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Scaffolding InstructionUsing the Workshop ModelIn Project Based LearningSara Hallermannsara.firstname.lastname@example.org
What is a “scaffold”?Think about how this term is used in thebuilding industry...– A “scaffold” is a temporary platform.– “Scaffolding” means to “to provide support”.-- Scaffolds getpeople to ahigher level thatthey cannot reachwithout support.
What are “scaffolds”?• In education, “ scaffolds” are supportstructures that teachers design to get studentsto the next stage or level.
Scaffolds in PBL• The goal of the PBL teacher is for thestudents to become independent learners andproblem solvers.• Scaffolds help students gain independence.
McKenzies 6 Traits#1 - Provides clear direction and reducesstudents’ confusion –– Educators anticipate problems that studentsmight encounter and clearly explain what astudent must do to meet expectations.Effective Scaffolding...
McKenzies 6 TraitsHow does this apply to the PBL teacher?– I develop clear written guidelines for myprojects.– I review project guidelines with my students.– I check to make sure that every studentunderstands the project guidelines.
Think. Pair. Share.When do you plan to share your projectguidelines with your students?How do you plan to share your projectguidelines with your students?How will you check to make sure that allstudents understand the project guidelines?
McKenzies 6 Traits# 2 - Clarifies purpose –– Scaffolding helps students understand why theyare doing the work and why it is important.Effective Scaffolding...
McKenzies 6 TraitsHow does this apply to the PBL teacher?– I develop compelling driving questions for myprojects.– I create engaging entry events for my projects.– I use strategies to create the “need to know”when launching my projects.– I continue to use strategies to create the “need toknow” when guiding my students through theprocess of inquiry.
Think. Pair. Share.How will you create the “need to know” whenlaunching your project?What strategies will you use to maintain themomentum throughout the project?
McKenzies 6 Traits# 3 - Keeps students on task –– Provides pathways for learners.– Allows students to make decisions about whichpath to choose or what things to explore alongthe path.– Includes structures that prevent students fromwandering off of the path.Effective Scaffolding...
McKenzies 6 TraitsHow does this apply to the PBL teacher?– My projects are open-ended and allow a highdegree of student choice.– I use project management strategies to maintaina high level of engagement.– I use formative assessment on a daily basis.– I respond when students lose focus or do notunderstand.
Think. Pair. Share.What strategies will you use to keep studentsfrom “wandering off the path”?
McKenzies 6 Traits# 4 - Clarifies expectations and incorporatesassessment and feedback –– Expectations are clear from the beginningthrough:• Examples of exemplary work• Rubrics• Standards of excellenceEffective Scaffolding...
McKenzies 6 TraitsHow does this apply to the PBL teacher?– I develop rubrics that clearly state thecontinuum of performance.– I review rubrics with students when launchingprojects.– I use rubrics as a teaching tool. Students use therubrics to self-assess and revise.– I review exemplary work with students.– I develop student-friendly learning targets.
McKenzies 6 Traits# 5 - Points students to worthy resources –– Educators provide resources to reduce confusion,frustration, and time.– Students may then decide which of these resourcesto use.Effective Scaffolding...
McKenzies 6 TraitsHow does this apply to the PBL teacher?– I provide resources for students whenfacilitating the process of inquiry.– I assist students in checking the validity of newresources.– I assist students in finding resources that are a“good fit” based upon their reading skills.
McKenzies 6 Traits# 6 - Reduces uncertainty, surprise, anddisappointment –– Educators test their lessons to determine possibleproblem areas and then refine the lesson toeliminate difficulties so that learning ismaximizedEffective Scaffolding...
McKenzies 6 TraitsHow does this apply to the PBL teacher?– I seek feedback from others about my projectplans. (Informal reviews; Critical Friends)– I use feedback to revise my project plans.
The Workshop ModelA Lesson Planning Frameworkfor Scaffolding Instruction in PBL
Why use the workshop model?• The workshop model is based on thelearning theory that knowledge emerges in acommunity of activity, discourse, anddiscussion.
Why use the workshop model?• Instead of using teacher-centered methods toprepare students for inquiry, the workshopmodel creates an environment for:– Investigating– Inquiring– Discussing/collaborating– Constructing
The PBL Workshop Model3 Parts:– Mini-Lesson– Practice/Application– Assessment for Learning
The PBL Workshop Model• Part 1: The Mini-Lesson– Review the learning targets.– Use a “hook” to build curiosity.– Explain what students will do during thepractice/application phase.– Model using a “think aloud” or active learningstrategy.• Examples: simulation, fishbowl, role-play
The PBL Workshop Model• Part 2: Practice/Application– Students practice or apply what was learnedduring the mini-lesson.– Students work as individuals, in a pair, or insmall groups.– Teacher moves around observing, askingclarifying questions, progress-monitoring.– Teacher meets with individuals or small groupsin need of differentiated instruction.
The PBL Workshop Model• Part 3: Assessment for Learning– Debrief– Check for understanding– Collect information to use in planninginstruction
Think. Pair. Share.Think about the classroom featured in “MyWorking Science Classroom”...Why is the workshop model an effective modelfor scaffolding instruction in PBL classrooms?
Journey into a Middle SchoolClassroom• Jenns middle school Humanities class.• Big guiding question for unit – How can Iaccess power in our democracy?• Workshop series focus - 4thAmendment study– Who has the power in our society?– New Jersey vs. TLO backpack search case– Going beyond knowing the Supreme Court decision.She wants them to wrestle with the facts, just as thejustices did in 1985.– Breaking down a complex text.
Journey into a Middle School Classroom• Mini-lesson (Catch) : Model makingmeaning from the text• Work time (Release): Read• Debrief (Catch): Write• Work time (Release): Groups discuss• Debrief (Catch): Anchor chart• Work time (Release): Group synthesiswriting• Debrief: (Write)
Journey into a Middle SchoolClassroom• Mini-lesson (Catch) : Model making meaningfrom the text– Role-play - Backpack search– Introduction to Supreme Court backpack search case– Think aloud - 4thAmendment– Teacher records background knowledge,connections, and questions on an anchor chart– Building the need to know, translating into a need toread• Assignment – Read court case and be prepared to discusswhether the search was legal
Journey into a Middle SchoolClassroom• Work time (Release): Read– Students read court case for 20 minutes– Jenn circulates the room and confers with 6students about the case and decision– Jenn offers immediate instruction to clear up anymisconceptions and answer questions– Note – Jenn is working to build her students“reading stamina” and set “reading stamina” goalswith the students at the beginning of the year.
Journey into a Middle SchoolClassroom• Debrief (Catch): Write– Quick-write: Based on your currentunderstanding of the 4thAmendment, was thesearch legal?– Discussions at small group
Journey into a Middle SchoolClassroom• Work time (Release): Groups discuss– Jenn assigns each group to 1 of the 3 opinionspublished by the Supreme Court:• 2 Groups – Majority opinion• 2 Groups – Concurring opinion• 2 Groups – Dissenting opinion– Jenn confers with groups
Journey into a Middle SchoolClassroom• Debrief (Catch): Anchor chart– Whole group discussion: Was the search legal– Record thinking on anchor chart– Two headings on anchor chart:• Warrant Clause• Reasonable Clause– Directions for tomorrow: Each group will teach theclass about the Supreme Court decision.
Journey into a Middle SchoolClassroom• Work time (Release): Group synthesiswriting– See examples of student work on pages 187 and188 in That Workshop Book– Students create overheads for presentationsscheduled on the following day
Journey into a Middle SchoolClassroom• Debrief: (Write)– Exit ticket out:• Journal Entry - Take 3 minutes to write what youthink now. Was the search legal?• Each group submits their overhead.
Journey into a Middle SchoolClassroom• Did the students get it? How do we know?– Ongoing checking for understanding throughoutworkshop phases– Formative assessment• 1-page essay on 4thAmendment in schools• Why are schools governed by reasonable suspicionand not probably cause? Is this right? Why or whynot?
Small Group DiscussionReview Scaffolding Instruction in ProjectBased Learning - Learning Targets forTeachers.–How does Jen create the “need to know”when guiding her students through theprocess of inquiry?–How does Jen respond when students losefocus or do not understand?
Development of SampleWorkshopTeam Practice – Begin todevelop a sampleworkshop for your project