1. 1Finding chemical research literaturefor the Organic Chemistry Spring 2012 Final ProjectChemistry & Chemical Engineering Library, UC BerkeleyFebruary 15, 2012About this class ● You will work in teams of two to three. You will take turns searching on the computer and rotate among members for each new exercise. ● You will work as a team and discuss any difficulties or ideas you have. ● If you have any questions, ask one of the instructors for help. ● After each exercise, please do not move to the next section. Wait for a class discussion of the exercise.OverviewThis worksheet will guide you through the research workflow for finding chemical literature foryour final assignment. There are three goals: 1. Use an encyclopedia and dictionary to find background and introductory information on your chemical topic 2. Find a book for more in-depth information 3. Find journal articles for research studies on your chemical topicYou will find chemical research literature for the following topic: Algae that catalyze biofuels
2. 21. Use a chemical encyclopedia 1. Chemical encyclopedia and dictionaries provide background, introductory, and general information on a chemical topic. 2. Here are two encyclopedia that will be helpful for your assignment: a. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, http://uclibs.org/PID/12129 b. Ullmanns Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, http://www.uclibs.org/PID/12130 3. In this example, we’re going to use Ullmann’s. So in a web browser, visit: http://www.uclibs.org/PID/12130 4. We’re going to search this encyclopedia on our topic, “algae that catalyze biofuels.” a. Typically, when you search an encyclopedia, you search by keywords. The keywords are the main terms/words that express your research idea. b. The three keywords for our topic are: (1) algae, (2) catalysis, and (3) biofuels. c. When we search Ullmann’s Encyclopedia we’re going to search in a special way. We’re going to use truncation. d. In the search box, enter: alga* cataly* biofuel* i.Why are we doing this? We’ve truncated the terms alga*, cataly* and biofuel* ii.cataly* will search for words that begin with the letters catalyand will find these words: catalyze, catalysis, catalysts, catalyst, catalyzed. iii.biofuel* will search for biofueland biofuels iv.alga* searches for algaeand algal e. Check the box Full text. (This is a search for your keywords in the title and in the body of the encyclopedia article.) f. Click the Search button. 5. Let’s review the search result titled Combustion by clicking on the Full Article (HTML)link. 6. Where does this article discuss algae? Search the web page for “algae” by using Ctrl+F to search the article for algae.
3. 3 a. You’ll find that algae are discussed in section “5.5.3. Biomass.” In the second to last sentence it notes that “Biodiesel can be made from algae or from oil (waste oil or oil seeds) via transesterification.” 7. Scroll to the bottom of the page. Here you’ll see the Referencessection. The references are the literature used by the author to write this article. They might be helpful for your assignment.Review discussion ● Search by keywords, not full sentences. ● Use truncation to expand your search terms. ● Check out the reference articles at the bottom of the encyclopedia article for more literature. ● Try these two encyclopedia for your assignment: a. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, http://uclibs.org/PID/12129 b. Ullmanns Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, http://www.uclibs.org/PID/121302. Use a chemical dictionaryUsing a chemical dictionary, let’s find chemical properties and reference articles on ethanol(which is a biofuel). 1. Visit Wikipedia at http://www.wikipedia.org/ and search for ethanol. 2. In the ethanol article, on the right hand side table under Identifiers, look for the CAS number. 3. Record the CAS number here: ________________________ 4. The CAS number is a unique identification number that makes searching for chemicals a lot easier. 5. Let’s go to theCombined Chemical Dictionary by visiting http://uclibs.org/PID/20834. 6. In the search box labeledCAS Registry Nos. enter the CAS number for ethanol. 7. Click the Search box. 8. In the search results, click on Ethanol.
4. 4 9. Review the result. Notice how chemical properties, chemical uses, and references are provided. You’ll see later, how to find a copy of these journal articles.Review discussion ● CAS numbers are standardized and help you find information more easily. ● The dictionary can give you chemical properties, structures, and further research literature. ● A free chemical dictionary you could use is ChemIDplus, http://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/.
5. 53. Find a bookBooks can provide more in-depth information than an encyclopedia or dictionary.Let’s find a book on the topic of biofuels. 1. Visit OskiCat at http://oskicat.berkeley.edu/. OskiCat is a library catalog that lets you find the books, journals, and electronic resources available at UC Berkeley. 2. In the search box, enter the keyword biofuel* 3. There are over 290 books and resources for this keyword. Let’s look for online books only (in other words, “filter for online books”). a. Click on the drop-down menu to the left of the Search button. b. Select Available online. c. Click the Search button. 4. Click on the title of an electronic book. 5. In the record, look beneathLink to online version(s) and click on the link.Let’s find a specific print book. Gasoline, diesel, and ethanol biofuels from grasses and plants by Ram B. Gupta, AyhanDemirbas New York, Cambridge University Press, 2010. 1. Visit OskiCat at http://oskicat.berkeley.edu/. 2. Click the drop-down menu to the left of the search box. 3. Select Title because we’re going to search by book title. 4. Type in the book’s title and click the Search button. 5. Note the Location, the Call Number, and the Status of the book. This lets you know which library has the book, where it is located on the shelf, and whether the book is available.
6. 6 6. Look at the Subject section of the record. If you click on one of these subject terms, you will find related books about that particular subject/topic.Review discussion ● SearchOskiCat by keywords, title, author. ● Click on subject terms to find related books. ● Try searching Google Books, http://books.google.com/, which lets you search within the body of the book.4. Find journal articles on your research topicYou search a database to find journal articles on your research topic.You may already be familiar with Google Scholar, http://scholar.google.com/, but we’re going tosearch the Web of Science database today. Web of Science has different search options andlets you find journal articles that may not be in Google Scholar.Let’s search on the topic of: sustainability issues with algae for biofuels development 1. We begin by identifying the keywords. They are: sustainability, algae, and biofuel. We will use truncation again and will search with the terms: sustainab* alga* biofuel* 2. Visit the Chemistry Library website at http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/CHEM/. Under the Research column, click on Web of Science. 3. The first search box lets you search by Topic. Enter the keywords: sustainab* alga* biofuel* 4. Click the Search button.
7. 75. Click on a journal article title. This opens a record with the full details about the article. Read the Abstractfor a summary of the article. Review the Author Keywordsand the Subject Category – these terms may offer new topics/ideas/keywords to improve your search.6. Click on the UC-eLinks button to retrieve an electronic copy of the article. (Please note: If UC Berkeley does not subscribe to that journal, UC-eLinks will inform you that the article is not available.)7. Let’s return to Web of Science and click on the Back to results list link.8. As you can see in the search results, we have over 150 results. Let’s refine/filter your results so there is less to review. a. Review the Refine Resultspanel on the left hand side in blue. b. Under Document Types, select Review and then click the Refine button. This will filter your search results for review articles only.Review articles are a helpful resource because they summarize a research topic and directs you to the key research studies. Primary journal articles are different - these papers describe a single experiment or study, rather than summarize a research topic. c. Now look back to the Refine Results panel. Under Publication Years, select 2011 and 2010 for articles published on those dates. Click the Refine button. d. Let’s see which of these review articles published in 2010-2011 deal with life cycle issues. Back to the Refine Results panel, there is a search box. Enter the keyword life cycleand click the Search button.9. If you don’t find enough search results, you can expand your search.10. One approach is to start a new search and use more general search terms. The more general your search terms are, the more results you get. For example, California is more general than San Francisco, animal is more general than cat, and biofuel is more general than bioethanol.11. Another approach is to use the Related Records search function.
8. 8 a. In your search results,click on a journal article title to view its record. b. In the blue panel on your right side, look under Related Records and click on the view related records link. c. This finds other articles that are on the same or similar topic.Good to know tips Improve your database searching by using Boolean searching.Boolean searching uses the words AND, OR, NOT. Combining keywords with these Boolean terms lets you expand or focus your search with a high level of control. Here’s a helpful tutorial to learn about Boolean searching: http://lib.colostate.edu/tutorials/boolean.html You can always start a new search by clicking on the Search link at the top left hand side of Web of Science.Advanced tips For advanced instruction on Web of Science searching, read http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/sciences/guides/wos_quick_guide For biomedical topics, try searching thePubMeddatabase. In the Chemistry Library website, http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/CHEM, select the PubMed link.Review discussion ● Expand your search results by finding related records and using more general search terms. ● Find fewer results by imposing restrictions with the refine function. ● Look for a UC-eLinks link and click to retrieve a copy of the journal article. These links are available in most databases when you are searching from the UC Berkeley campus.5: Find a journal article from a citation
9. 9A reference citation provides you the details for obtaining a copy of a book or journal article.Citations are usually found in the references or bibliography section of a paper.Here are two citations: Book citation Dodd, J.S. The ACS Style Guide, 2nd. ed.; ACS: Washington, D.C., 1997. Journal article citation Ehara, Y.; Sakamoto, K.; Marumo, Y. A method for forensic identification of vegetable oil stains: Rapid analysis of carboxylic acids with with methylesterfication using purge-and- trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. J. Foren. Sci.2001, 46, 1462-1469.How can you tell the difference between a citation for a book and for a journal article? ● Typically in the Chemistry field, the title of a journal is abbreviated (e.g., J. Foren. Sci.). ● Typically, the journal article citation has more numbers at the end to indicate volume/issue and page numbers.Here’s how you find a copy of a journal article from the citation: 1. Search Google Scholar, http://scholar.google.com/, by the journal article title. 2. If that doesn’t work: a. Find the full title of the journal from its abbreviated title by searching CASSI, http://cassi.cas.org/search.jsp. b. Copy down the full title. c. Visit http://ucelinks.cdlib.org:8888/sfx_ucb/az and click on the Citation Linker tab. d. Enter your citation details and click Continue.Final tips
10. 101. UC Berkeley Extension studentsmay visit the Library to use our books, databases, and journal articles. There are a few restrictions: a. To check out a book, you need to pay for a library card. Details at http://extension.berkeley.edu/info/geninfo.html#library b. Using our online library resources from home is restricted to UCB members with a valid library card. If you have a library card, here are instructions for off-campus access, http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/Help/connecting_off_campus.html.2. You can meet with a Chemistry Librarian for help Monday-Friday 9-5 by appointment. Outside of business hours, there is very limited reference assistance. Library hours are listed at http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/hours.3. You can make copies of print books or journal articles at the Library with a Cal1Card. Ask at the library’s circulation/reference desk for help.4. You can bring an external hard drive to the library to save articles from our public computers and then print them from home.5. A guide on making scientific poster presentation is available at: http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/CHEM/instruction/poster/poster.pdf6. A guide on the ACS citation stylefor preparing reference citations is available at:http://www.libraries.psu.edu/content/dam/psul/up/pams/documents/QuickGuideACS. pdf