Just-in-Time Teaching @CCD - Oct 2013 - Jeff Loats

Uploaded on

2-hour workshop on Just-in-Time Teaching.

2-hour workshop on Just-in-Time Teaching.

More in: Education , Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads


Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds



Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

    No notes for slide
  • “Learning technologies should be designed to increase, and not to reduce, the amount of personal contact between students and faculty on intellectual issues.”Study Group on the Conditions of Excellence in American Higher Education, 1984
  • One person: Bad teachers use constructivism because they have a defective DNAAnother: Good teachers have an education background
  • Bombarded:hybrid courses, brain-based learning, blended courses, technology in the classroom, learner-centered teaching, etc.Focus and attentionNo such thing as multitasking, etc.Using emotions appropriatelyA little anxiety is good, a bit more is bad, etc.
  • About ~20 years ago, physics teachers began treating education as a research topic!Their findings were pretty grim"But the students do fine on my exams!“It appeared that students had been engaging in “surface learning” allowing them to solve problems algorithmically without actually understanding the concepts.
  • Was this just at Harvard (silly question)!Data from H.S., 2-year, 4-year, universities, etc.0.23 Hake gain on the FCI means that of the newtonian physics they could have learned in physics class, they learned 23% of it.Conclusion: Traditional physics lectures are all similarly (in)effective in improving conceptual understanding.
  • Enter Physics Education Research:An effort to find empirically tested ways to improve the situation.
  • Jeff’s results: Depending on the class 60-80% of my students do their WarmUps, self-reporting that they spend ~40 minutes reading/responding (very consistent average)Others results come from ~ 40 faculty, ~30 higher ed technology folks and ~10 studentsFor this group:
  • Questions are about NEW material
  • Results for time-spent question: A pretty steady average of ~40 minutes across many courses/levels/cohorts
  • Is this just about new energy being put into an old class?(This is a difficult confounding factor in assessing new teaching techniques.)
  • Is this just about new energy being put into an old class?
  • This is not a “guess what I’m thinking” exercise


  • 2. In what (rough) area do you teach? A) Humanities B) Natural sciences & mathematics C) Professions & applied sciences D) Social sciences E) Teacher education …no surer way to offend… 2
  • 3. WARM-UP: ED.TECH. FOCUS How much of the educational technology efforts at your institution have been focused on replicating the traditional classroom vs. creating teaching and learning opportunities that simply weren't possible before? ~30% → Mentioned opportunities & support ~19% → Talked about specific people/programs ~19% → Said there is a good balance ~11% → Mentioned that adoption is low ~19% → Didn’t like the question
  • 4. WARM-UP: ED.TECH. FOCUS “What is a traditional classroom? Nuns with chalk, a blackboard and a projector (slide, film, overhead)?And how do you define "creating teaching and learning opportunities?"Tell me that and I'll be better able to answer your question” “Technology is neutral - it can be used for many purposes. Don't know the official ratio of traditional v alternative pedagogy...” “87%Traditional, 13% New”
  • 5. WARM-UP: ED.TECH. FOCUS “Most online classes are designed according to traditional classroom methods.They repleace the lecture/discussion format with the discussion tools, etc.”
  • 6. WARM-UP: ED.TECH. FOCUS “CCD appears to embrace new methods of instruction and technology, although the implementation is fragmented.” “Almost all of it, I'd say; however, not entirely. We have had a number of workshops/seminars on using chat technology,Twitter, or Second Life, to create a more collaborative space, but no one I know here is using it. Almost all the classes I know about still are the traditional format with rows of students facing the instructor.”
  • 7. WARM-UP:TEACHING HERITAGE Thinking about the college instructors you've had experiences with (including yourself), where do you think their methods and attitudes come from?Why do you think they teach the way that they do? ~70% → They teach the way they were taught ~19% → Inside their comfort zone ~22% → Education & training ~11% → Trial & Error ~22% → Personal drives & preferences ~7% → Because of research
  • 8. WARM-UP:TEACHING HERITAGE “Generally, instructors model what they have seen as students and add content and techniques from other sources as they continue in the field - perhaps some trial and error - what works...” “I teach the way I learned.”
  • 9. WARM-UP:TEACHING HERITAGE “Many college instructors teach based on how they were taught when they were students which is supplemented by professional development they received at the college where they teach.”
  • 10. WARM-UP:TEACHING HERITAGE “I suppose that it's self-replicating; we teach the way we were taught.We do what we know has 'worked' in the past. I think also that many of us are reluctant to innovate too much because we still have to cover X amount of material inY number of class periods, and one worries that trying out new things will reduce the amount of time we have to complete what is required of us on the syllabus.”
  • 11. THE EVIDENCE STANDARD 11 Teachers can feel bombarded… I strive to be a scholarly teacher … Common (evidence-based) themes: • Focus and attention • Using emotions appropriately • Repetition and practice • Feedback
  • 12. WARM-UP: ENFORCING PREPARATION In your teaching, do you have a method for holding students accountable for preparing for class? ~12% → I don’t, but I ask/threaten really well ~42% → Paper method (quiz, journal, others?) ~15% → Digital method (clickers, others?) ~4% → Just-in-TimeTeaching ~27% → Some other method 24% 49% 11% 4% 13% (others)
  • 13. OVERVIEW 13 Part I: 1. Motivation for change 2. Basics of Just inTimeTeaching 3. Examples & details Part II: 1. Evidence for effectiveness 2. Writing questions 3. Feedback from students 4. Summaries
  • 14. PHYSICS EDUCATION REVOLUTION Eric Mazur, Physicist at Harvard: 14
  • 16. 16 University of Washington University of Colorado University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
  • 17. FEEDBACK THAT WORKS 17 “Improvement of performance is actually a function of two perceptual processes.The individual’s perception of the standards of performance, and her/his perception of his/her own performance.” The Feedback Fallacy – Steve Falkenberg (via Linda Nilson)
  • 18. TECHNIQUE &TECHNOLOGY 18 Technique: Just inTimeTeaching Technology: Online question & response tools Learner Teacher
  • 19. JUST IN TIME TEACHING 19 Online pre-class assignments (“WarmUps”) First half - Students • Conceptual questions, answered in sentences • Graded on thoughtful effort Second half - Instructor • Responses are read “just in time” • Instructor modifies that day’s plan accordingly. • Aggregate and individual (anonymous) responses are displayed in class.
  • 20. WHAT JITT IS NOT… 20 JiTT is not about … online courses or distance learning. … computer-graded homework. … delivering content via the web. Goals of JiTT: • Student preparation • Obvious communication loop • Student ownership and buy-in • Create a community effort towards learning
  • 21. Consider a typical day in your class.What fraction of students did their preparatory work before coming to class? A) 0% - 20% B) 20% - 40% C) 40% - 60% D) 60% - 80% E) 80% - 100% 21 25% 43% 29% 11% 7% (others)
  • 22. WARM-UP: ROBODOG VS. ROBOCAT 22 Students have developed a robot dog and a robot cat, both of which can run at 8 mph and walk at 4 mph. A the end of the term, there is a race! The robot cat must run for half of its racing time, then walk. The robot dog must run for half the race distance, then walk.
  • 23. WARM-UP: ROBODOG VS. ROBOCAT Predict which one will win the race, and explain why you think so. ~38% → Robocat! ~19% → Robodog! ~19% → They tie! ~12% → Can’t tell! ~12% → Good math ~4% → Bad math ~27% → Good reasoning ~35% → Bad reasoning ~19% → Invalid arguments
  • 24. WARM-UP: ROBODOG VS. ROBOCAT “It depends on whether they both have the same distance to run/walk. ”
  • 25. WARM-UP: ROBODOG VS. ROBOCAT “Cats rule - dogs drool!” “Robot dog. Because dogs naturally walk more thaan cats. ” “The cat--it won the flip of the coin.” “The cat....To be honest, I used the resources I have and asked my colleague who is a physics major.”
  • 26. WARM-UP: ROBODOG VS. ROBOCAT “The robot cat will win. My reasoning for this is: -the dog will run for half the distance, but then walk the rest, which means he will be walking the same amount of distance but that also means that will take him longer to do the last half of the race. -the cat will run, no matter what, half the time, so her walking time is definitely less than the dogs walking time”
  • 27. WARMUP QUESTIONS 27 • Every-day language • Occasional simple comprehension question • Mostly higher level questions (a la Bloom) • Perhaps any question is better than none Connections to evidence: –Pre-class work reduces working memory load during class. –Multimodal practice (not learning styles): JiTT brings reading, writing and discussion as modes of practice.
  • 28. METACOGNITION 28 Two questions end everyWarmUp: “What aspect of the material did you find the most difficult or interesting.” “How much time did you spend on the pre-class work for tomorrow?” [Multiple choice] Connections to evidence: –Forced practice at metacognition: Students regularly evaluate their own interaction with the material.
  • 29. JUST IN TIME TEACHING A different student role: • Actively prepare for class (not just reading/watching) • Actively engage in class • Compare your progress & plan accordingly A different instructor role: • Actively prepare for class with you (not just going over last year’s notes ) • Modify class accordingly • Create interactive engagement opportunities Learner Teacher 29
  • 30. MAZUR AFTER 1YEAR 30
  • 31. ELSEWHERE? 31
  • 32. STUDIED EFFECTIVENESS 32 Used at hundreds of institutions Dozens of studies/articles, in many disciplines: Bio, Art Hist., Econ., Math, Psych., Chem., etc. –Increase in content knowledge –Improved student preparation for class –Improved use of out-of-class time –Increased attendance & engagement in class –Improvement in affective measures
  • 33. EXAMPLE STUDY: BIOLOGY 33 Marrs, K., 2005, “Assessment of JiTT on Student Learning” ‘Crammed’ in Biology N100 ‘Crammed’ in other courses A students 16% 44% B students 34% 63% C students 41% 65% D students 64% 71% F students 68% 69%
  • 34. FEATURES OF A GOOD QUESTION 34 What would a “good” response look like? – A paragraph? (too long) – One word? (too short) Make sure the reading is needed to respond (but a sentence straight out of the book shouldn’t work). Make sure a beginner can take a crack at the question Be concrete: – “Explain in 2-3 sentences.” – “Give two brief examples.” – “Explain how you got your estimate.”
  • 35. WRITE A QUESTION AND SHARE... 35 Imagine an introductory course in your discipline. Imagine a topic you discuss early in that course. Pick one type, write one question: – A “low level” question (remember, understand): Terms: “Define, repeat” or “describe, explain” – A “higher level” question (apply, analyze, evaluate) Terms: “Sketch, use” or “compare, estimate” Write for a few minutes, then to trade and answer your neighbor’s.
  • 36. FEATURES OF A GOOD JITTTOOL 36 All student responses on one webpage Auto-grading: 2/2 for anything by default. Click to email students from the response page. “Frequently sent responses” a bit automated. List of responses is either randomized or tracked to distribute instructor attention. Other “modern” web amenities, like autosave, time warnings, etc.
  • 37. SMALL ASIDE:TEXT EXPANDER 37 Every professor should have this! You define a short text string, such as “ttyl” When typed instantly replaced: “Talk to you later!” Best FREE tools forWindows: – Texter (simple with some advanced tools) – AutoHotKey (advanced and can do much more) Best tools for Mac: – TypeIt4Me (30 days free, $5 after that.Worth it)
  • 38. WHAT TOOLS TO USE? 38 • CMS/LMS (Blackboard, D2L, Moodle, etc.) Ready to use, tools… imperfect awful • Free service from JiTTDL.org. Designed just for JiTT, but extra login, and the site has not been improved in ~5 years • Students email responses Easy! usually overwhelming and awful • Blogging tools (WordPress)? • New tools (TopHat, Learning Catalytics)?
  • 39. STUDENT FEEDBACK ON JITT 315 students in 7 classes over 4 terms (roughly ±6%) The WarmUps have… Agreed or Strongly Agreed …helped me to be more prepared for class than I would otherwise be. 70% …helped me to be more engaged in class than I would otherwise be. 80% …helped me to learn the material better than I otherwise would 64% …been worth the time they required to complete 57%
  • 40. WHAT MIGHT STOPYOU? 40 In terms of the technique: Time, coverage, not doing your part, pushback… In terms of the technology: Learning curve, tech. failures, perfectionism… In any reform of your teaching: Reinventing, no support, too much at once…
  • 41. A POSSIBLE PLAN 41 Choose one course you will teach next term. 1. Write two questions for each lecture 2. One lower-level, one higher. 3. Give yourself 10 minutes to write each question 4. Write a standard (1st) metacognitive question 5. Discuss one question at the top of class, and one in the middle. Use the metacognitive responses as break points or highlights. 6. Find yourself wishing you had implemented Just inTimeTeaching in all your courses.
  • 42. MY SUMMARY 42 JiTT may be among the easiest research-based instructional strategies that you can consistently integrate into your teaching. From an evidence-based perspective, JiTT addresses often-neglected areas. Be prepared to find that students know less than we might hope. (Perhaps freeing?)
  • 43. YOUR SUMMARY 43 For yourself… or to share? What part of JiTT concept/process is the fuzziest for you after this talk? What is the biggest reason you might not give JiTT a try in one course next term? Contact Jeff: Jeff.Loats@gmail.com Slides: www.slideshare.net/JeffLoats I love talking and working with faculty, don’t hesitate to get in touch.
  • 44. JITT REFERENCES & RESOURCES 44 Simkins, Scott and Maier, Mark (Eds.) (2010) Just inTimeTeaching:Across the Disciplines, Across the Academy, Stylus Publishing. Gregor M. Novak, AndrewGavrini,Wolfgang Christian, Evelyn Patterson (1999) Just-in-TimeTeaching: BlendingActive Learning with WebTechnology. Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River NJ. K.A. Marrs, and G. Novak. (2004). Just-in-TimeTeaching in Biology: Creating an Active LearnerClassroom Using the Internet. Cell Biology Education, v. 3, p. 49-61. Jay R. Howard (2004). Just-in-TimeTeaching in Sociology or How I Convinced My Students toActually Read the Assignment. Teaching Sociology,Vol. 32 (No. 4 ). pp. 385-390. Published by:American SociologicalAssociation StableURL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3649666 S. Linneman,T. Plake (2006). Searching for the Difference:A ControlledTest of Just-in-TimeTeaching for Large-Enrollment IntroductoryGeologyCourses. Journal of Geoscience Education,Vol. 54 (No. 1) StableURL:http://www.nagt.org/nagt/jge/abstracts/jan06.html#v54p18