record, look for a link to the online version and then browse for your article (by year, volume, and page number). If there is a print copy, you can visit the library to make a scan of an article.
  • 9. 9Option 5: Interlibrary loan (use only if the above options have failed)If UCB Library does not have a subscription to a journal, you can request aninterlibrary loan, which lets you borrow a copy for free from another library. Torequest an article, complete the form here: https://sunsite.berkeley.edu/ilb. It cantake 1-2+ weeks for an article to be emailed to you.Other useful databases for finding journal articlesA demonstration of databases you may find useful: PubMed, a database of journal articles in field of medicine and life sciences Web of Science has over 8,000 of the leading journals in the arts, humanities, sciences, and social sciences GreenFILE covers all aspects of human impact on the environment SciFinder covers 9,000 journals, patents, conferences, books, technical reports and dissertations related to chemistry, chemical engineering, materials science and the biomedical sciences. You need to create an account to search this database. Instructions here: http://www.cdlib.org/services/collections/scifinder/index.htmlTo find these databases: 1. Visit the UCB Library home page, http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/ 2. Click on Electronic Resources 3. Select Electronic resources: locate bytitle 4. Search for the database name.During the class demonstration, please note the following functionalities: Searching with Boolean operators Reducing the number of search results adding more keywords to your search or by using limits (limits may also be known by different names like refine or filter)
  • 10. 10 Finding similar articles through a related citations/articles search or by clicking ona subject heading Retrieving articles (through the various options available)Finding public policy and advocacyinformation about a chemicalHere is a helpful guide from the Doe Libraryhttp://www.lib.berkeley.edu/alacarte/subject-guide/60-Public-Policy-Research-Guide. Look under the Books+Articles tab.Final tips 1. Here are some subject guides from the Public Health Library that you may find useful: o http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/PUBL/SPH/PH270B_S12.html o http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/BIOS/espm_167.html 2. If you see a journal name abbreviation, decode it with one of these tools: o NCBI Journals, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.ezproxy.library.uvic.ca/journals o Science & Engineering Journal Abbreviations, http://scieng.library.ubc.ca/coden/ o All That JAS: Journal Abbreviation Sources, http://www.abbreviations.com/jas.asp o CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool, http://cassi.cas.org/search.jsp 3. Manage your search results and literature citations with special software: o Refworks – UC Berkeley has a site license to RefWorks, a Web-based bibliographic management program. With RefWorks, you can create a personal, searchable database of citations. These citations may be formatted and merged into your Microsoft Word documents as footnotes or a custom bibliography.RefWorks is free for UCB faculty,
  • 11. 11 staff, and students. Sign up for an individual account at: https://www.refworks.com/Refworks/newuser.asp o EndNoteis a citation management program you could buy. Details at http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/BIOS/endnote.html4. When you are not at the UC Berkeley campus, you need to set up your computer to use library resources. Set up VPN or the proxy server. Instructions are here: http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/Help/connecting_off_campus.html