“Learning technologies should be designed to increase, and not to reduce, the amount of personal contact between students and faculty on intellectual issues.”Study Group on the Conditions of Excellence in American Higher Education, 1984
Bombarded:hybrid courses, brain-based learning, blended courses, technology in the classroom, learner-centered teaching, etc.Focus and attentionNo such thing as multitasking, etc.Using emotions appropriatelyA little anxiety is good, a bit more is bad, etc.
About ~20 years ago, physics teachers began treating education as a research topic!Their findings were pretty grim"But the students do fine on my exams!“It appeared that students had been engaging in “surface learning” allowing them to solve problems algorithmically without actually understanding the concepts.
Was this just at Harvard (silly question)!Data from H.S., 2-year, 4-year, universities, etc.0.23 Hake gain on the FCI means that of the newtonian physics they could have learned in physics class, they learned 23% of it.Conclusion: Traditional physics lectures are all similarly (in)effective in improving conceptual understanding.
Enter Physics Education Research:An effort to find empirically tested ways to improve the situation.
Jeff’s results: Depending on the class 60-80% of my students do their WarmUps, self-reporting that they spend ~40 minutes reading/responding (very consistent average)
Questions are about NEW material
Results for time-spent question: A pretty steady average of ~40 minutes across many courses/levels/cohorts
Misconceptions, good efforts, superior explanations, metacognition, etc.Incorrect or incomplete responses are often particularly useful for classroom discussion.
Regarding clarifying of standards: Allows us to show model responses that are not teacher-generated.
Is this just about new energy being put into an old class?(This is a difficult confounding factor in assessing new teaching techniques.)
Is this just about new energy being put into an old class?
JUST IN TIME TEACHINGA 21ST CENTURY TEACHING TECHNIQUENameEACHER-SCHOLAR FORUM 2013@TSchoolDepartmentDR. JEFF LOATSDEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS
2THE EVIDENCE STANDARDTeachers can feel bombarded…I strive to be a scholarly teacher …Common (evidence-based) themes: • Focus and attention • Using emotions appropriately • Repetition and practice • Feedback
3In what area have you studied/taught?A) HumanitiesB) Natural sciences & mathematicsC) Professions & applied sciencesD) Social sciencesE) Teacher education …no surer way…
4In your teaching do you have a method forholding students accountable for preparing forclass?A) I don’t, but I ask/threaten really well.B) I use a paper method (quiz, journal, others?)C) I use a digital method (clickers, others?)D) I use Just in Time Teaching.E) I have some other method.
5OVERVIEW1. Motivation for change2. Basics of Just in Time Teaching3. Mock example4. Evidence for effectiveness5. Summaries
6FEEDBACK THAT WORKS“Improvement of performance is actually afunction of two perceptual processes. Theindividual’s perception of the standards ofperformance, and her/his perception of his/herown performance.”The Feedback Fallacy – Steve Falkenberg (via Linda Nilson)
7PHYSICS EDUCATION REVOLUTIONEric Mazur, Physicist at Harvard:
9University of Washington University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign University of Colorado
10TECHNIQUE & TECHNOLOGYTechnique:Just in Time Teaching Learner TeacherTechnology:Online question & response tools
11JUST IN TIME TEACHINGOnline pre-class assignments (“WarmUps”)First half - Students• Conceptual questions, answered in sentences• Graded on thoughtful effortSecond half - Instructor• Responses are read “just in time”• Instructor modifies that day’s plan accordingly.• Aggregate and individual (anonymous) responses are displayed in class.
12WHAT JITT IS NOT…JiTT is not about … online courses or distance learning. … computer-graded homework. … delivering content via the web.Goals of JiTT:• Student preparation• Obvious communication loop• Student ownership and buy-in• Create a community effort towards learning
13Consider a typical day in your class. What fractionof students did their preparatory work beforecoming to class?A) 0% - 20%B) 20% - 40%C) 40% - 60%D) 60% - 80%E) 80% - 100%
14WARMUP QUESTIONS• Every-day language• Occasional simple comprehension question• Mostly higher level questions (a la Bloom)• Perhaps any question is better than noneConnections to evidence: – Pre-class work reduces working memory load during class. – Multimodal practice (not learning styles): JiTT brings reading, writing and discussion as modes of practice.
15METACOGNITIONTwo questions end every WarmUp:“What aspect of the material did you find themost difficult or interesting.”“How much time did you spend on the pre-classwork for tomorrow?”Connections to evidence: – Forced practice at metacognition: Students regularly evaluate their own interaction with the material.
16CLOSING THE LOOPStudent responses:• Graded on thoughtful effort• Sampled and categorized for display• Quoted anonymouslyClosing the loop:• Respond to some students digitally• Class time shifts to active engagement.
17EFFECTIVE FEEDBACKFaulkenberg’s criteria for feedback:• Feedback doesn’t work if students don’t correctly perceive the performance standards.• Feedback doesn’t work if students cannot correctly evaluate their own performance.JiTT feedback loop:Clarify standards in low-stakes situations.Allows students to judge whether they havecorrectly evaluated their own performance.
18MOCK WARMUP QUESTIONStudents have developed a robot dogand a robot cat, both of which canrun at 8 mph and walk at 4 mph.A the end of the term, there is a race!The robot cat must run for half of itsracing time, then walk.The robot dog must run for half therace distance, then walk.Which one wins the race? Explain!
19WRITE A QUESTION AND SHARE...Imagine an introductory course in your discipline.Imagine a topic you discuss early in that course.Pick ONE type, write a question: – A “low level” question (remember, understand): Terms: “Define, repeat” or “describe, explain” – A “higher level” question (apply, analyze, evaluate) Terms: “Sketch, use” or “compare, estimate”Write for a few minutes, then to trade and answeryour neighbor’s.
20WHAT TOOLS TO USE?• Course management systems (Blackboard) (Ready to use, tools are imperfect to awful)• Free service from JiTTDL.org. (Designed just for JiTT, but extra login, and the site has not been improved in ~4 years)• Email (No setup, very direct, but tends to be overwhelming and discouraging)• Blogging tools (WordPress)?• Top Hat Monocle?
23STUDIED EFFECTIVENESSUsed at hundreds of institutionsDozens of studies/articles, in many disciplines:Bio, Art Hist., Econ., Math, Psych., Chem., etc. – Increase in content knowledge – Improved student preparation for class – Improved use of out-of-class time – Increased attendance & engagement in class – Improvement in affective measures
STUDENT FEEDBACK ON JITT315 students in 7 classes over 4 terms (roughly ±6%) Agreed orThe WarmUps have… Strongly Agreed…helped me to be more prepared 70%for class than I would otherwise be.…helped me to be more engaged in 80%class than I would otherwise be.…helped me to learn the material 64%better than I otherwise would…been worth the time they 57%required to complete
25WHAT MIGHT STOP YOU?In terms of the technique:Time, coverage, not doing your part, pushback…In terms of the technology:Learning curve, tech. failures, perfectionism…In any reform of your teaching:Reinventing, no support, too much at once…
26MY SUMMARYJiTT may be among the easiest research-basedinstructional strategies that you canconsistently integrate into your teaching.From an evidence-based perspective, JiTTaddresses often-neglected areas.As with all reforms, be prepared to find thatstudents know less than we might hope.
27YOUR SUMMARYFor yourself… or to share?What part of JiTT concept/process is the fuzziestfor you after this talk?What is the biggest reason you might not giveJiTT a try in one course next term?You can find these slides atwww.slideshare.net/jeffloats