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Irb jefferson hartman






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    Irb jefferson hartman Irb jefferson hartman Document Transcript

    • RE: IRB Review Proposal Title: Using Motion Probes to Enhance Students’ Understanding of Position vs Time Graphs Principal Investigator (PI): Jefferson Hartman. My faculty advisor is Dr. Pamela Redmond. I am currently a science teacher at Martinez Junior High School and graduate researcher with the goal of conducting a study with my eight grade students in the Fall of 2010. Abstract Motion probes and accompanied software allow students to simultaneously perform a motion and see an accurate position vs time graph produced on a computer screen. Recent studies note that microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) experiences are helping students understand the relationships between physical events and graphs representing those events (Barclay, 1986; Mokros and Tinker, 1987; Thornton, 1986; Tinker, 1986). This thesis will utilize Vernier motion probes and a WISE 4.0 project called Graphing Stories, which will allow students to experience the connection between a physical event and its graphic representation. Research has revealed both positive correlation and no correlation between real-time graphing of a physical event and improved interpreting graph skills as compared to traditional motion graph lessons. Introduction Luckily today’s students are somewhat enthusiastic about technology. I can harness this energy by utilizing the technology of WISE 4.0 and the Vernier motion probe in order to test if a microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) approach will increase student understanding of position vs time graphs. I am responsible for teaching approximately 160 eighth grade students force and motion. Web-based Inquiry Science Environment (WISE) is the common variable in a partnership between Martinez Junior
    • High School and UC Berkeley. UC Berkeley has provided software, Vernier probes, Mac computers and support with WISE 4.0. This unique opportunity to coordinate with researchers from UC Berkeley is one reason I chose this project. The other reason is to prove to myself and others that Graphing Stories is valuable learning tool. Graphing Stories embeds this MBL approach without making it the soul purpose of the project. Students are immersed in a virtual camping trip that involves encountering a bear on a hiking trip. Graphing Stories seamlessly supports the Vernier motion probe and software allowing students to physically walk and simultaneous graph the approximate motion of the hike. An added bonus is that students can instantly share their graph with other students who are working on the project at the same time. My thesis will test the hypothesis that students will have a better understanding of graphing concepts after working with Vernier motion probes Graphing Stories and than the students who work without the motion probes. Both groups will take a pretest and a post test. I will statistically compare the difference in the results between the pre and post tests of the same group and the difference in results between the post tests of each group. The data collection potion of the project will take approximately 7 school days to complete. A graph depicting a physical event allows a glimpse of trends which cannot be easily recognized in a table of the same data (Beicher 1994). After teaching science to eighth graders for several years most teachers will notice that many students consistently have trouble with graphing, specifically line graphs. Most students understand the concept of the x and y axis and plotting points, but do not make sense of what the line they created actually means. Students struggle with graphs for several reasons. The first
    • reason is insufficient exposure to graphing type tasks throughout their earlier education. The California State Science Standards require that 8th grade students understand slope. This is a mathematics standard that should be included before students reach 8th grade. In fact, students are not taught slope until they take Algebra. Some students take Algebra in 8th grade and many never take it at all. The second reason is that students are not ready to interpret graphs until they are taught slope. Students often lack the understanding of the vocabulary needed to describe the meaning of a graph. Terms like direct relationship, inverse relationship, horizontal and vertical all seem to be straightforward words, but continue to be absent from students’ repertoire. A person who creates and interprets graphs frequently will become comfortable using the appropriate descriptive terminology. A student with little experience graphing must put forth significant effort in simply translating the vocabulary. The last reason students struggle with graphing is that they are not accustomed to thinking in an abstract way. The most important cognitive changes during early adolescence relate to the increasing ability of children to think abstractly, consider the hypothetical as well as the real, consider multiple dimensions of a problem at the same time, and reflect on themselves and on complicated problems (Keating 1990). Eight grade students are 12-13 years old; they have not necessarily developed this thinking process. Interpreting graphs requires the observer to look at a pattern of marks and make generalizations. Again Algebra is the first time many students are required to think in this manner. Computer-supported learning environments make it easier for students to propose their own research focus, produce their own data, and continue their inquiry as new questions arise, thus replicating scientific inquiry more realistically (Kubieck 2005).
    • WISE 4.0 Graphing Stories is a computer-supported learning environment that works with a motion probe. Students produce there own data by moving in front of the device. This data is simultaneously represented in a graphic format. Students will be asked to replicate the motion by changing the scale of their movements. Along with producing a graph of their motion they are also asked to match their motion to a given graph. Some of these graphs are impossible to create, which in turn promotes direct inquiry. The goal of Graphing Stories is to teach students how to interpret graphs utilizing an inquiry-based strategy in computer-supported environment. Study Design This study will collect quantitative data. The data collected will be analyzed with a descriptive statistics, specifically the t- test. The null hypothesis states that there is no correlation between students using the motion probes and a better understanding of position vs time graphs as compared to students not using the motion probes. There will be two samples composed of approximately 70 students; one group will work through Graphing Stories utilizing the motion probes and the other group will not utilize motion probes. Both groups of students will take a pre test composed of position vs time graphing and general graphing questions. Using the mean score and standard deviation from each group the t-test will test for a significant difference in scores. Hopefully the pre test will show no significant difference as it is ideal to start with two groups having equal experience and knowledge of motion graphs. After the groups have worked through Graphing Stories the post test composed of nearly the same questions will be given. Again a simple t-test will be used to find any differences in the mean score of each group. In this case it is hoped that the scores will be significantly difference so the
    • null hypothesis can be rejected. The four classes of eight grade students can not be randomized because of scheduling issues. It is assumed that all classes have the same knowledge of motion graphs. All students in those four classes will be included in the study provided I can get assent. The study will take place in the PI’s classroom (D108) at Martinez Junior High School. A separate data collection person or a person to score the pre and post tests can not be hired. Therefore, those tasks must be performed by the PI. This is not the ideal situation, but necessary for the study to be successful. In order to protect confidentiality, students’ names will not be connected to the test score. The only information collected beside actual test answers will be the student’s period. This research study provides minimum risk and blends perfectly with the class curriculum. Although there is no remuneration for the participants, it is assumed that students will be rewarded with knowledge growth. Consent will be obtained by using a form called the Student Assent to Participate in Research/Parent Permission. Only the PI will have access to the data and it will be collected and contained in room D108. After the data has been collected and analyzed, the PI will allow the non motion probe students to explore with motion probes so that their knowledge base is not compromised. References Barclay, W.L. (1986). Graphing misconceptions and possible remedies using microcomputer-based labs. Paper presented at the Seventh National Educational Computing Conference, San Diego, CA June, 1986. Beichner, R. J. (1994). Testing student interpretation of kinematics graphs. American Journal of Physics, 62, 750-762.
    • Keating, D.P. (1990) Adolescent thinking. In S.S. Feldman and G.R. Elliott (Eds.), At the threshold: The developing adolescent.( pp. 54–89). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Kubicek, J. (2005). "Inquiry-based learning, the nature of science, and computer technology: New possibilities in science education." Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology. 31. Mokros, J. and Tinker, R. (1987). The impact of microcomputer-based labs on children’s ability to interpret graphs. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 24, 369-383. Thornton, R. (1986). Tools for scientific thinking: microcomputer-based laboratories for the naive science learner. Paper presented at the Seventh National Educational Computing Conference, San Diego, CA June, 1986. Tinker, R. (1986). Modeling and MBL: software tools for science. Paper presented at the Seventh National Educational Computing Conference, San Diego, CA June, 1986.
    • College of Education Touro University RE: Student Assent to Participate in Research/Parent Permission Principal Investigator (PI): Jefferson Hartman Phone: 925-313-0480 Ext. 1408 Project Title: Using Motion Probes to Enhance Students’ Understanding of Position vs Time Graphs Dear Student and Parent: I am a graduate researcher in the Department of Education at Touro University. I am also your child’s science teacher at Martinez Junior High School. As part of my graduate studies, you are invited to participate in a study which as its main purpose will analyze if student’s use of motion probes will increase their understanding of motion graphs. If you choose to participate in this research study, I will use the scores you earn on a pre and post test (consisting of about 10 questions regarding position vs time graphs and other graphing concepts). For purposes of the research, student names and any other identifiers will not be connected to the scores. This will allow the PI to report the information in statistical analysis with no direct connection to specific students. The information will be confidential and only accessible by the PI. Your decision to participate is totally voluntary. Participation in the research study will not interfere with your course grade and presents minimal risk. It is hoped that the research will reveal an effective technique for teaching students to understand motion graphs. You may choose to withdraw from the study at any time without penalty. If you have any questions about the research study please contact Jefferson Hartman at the above phone number or by email at jehartman@martinez.k12.ca.us before signing this from. If you have any concerns about your treatment as a human subject, you may also contact the Office for Protection of Human Subjects at___________________________________________ I AGREE DO NOT AGREE (circle one) to participate in this research study Participant’s Name (please print) ______________________________ Participant’s Signature ______________________________________Date: __________ Parent/Guardian Signature ___________________________________Date:__________
    • Pre/Post Test