Being a Scholarly Teacher in the 21st-Century - Keynote - March 2014

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  • I’ve done a lot of presentations and workshops with faculty. Almost always with a very specific teaching technique to discuss and recommend. Thinking about giving this presentation I realized that the keynote address should be more broad, more inspirational… and less useful. <ba-dum-dump>If I accidentally say something that is directly useful to your every-day teaching, you have my apologies in advance.
  • Does the contractor who does work on your home cite her sources?Huge parts of the internet are dedicated to sharing ideas about “How Do I…” or “The Best Way to…”
  • TRANSITION: Lets talk about how scholarly teaching can guide what you do at a conference like this one
  • Bombarded:hybrid courses, brain-based learning, blended courses, technology in the classroom, learner-centered teaching, etc.
  • This comes from ~50 people, including ~20 students and ~30 Higher Ed. IT people
  • Jeff’s results: Depending on the class 60-80% of my students do their WarmUps, self-reporting that they spend ~40 minutes reading/responding (very consistent average)Others results come from ~ 40 faculty, ~30 higher ed technology folks and ~10 studentsFor this group:
  • TRANSITION!!!
  • TRANSITION: I’m going to use my own classes as an example of how this can work… all from an evidence-based perspective
  • Quote from Deslauriers: “The standard deviation calculated for both sections was about 13%, giving an effect size for the difference between the two sections of 2.5 standard deviations. As reviewed in (4), other science and engineering classroom studies report effect sizes less than 1.0. An effect size of 2, obtained with trained personal tutors, is claimed to be the largest observed for any educational intervention (16).”
  • Being a Scholarly Teacher in the 21st-Century - Keynote - March 2014

    1. 1. Name School Department Being a Scholarly Teacher in the 21st Century @ Teacher-Scholar Forum, 2014 Dr. Jeff Loats Associate Professor of Physics Faculty Associate to the Center for Faculty Development Be sure to get a clicker!
    2. 2. Outline  The way we think about teaching  Scholarly-Teaching as a decision aid  Themes of evidence-based teaching:  Active engagement during class time  Effective preparation (students & instructors)  Feedback loops and iterative learning (Slides available at www.slideshare.net/JeffLoats) 2
    3. 3. How much training and/or experience do you have in judging what “scholarship” means in your academic field? In other words, what do you bring to bear when you judge the quality of scholarship of a peer in your discipline? A) I’ve had explicit training B) Lots of experience, little or no training C) Moderate experience, little or no training D) No experience or training 3
    4. 4. How much training and/or experience do you have in judging what “scholarship” means in relation to teaching in higher-education? A) I’ve had explicit training B) Lots of experience, little or no training C) Moderate experience, little or no training D) No experience or training This is a different question than “Can you judge good teaching when you see it?” 4
    5. 5. Judging Good Teaching 5 So… Can you judge good teaching? Three pieces of evidence: 1. Aleamoni (1998): This article cites 17 studies showing that “students are discriminating judges of instructional effectiveness.” 2. Ambady, et. al (1993): Strangers can judge teaching effectiveness from three 2-second silent clips. Highly correlated with student ratings (0.76).
    6. 6. Judging Good Teaching 6 So… Can you judge good teaching? Three pieces of evidence: 3. Deslauriers, et al. (2011): Equipping novice teachers with evidence- based teaching techniques more than doubles the amount of student learning, compared to an experienced and highly-rated traditional instructor.
    7. 7. Scholarly Teaching 7 Goal 1: Apply the rigor and scholarship of our academic disciplines to the discipline of teaching.
    8. 8. A sheepish statement from a colleague: “I’ve borrowed ideas and techniques from my own teachers and from colleagues. Of course, I always change them a bit to make them my own.” Consider the sense of guilt relating to using the ideas and techniques developed by others. Focus on your emotional reaction. A) I strongly identify with this sense of guilt B) I moderately identify with this sense of guilt C) I don't identify with this sense of guilt 8
    9. 9. A sheepish statement from a colleague: “I’ve borrowed ideas and techniques from my own teachers and from colleagues. Of course, I always change them a bit to make them my own.” Now consider the sense of guilt from an analytical perspective. A) It is very appropriate B) It is moderately appropriate C) It is inappropriate 9
    10. 10. Please Steal This Idea! 10 Are there fields in which “stealing” ideas is acceptable? Encouraged? Required? Practical skills: Electrician, “How To” videos Safety concerns: Where do you store poisons? Medicine: Ask your doctor, “Where do your methods and ideas about treating my condition come from?” I want a scholarly doctor: Aware of the best, most up-to-date research on how to treat my condition .
    11. 11. Scholarly Teaching 11 Goal 2: Choose teaching methods that are strongly informed by the best empirical evidence available.
    12. 12. Feel bombarded? Scholarship can help guide us… The Scholarly-Teacher Approach 12
    13. 13. Adoption “Rubric” 13 How compatible is it with my teaching style? High ↔ Medium ↔ Low Does it addresses an area I feel is currently lacking? Yes! ↔ Somewhat ↔ No How broad is the empirical evidence of effectiveness? Broad ↔ Moderate ↔ Preliminary □ None/Not addressed Is the effect size/likely impact known? Large ↔ Moderate ↔ Small □ Not known/addressed How much additional prep (compared to a new prep)? _______% (of a new prep) How much class time? _______% of class time User friendly version: bit.ly/AdoptionRubric (case sensitive)
    14. 14. Evidence-Oriented Parts 14 How broad is the empirical evidence of effectiveness? Broad ↔ Moderate ↔ Preliminary □ None/Not addressed User friendly version: bit.ly/AdoptionRubric (case sensitive) Is the effect size/likely impact known? Large ↔ Moderate ↔ Small □ Not known/addressed Ideal: Well-controlled comparisons with data analysis Preliminary: Case studies or anecdotal descriptions Effect size: 0.2 = Small, 0.5 = Medium, 0.8 = Large Or… some sense of how big a difference to expect.
    15. 15. Take 2 minutes… apply it! 15 How compatible is it with my teaching style? High ↔ Medium ↔ Low Does it addresses an area I feel is currently lacking? Yes! ↔ Somewhat ↔ No How broad is the empirical evidence of effectiveness? Broad ↔ Moderate ↔ Preliminary □ None/Not addressed Is the effect size/likely impact known? Large ↔ Moderate ↔ Small □ Not known/addressed How much additional prep (compared to a new prep)? _______% (of a new prep) How much class time? _______% of class time User friendly version: bit.ly/AdoptionRubric (case sensitive)
    16. 16. Discuss this with your neighbor 16 How compatible is it with my teaching style? High ↔ Medium ↔ Low Does it addresses an area I feel is currently lacking? Yes! ↔ Somewhat ↔ No How broad is the empirical evidence of effectiveness? Broad ↔ Moderate ↔ Preliminary □ None/Not addressed Is the effect size/likely impact known? Large ↔ Moderate ↔ Small □ Not known/addressed How much additional prep (compared to a new prep)? _______% (of a new prep) How much class time? _______% of class time User friendly version: bit.ly/AdoptionRubric (case sensitive)
    17. 17. Consistent Evidence-Based Themes 17 • Active engagement during class time • Effective preparation (students & instructors) • Feedback loops and iterative learning
    18. 18. In a typical day in your class, what fraction of class time is spent on lecture-based delivery of content? A) 0% - 20% B) 20% - 40% C) 40% - 60% D) 60% - 80% E) 80% - 100% 18 2% 10% 13% 38% 37% ~100 others
    19. 19. CHANGING THE CLASSROOM 19 Are you best lecturer in the world on the topics you teach? Does the best lecturer in the world have a YouTube channel? In the 21st-century, how should students spend their 15 hours per credit with you?
    20. 20. ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT 20 Evidence: US President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) 2012 report: “The research indicates that many different types of active engagement can accomplish learning gains.” Using a classroom response system, having students solve a problem before class, use of group discussion, individual writing or “one- minute papers,” and combinations of these.
    21. 21. Consider a typical day in your class. What fraction of students did their preparatory work before coming to class? A) 0% - 20% B) 20% - 40% C) 40% - 60% D) 60% - 80% E) 80% - 100% 21 27% 33% 20% 14% 6% ~200 others
    22. 22. Changing Our Preparation 22 How do we “make room” for an active- engagement classroom? Shift appropriate parts of teaching & learning outside of the classroom: • Student preparation is a “low hanging fruit” that enhances everything else. • Instructors prepare by learning what our students already think about the subject.
    23. 23. Pre-class Work 23 Evidence: Sappington (1998): Students who did well on a surprise reading assessment “scored significantly better than the Zero or Fail groups.” Effect size was 0.25. Marrs (2003): Students showed an average normalized gain of ∼52% on test questions reinforced by either Warm Up questions or Cooperative Learning (~60% if reinforced by both!).
    24. 24. How Do People Like to Learn 24 Do we ever enjoy learning? Possible candidates:
    25. 25. Common Elements? 25 Feedback is (nearly) instantaneous Failure is expected (desired?) The cost of failure is very low Mastery requires iterative learning Pause: Consider typical feedback loops in the college classroom…
    26. 26. The “Many Chances to Fail” Model 26 A line adopted from business: “Fail early, fail often, fail well…” Grounded in constructivist learning theory: • Constructing new ideas often requires facing the failure of previous ideas. • Confusion and conflict make clear the need to build functional ideas in place of those that failed.
    27. 27. Iterative Learning Loops 27 On a given topic… Before class: Engage with Just-in-Time Teaching “warm-up” questions that enforce reading & require thought During class: Respond (digitally) to difficult questions, peer discussions After class: Online homework with immediate feedback and low(ish) stakes. Perhaps 10-20 chances to test their understanding before they encounter a high-stakes exam.
    28. 28. Combined Impact 28 Deslauriers, et al. (2011): Novice teachers with evidence-based teaching techniques more than doubles student learning, compared to an experienced and highly-rated traditional instructor. Effect size of 2.5! “[…] other science and engineering classroom studies report effect sizes less than 1.0. An effect size of 2, obtained with trained personal tutors, is claimed to be the largest observed for any educational intervention.”
    29. 29. My Summary 29 Challenge yourself to be a scholarly-teacher Follow the evidence! Be moderate… follow the 10% rule Engage with peers! Share, steal, and combine.
    30. 30. Your Summary 30 For yourself… or to share? What nugget(s) do you want to be sure you come away with from this discussion? Contact: Jeff.Loats@gmail.com Slides: www.slideshare.net/JeffLoats I love talking and working with faculty, don’t hesitate to get in touch.
    31. 31. References 31 Aleamoni, L. M. (1999). Student rating myths versus research facts from 1924 to 1998. Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 13, 153-166. Ambady, Nalini; Rosenthal, Robert (1993). Half a minute: Predicting teacher evaluations from thin slices of nonverbal behavior and physical attractiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 64(3), Mar 1993, 431-441. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.64.3.431 Louis Deslauriers, Ellen Schelew and Carl Wieman (2011). Improved Learning in a Large- Enrollment Physics Class. Science, Vol. 332 no. 6031 pp. 862-864 DOI: 10.1126/science.1201783 Sappington, J., Kinsey, K., & Munsayac, K. (2002). Two Studies of Reading Compliance Among College Students. Teaching of Psychology , 29 (4), 272-274. Marrs, K.A. (2003). Just in Time Teaching enhances cognitive gains in biology. J. Coll. Sci. Teach. President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. (2012). Engage to excel: Producing on million additional college graduates with degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/pcast-engage-to-excel- final_feb.pdf

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