Data and visualization


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  • Set up laser pointer, projector, laptops, handouts, water
  • Good morning, and I hope that your week at Berkeley is off to a good start.My name is Jeff, and I’m a librarian at the Chemistry Library. I’m happy to speak with you today. This is Lisa <Lisa introduces herself.>
  • You’re high school seniors. I know how exciting a time this is. What are some of your plans for next year?<applause>Congratulations!
  • If you’re wondering, where did I go to college? It was in Canada, at Simon Fraser University <mountains, Scottish culture>An important principle that applied to my college life is: Try different things (even personal characteristics), learn about yourself.Don’t worry too much about mistakes.And sometimes you can make a mistake. I was in the wrong major. My biggest fear was it was too late to change – I’m stuck in this major. I drifted along for a little while. Eventually I switched majors, and everything became good again. On making mistakes gracefully: If something is going wrong, recognize it quickly, say something, do something. If you make a mistake, apologize, try your best to fix it, accept it, and move on, and don’t be afraid of making mistakes in the future. Time does heal all wounds.
  • So what do I do as a librarian at Berkeley?Like all librarians, we collect and buy information and then we help people to find and use this information.Whether at your public library or at your future college library, always feel free to ask a librarian when you want to find information to help you:Complete an assignment or a taskUnderstand a topic betterFind entertaining stuff – like a good bookPeople want to help (They really do!) … you just have to ask nicely.
  • When I was planning this class, I thought back to when I was a high school senior.The years were 1995 to 1996. <explain 90’s activities> I remember being a high school senior in a class where we were introduced to us this new technology, this thing that would change our lives. I remember learning about this technology and I thought to myself I’m not going to use it, and it’s not that important.It was the internet, and boy was I wrong about how useful it is to my life and how it has changed my life.
  • So I was inspired to talk to you today about a change in the world of information that may have a great impact on your future life.1. More data is now available than ever. Information is now electronic, and it is easier to collect using computers, robots, etc. And a lot of this data is for free. And the amount of data available will only grow. This will change how you’ll learn in college and how you will work when you graduate from college. So, we’re going to discuss the importance and role of data.2. Afterwards, we’ll explore data visualization tools that will help us to work with and learn from this data
  • Part 1: The importance and role of dataFirstly, what is data?Data is a collection of facts and observations -- such as measurements, counts, description of things, etc.For example, <read factual statements>
  • Data are important because they Help you understand the world and make decisionsLead to wisdom
  • So how does data lead to wisdom?Here is a pyramid known as the data, information, knowledge, wisdom pyramid.Each pyramid level depends on the level before. Data lets you build information Information builds knowledgeKnowledge builds wisdomLet me demonstrate how data leads to wisdom.Data is the result of observation. So I’m going to make an observation now by conducting a quick survey of your class..
  • Here are Pepsi soft drinks on the left, and here are Coca-Cola soft drinks on the right. Hands up if you like Pepsi products more than Coca-Cola. Hands up if you like Coca-Cola products more than Pepsi? Hands up if you would drink neither – I preferwater.<make a tally on the board>
  • We can transform this data into information. Information describes a situation answering who, what, where, how many, and when questions.When I say that the majority of the CAL Prep Senior class of 2012 prefers ___ products. This is information. You are (in/out luck), because UC Berkeley only sells Pepsi products because of a contract with Pepsi. I don’t know if that affects your decision to come to Berkeley.
  • Knowledge is when you process information and apply it or put it into action. For example: If I were to bringyou lunch, I would buy more _____ products.
  • Finally, there is wisdom, which is the ability to increase effectiveness or the ability to do the right thing – that builds from our knowledge. For example:I know from our exercise that people have different preferences for soft drinks and it is important to survey and determine preferences before I buy you a drink.I know that I could advocate for having more than just one soft drink brand available at Cal.
  • So to summarize how data transforms to information then to knowledge and wisdom from our little informal survey.Data = x preferred Pepsi, y preferred CokeInformation = majority prefer ____ productsKnowledge = buy ____ products if I were buying this class a drinkWisdom = look for opportunities to advocate for change, knowing to ask and check about soft drink preferencesSo I hope you see that data leads to knowledge and helps us to do the right thing. It’s important to look for data to help us make decisions (e.g., personal finances)
  • Part 2 – We’re now going to explore data visualizations.Data is increasingly available. They are easy to collect via robots and computers, and then be shared freelyFor example, the government is releasing many public data sets > visit gallerySo we need tools to help us understand and put this data to use.
  • But raw data can be boring – columns of numbers and text.Here is data on the percent of the American population aged 2 years and older who are meeting the daily food group recommendations.Source:
  • Seeing images with our eyes is one of the quickest ways of communicating information – there is a lot of bandwidth in our eyes.And when we visualize data – as images, maps, animations, as opposed to rows and rows of numbers and text – it will help us to process and analyze large amounts of data.Here again, you can very quickly, see what the different regions of the US are eating. It’s the exact same data as before, but done visually.
  • Sometimes data can be visualized – but it may not provide a lot of useful information – but can be artistic or just interesting to look at.Aaron Koblin took data about air traffic in North America over a 24 hour period – data about the location of a plane in the air at various times of the day. And he made this animation of planes in the US, can see that:there is more activity on the East Coastin the mornings people fly east to west, When they fly to the West Coast, they’re primarily flying to California – because everyone wants to be here.Summary: Data when visualized can help you clearly understand a phenomenon – and it can also be a source of something quite artistic and beautiful.
  • We are now going to walk through some data visualizations that are interactive.Here is a data visualization of how people spent their day in 2008, time of day is at the bottom x-axis.The percentage of people are listed on the y-axis. The width of the band tells you the relative number of people engaging in the activity.You can see that more people watch tv and movies in the evenings than in the morning and day.As I hover the mouse over the chart, it gives me detailsI can customize how I view this data very easily. Let’s focus on your age group. <Click Ages 15-24>I can compare with people who are 65+ <click Age 65+>You can see that one of the perks of getting older is being able to watch more tv<Return to ages 15-24>If I’m just interested in educational activities, I can click to isolate this category of data <click purple section>As you can see, people engage in educational activities mostly in the day, and you can see a dip during lunch time.<Indicate Average time spent per day>
  • To summarize, interactive data visualizations are important because they:increase the amount of information you can take in at once (your visual bandwidth is great)help you see patterns more clearlyand the interactivity allows you to customize the data to answer specific questions you may have
  • When data visualizations are animated, you can actually see patterns and changes across time.Here is a map about jobs in the United States: blue dot represents that there net jobs are created in that region, while a red dot indicates that net jobs have been lostOn January 2007, there are lots of jobs being created across the country.I’m going to drag the slider to a later date, and you can see that it’s mostly red - lots of jobs were lost – the recession.<drag to beginning>, If I hit the play, we can see how this change actually happened.<read dates and the relative state of job creation/loss>At first, the East Coast had it worst But do not worry, the economy is improving, and jobs are being created lately
  • To summarize, when data visualizations are animated you can see patterns across time.
  • Sometimes news and events can lead to fear by a large number of people. visualization shows you different fears by color, the year, and the intensity of this fear. The intensity of the fear is measured by the intensity of the number of mentions in the media – like news, websites, online searches, etc.<Indicate the pink peak.> This represents the global concern/interest for swine flu.If I click on the pink peak, I see how popular the search term “swine flu” was in Google.You can see interest over time.You can see regional interest.And you can see what people were searching for exactly.
  • To summarize, data visualizations can show many layers of data and information quickly. We went from a nice overview image, to some very detailed numbers.
  • Google Public Data Explorer makes a lot of public data available for you to use and offers tools to help you visualize and analyze this data. > U.S. Census Bureau > Population in the US > “Explore the data” buttonHere is the US population <Indicate population at different dates,hover mouse cursor over graph line>Let’s view this data by state> Compare by > select state> “map chart icon” on the upper right hand side<Indicate the size of the circle represents/proportional to the population of the state><Hover over a circle for population details and relative size>Let’s look at the population of people in your age groupClick > Age group > Age 15-19 yearsLet’s look at the bar chart <click bar chart icon>I can see more clearly which states have the highest number of 15-19 year olds by the column height (CA, TX, NY)We can see the change in populations of teenagers over time <click the play button> - see how the population rises and fallsLet’s focus on our home state of CaliforniaSo, which county has more 15-19 year olds? Alameda County or SF County? Let’s compare. Returning to the line chart <click line chart icon>> Uncheck the United States box Click > arrow next to California for the dropdown menu of countiesCheck > Alameda and SF county boxes Uncheck > California box (because it makes the scale hard to read)Here we see it may be better to be a teenager in East Bay. San Francisco County has fewer 15-19 year olds as time goes on, while Alameda County is growing.We can also map the distribution of 15-19 year olds in California.Click > map chart iconThere are more teenagers in Southern California
  • To summarize, with these interactive data visualization, you can jump from view to view, graph to graph, to narrow in on any questions that may arise as you explore the data
  • Now is your opportunity to play with data visualizations.Split up into teams of 5. Hover around a laptop. Follow this worksheet.
  • These visualizations are very simple right now. But as time goes on, I’m sure they will become very powerful, rich, and intuitive. Let’s see what data visualizations will look like when you’ll be giving this class 16 years from now (and you’re in my position!).
  • To summarize our class today:Data leads to wisdomSo look for data.Try to understand and learn from them.Data visualization helps you to understand data quicklyPrepare for tools that will help you make use of dataIn your future career, build the tools yourself
  • Data and visualization

    1. 1. Data &VisualizationJeffery LooUC Berkeley Library
    2. 2. Who are we? Jeff Lisa
    3. 3. 2013 What are your plans for next year?
    4. 4. College experienceTry different thingsDon’t worry too much about mistakes
    5. 5. What does a librarian do? Help you find information! For an assignment/task To understand something better For entertaining materialsPeople want to help, just ask!
    6. 6. 19951996
    7. 7. Objectives for todayAs more data is available:1. Understand the importance and role of data2. Explore visualization tools that help you work with data
    8. 8. Part 1: Importance and role of dataData is a collection of facts and observations – such as:• measurements• numbers / counts• description of things This orange tabby cat weighs 14 lbs.This past Saturday,May, 5, 2012, thehigh temperature In 2009, there were 35,843was 71oF. students at UC Berkeley.
    9. 9. Data is importantHelps you to:• understand the world• make decisions Leads to wisdom
    10. 10. How does data lead to wisdom? Wisdom Knowledge Information Data
    11. 11. Survey
    12. 12. Data  InformationInformation describes a situationanswering who, what, where,how many, and when questions.The majority of the CAL PrepSenior class of 2012 prefers_______ products.
    13. 13. Information  Knowledge Knowledge is when you process information and apply it or put it into action. If I were to bring you lunch, I would buy more _____ products.
    14. 14. Knowledge  WisdomWisdom is the ability to increase effectivenessor the ability to do the right thing – that buildsfrom our knowledge. Wisdom • Important to survey people’s preferences • Advocate for soft drink diversity at Cal
    15. 15. DIKW summary • Survey students beforehand Wisdom • Advocate for change • Buy _____ for CAL Prep ClassKnowledge of 2012 • Majority preferInformation ________ • __ preferred Pepsi Data • __preferred Coca- Cola
    16. 16. Part 2: Data visualization to the rescueWith automated collection of data,more and more is available – and for free!
    17. 17. Raw data is boringPercent of population (over the age of 2) meeting foodgroup recommendations
    18. 18. Data visualizations Easier to understand data Our eyes have a lot of bandwidth Visuals helps us process large amounts of data • Graphs • Maps • Animations What US regions are eating
    19. 19. Data visualization as art Aaron Koblin , Flight patterns
    20. 20. Interactive data visualizationsHow do Americans spend their day? NY Times
    21. 21. Interactive data visualizationsCan process more informationHelp you see patterns quicklyCustomize analysis to your specificquestions
    22. 22. Animated data visualizations
    23. 23. Patterns across time
    24. 24. A timeline of global media scare stories Information is Beautiful
    25. 25. Many layers of data
    26. 26. Google Public Data Explorer and census
    27. 27. Explore questions as you go
    28. 28. Exercise
    29. 29. Exercise summaryPresently, simple visualizationsAs time goes on, they’ll becomemore powerful, rich, andintuitive
    30. 30. Class summary Data leads to wisdom Look for data  understand, learn Data visualizationUse and build tools for making use of data
    31. 31. Haiku summary More and more data Find them, learn from them, use them This is the future