2009-2010                                     District No. 7910
                                            ROTARY CLUB OF...
      Stevie Wonder and Jack Nicklaus
 are in a bar. Nicklaus turns to Wonder and               District 791...
Speaker Program: Waltham Mayor Jeanette McCarthy

Waltham Mayor Jeanette A.
McCarthy had lots of maps of
the Fernald Schoo...

      Newton club members who attended at
 Waltham this week included Tom Keery, Paul
 Kerrissey, Scott Lew...
                                                Our Waltham hosts conducted a 50/50 raff...
History of the Walter E. Fernald Development Center

                                          By Marie E. Daly

The Ferna...
History of the Walter E. Fernald Development Center                                           page 2

underlying the earl...
History of the Walter E. Fernald Development Center                                       page 3

possessed no architectu...
History of the Walter E. Fernald Development Center                                          page 4

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Rotary Service Gear Feb 17, 2010


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Rotary Service Gear Feb 17, 2010

  1. 1. 2009-2010 District No. 7910 ROTARY CLUB OF NEWTON Club No. 6580 719 WASHINGTON STREET BOX MS295 NEWTONVILLE, MASSACHUSETTS 02460 MEETS TUESDAYS; 12:15 P.M. BRAE BURN COUNTRY CLUB, 326 FULLER STREET, NEWTON, MA President Vice President Treasurer Sergeant-at-Arms Director Director Marie Presti Laurisa Neuwirth Peter Mahler Bill Garr Dick Bowen Justin Sallaway 617-620-6948 617-291-0572 617-630-5289 617-969-5906 x116 617-969-9134 617-244-0065 President-Elect Past President Recording Secretary Newsletter Editor Director Director Jeff Tucker Marc Epstein John Hurney Scott Lewis Jeff Chin Tony Bibbo 617-340-1263 617-244-1212 617-332-7412 617-293-6371 617-965-1988 781-237-1144 THE SERVICE GEAR Volume LXXXVI No. 30 February 17, 2010 Read All About It! INCREDIBLE! DESSERT SERVED IN WALTHAM!!! W altham Rotary Club President Glenna MEETING GREETERS NEXT MEETING: Gelineau called upon John Peacock to lead the Pledge of Allegiance. Susanne Roberts led February 24: Dick Bowen & Ed Casavant everyone in a chorus of God Bless America. Our own Dennis Prefontaine offered an invocation, thankful for “food that rivals Brae Burn.” We assume that it was in honor of our visiting contingent of Newton Rotarians that the Waltham club was treated this day to a dessert of chocolate mousse, topped with whipped cream, and served in wine glasses. A nice touch! Back at Brae Burn February 24th! CONTENTS Page MEETING NOTES 1 ANNOUNCEMENTS 2 THIS WEEK’S HUMOR 2 PROGRAM 3 HAPPY DOLLARS 4 RAFFLE 5 Dick Bowen celebrates mousse season at the Chateau! c 2010 Rotary Club of Newton Page 1
  2. 2. ANNOUNCEMENTS Stevie Wonder and Jack Nicklaus are in a bar. Nicklaus turns to Wonder and District 7910 PR Dinner and awards night says, “How is the singing career going?” is set for February 26th. Several Newton Club Stevie Wonder says, “Not bad, the latest members will be attending. album has gone Top 10, so all in all I think it is pretty good. By the way, how is the golf?” Nicklaus replies: “Not too bad, I am not winning as much as I used to, but I’m still Italian Night making money. I have some problems with Attention Club Members! The Italian my swing, but I think I’m working it out.” Night event committee needs to know how “I always find that when my swing goes many people will actually attend a dinner wrong I need to stop playing for a while and event tentatively set for the evening of think about it, then the next time I play it Tuesday, March 9th (in lieu of that week’s seems to be all right,” says Stevie. regular meeting). “You play golf!?” asks Jack. Stevie The tentative plans have changed! The says, “Yes, I have been playing for years.” concept now is to have dinner at the famous “But I thought you were blind; how can Vecchia Roma Restaurante at 398 you play golf if you are blind?” Jack asks. Watertown St. in Nonantum. Spouses/Guests “I get my caddie to stand in the middle to cost $10 per person - no charge for Club of the fairway and he calls to me. I listen for members. the sound of his voice and play the ball Please email Scott Lewis with your towards him, then when I get to where the RSVP, as soon as possible, indicating how ball lands the caddie moves to the green or many will attend, including yourself, or if further down the fairway and again I play the you will not make it at all. ball towards his voice,” explains Stevie. “But how do you putt?” Nicklaus wondered. “Well,” says Stevie, “I get my caddie to lean down in front of the hole and call to me with his head on the ground and I just play the ball to the sound of his voice.” Nicklaus says, “What’s your handicap?” “Well, I play off scratch,” Stevie assures Jack. Nicklaus is incredulous and says to Stevie, “We must play a game sometime.” Wonder replies, “Well, people don’t take me seriously, so I only play for money, Your ad could be here! and I never play for less than $100,000 a Business card size ads cost only $100/year for Rotary hole.” Nicklaus thinks it over and says, “OK, members, $125 for non-members. The distribution list I’m up for that. When would you like to of people who see our club news grows every week. play?” “I don’t care - any night next week is Shouldn’t they see you, and your support of our club’s OK with me.” good works? c 2010 Rotary Club of Newton Page 2
  3. 3. Speaker Program: Waltham Mayor Jeanette McCarthy Waltham Mayor Jeanette A. McCarthy had lots of maps of the Fernald School property to explain some of the issues concerning the future diposition of the property, which is being phased out as a State mental health institution. A brief history of the Fernald School site written by Marie E. Daly is attached to this newsletter for additional information. Mayor McCarthy’s topic was the ongoing the buildings will need to be demolished if not process of figuring out the future of the Fernald renovated for re-use, as the property passes from School campus that stretches along Trapelo Road institutional to other uses. Ironically, the “newer” in Waltham’s northern reaches. buildings will most likely face demolition, not Founded in 1848 by Samuel Gridley Howe the better-built older edifices. as the “Massachusetts School for the Feeble- Future ownership and zoning of the site are Minded,” the institution was moved to the both open questions. The mayor is open to mostly present site by order of the State Legislature in recreational re-use, but clearly wants to see at 1887. It grew in scope of services, land area, and least some of the property added to the tax rolls resident population, to a peak of 2,600 residents as residential and business use. in the 1960’s. Clearly, the City of Waltham will be wres- Mayor McCarthy stated that about 100 tling with this property’s issues for quite some residents still live on the property, but many of time to come. c 2010 Rotary Club of Newton Page 3
  4. 4. HAPPY DOLLARS Newton club members who attended at Waltham this week included Tom Keery, Paul Kerrissey, Scott Lewis, Peter Mahler, Ed Casavant, Bob Staulo, Justin Sallaway, Lauren Hyken, Peggy Lepore, Dick Bowen, and Tony Bibbo. Those happy enough to express their joy included Peter Mahler, happy to be hosted. Scott Lewis had compliments for the desserts. Expatriot Tim Braceland was happy to see Newton members visiting. His wife Connie was happy to see us as well. She was also happy to eat dessert; for the success of Death by Chocolate; and for having spent two weeks in the wilds of Tanzania and Dubai. Tom Keery happily contemplates a dollop of whipped cream. SCOTT LEWIS HOME DESIGN PAULA KIRRANE ADDITIONS Uniquely Designed Cakes RENOVATIONS 230 Adams Street NEW HOMES Newton, MA 02458 HISTORIC RESTORATION Tel.: (617) 969-1830 12 Bencliffe Circle fax: (617) 969-5852 Auburndale, MA 02466 (617) 293-6371 www.theicingonthecake.com c 2010 Rotary Club of Newton Page 4
  5. 5. RAFFLE UPCOMING... Our Waltham hosts conducted a 50/50 raffle February 24: Back to Brae Burn! won by a recently inducted new Waltham mem- ber named Sean Mahoney. February 26: District PR Dinner Our own progressive raffle stands at a jackpot value of $648, with only 26 cards in the March 9: Tentatively: Italian Night at diminishing deck. So, you guessed it! We’re Vecchia Roma Restaurante. RSVP’s playing with half a deck this coming Wednesday. needed immediately for planning Don’t miss your chance to win! purposes. March 17: St. Patrick’s Day Luncheon at Lasell Village PAUL M. KERRISSEY Attorney at Law 277 Auburn Street Suite B Auburndale, MA 02466 Office: (617) 964-5800 Fax: (617) 969-9850 c 2010 Rotary Club of Newton Page 5
  6. 6. History of the Walter E. Fernald Development Center By Marie E. Daly The Fernald Development Center, located at 200 Trapelo Road, is the oldest institution that serves people with developmental disabilities in the Western Hemisphere. Founded by Samuel Gridley Howe as the Massachusetts School for the Feeble-Minded in 1848, the school was originally located in South Boston. Howe was an abolitionist and reformer, who also founded the Perkins Institute for the Blind. His wife, Julia Ward Howe, wrote The Battle Hymn of the Republic. Howe and the second superintendent, Edward Jarvis, had a primarily moral / religious mission, i.e. to make clean, productive, responsible citizens of high-functioning disabled youths. The education included classroom training, manual training at shoe repair, broom making, rag rug making, weaving, knitting and sewing and housekeeping, music therapy, dancing and athletics. But by the 1870s under Jarvis, the school came under increasing pressure to accommodate adults with more chronic disabilities who required custodial care, and consequently the school needed more space. In response to this pressure, the legislature appropriated in 1887 $25,000 for the purchase of land in Waltham. The first purchase was the 18-acre Bird estate, located off Waverley Oaks Road, and in 1888, construction began for the school campus in Waltham. Before the school moved to Waltham, this was farm land belonging primarily to the Bird, Baldwin, Lawrence and Warren families. Although the school did grow a number of crops here, it was never intended as a hospital farm. Instead, another institution in Templeton was established to grow food. Nevertheless, aerial photos show that much of the western part of the campus was either wetlands or under cultivation. Indeed, there once was a cow barn here large enough for 50 head of cattle, and a horse barn. Land purchases continued into the twentieth century, so that the institution eventually encompassed 180+ acres of land between Trapelo Road and Waverley Oaks Road. North Nurses’ Home ca 1905 From 1889, the institution grew in size from 142 residents, to 494 in 1911, to 1,330 in 1926, to 1,890 in 1945, to its peak of 2,600 residents in the 1960s. The third superintendent (1888 – 1924), Walter E. Fernald became an internationally renowned authority on mental retardation. Under his administration, the mission of the school changed to a more scientifically based pursuit. But
  7. 7. History of the Walter E. Fernald Development Center page 2 underlying the early 20th century growth of the institution was the pseudoscience, eugenics, a misapplication of Darwinian principles and genetics. Its politically conservative adherents claimed that people of color, immigrants, Jews, southern Europeans, developmentally disabled people and the rural poor were “polluting the gene pool of society.” With widespread implementation of IQ testing, children who tested below normal were labeled as retarded, and in some cases taken from their families and institutionalized. Walter E. Fernald was on the board of the Eugenics Society, and had initially advocated the forced sterilization of people with developmental disabilities. He later renounced this idea, and instead promoted strictly enforced segregation into state-run institutions. The field of eugenics was deservedly discredited after World War II, when the world made the appalling discovery of the concentration camps – the Nazi’s ultimate application of eugenic ideas. In America, the eugenics-inspired segregation of disabled people caused the rapid growth of institutions all over the country, including the Fernald. In addition, people who did not have developmental disabilities were virtually incarcerated at the Fernald and institutions like it. These included people who tested below average on IQ tests (termed “morons”), children from broken or disordered, poor families, and orphans in state foster care. Walter E. Fernald’s mission of scientific investigation and the inclusion of poor, delinquent, orphaned and epileptic people in the institution continued under the next superintendent, Dr. Ransom Greene. With the increased population, and subsequent decreased per-capita funding, the school needed the free manual labor of the non- disabled inmates to help run the institution. At one point, Dr. Greene stated that he needed a mix of 30% “morons” to keep the school operating. So there were powerful financial incentives to keep the non-disabled incarcerated. Furthermore the inadequate state funding resulted in lower staff-to- inmate ratios, and some overwhelmed staff resorting to abuse to manage their charges. Recent reports have highlighted the abusive care of the residents in the 1940s and 1950s. In addition to being incarcerated, abused, poorly educated and malnourished, many of the Fernald residents were unwitting participants in medical experiments, such as the “Science Club” children who were fed radioactive isotopes with their oatmeal. While the doses were probably too small to harm the children, they had not given their consent, and had been given disproportionately large rewards for their participation. Consequently, these experiments violated the Nuremberg Code, ethical principles for medical experimentation established after the Nazi Holocaust. But the reports of the conditions of the 1950s do not reflect the current care. In 1972, parents, guardians and advocates for the disabled sued the Commonwealth in federal court. The judge ordered increased state funding, and better treatment of the disabled. As a result of federal court order, many residents were placed in community residential facilities, and the care of the remaining residents was vastly improved. A sprawling, one-storey cottage complex was built to provide more intimate and home-like residences for those who remained. By 1979, the number of residents had decreased to 1,161. The Fernald Center now houses 248 [in 2005] residents, the majority of whom are profoundly disabled. Most of the nineteenth century buildings were designed by one architect, William G. Preston, who advocated a cottage concept laid out, not in a “checkerboard” fashion, but rather dispersed amid a largely preserved landscape of rolling hills. Preston designed many of the buildings in a Queen Anne style with Romanesque or Craftsman overtones. The buildings have fieldstone foundations, red brick construction, sandstone trim, corbelled cornices, overhanging slate roofs and decorative brickwork. In the 1930s, another architect, Clarence P. Hoyt designed buildings in the colonial revival style common to state institutions of that era. Since the 1950s, construction at the institution has
  8. 8. History of the Walter E. Fernald Development Center page 3 possessed no architectural design of merit and has greatly disturbed the landscape. But with its tree-lined parks and hilly landscape, the oldest part of the campus has the ambience of a New England village. Candace Jenkins, the state consultant who nominated the campus for the National Register of Historic Landmarks, said “The Walter E. Fernald State School possesses integrity of location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling and associations.” Aerial View of Fernald Center in 1952
  9. 9. History of the Walter E. Fernald Development Center page 4 Sources 1. Samuel Gridley Howe, M. D., Class of 1821,” Brown University website, www.brown.edu/webmaster/about/history/howe.shtml. 2. Stan Griffin, Deaf Friends International, “Champion of the Unfortunate,” www.workersforjesus.com/dfi/854.htm. Biography of Samuel Gridley Howe. 3. Walter E. Fernald Historical Collection, Samuel Gridley Howe Library, www.brandeis.edu/lemberg/SGHL/Main.html 4. David Pfeiffer, “Samuel Gridley Howe and ‘Schools of the Feebleminded,” Ragged Edge Online, Jan./Feb. 2003, www.ragged-edge-mag.com/0103/0103ft2.html. 5. “State Hospitals of Massachusetts,” 1856.org, www.1856.org/mass.html. 6. “Parallels in Time: A History of Developmental Disabilities,” The Minnesota Governor’s Council on Developmental Disabilities, www.mncdd.org/parallels/. 7. Candace Jenkins, Nomination for National Register of Historic Landmarks. Massachusetts Historic Commission, 1992. A detailed description of the Fernald Center and its historic buildings. Available at the Waltham Public Library, Waltham Room. 8. “History of Massachusetts Institutions,” World Wide Web Virtual Library for Archaeology, http://archnet.asu.edu/archives/ccm/Mass/built/hs.htm. 9. “Consolidated Consent Decrees Summary,” The Arc of Massachusetts website, http://arcmass.org/consent.pdf. A summary of the 1993 federal court order regarding Massachusetts facilities for people with developmental disabilities. 10. Elof Axel Carlson, The Unfit: A History of a Bad Idea. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Press, 2001. 11. Michael D’Antonio, The State Boys Rebellion: A True Story. New York, Simon & Schuster, 2004. About children who were wards of the state and incarcerated at the Fernald School from the 1940s to 1970. 12. Stephen Jay Gould, The Mismeasure of Man. New York: W. W. Norton, 1981, 2nd ed. 1996. Now a classic rebuttal in the debate of aptitude testing, race, innate intelligence and environmental influence. Available at the Waltham Public Library. 13. Margaret Quigley, “The Roots of the I. Q. Debate: Eugenics and Social Control,” The Public Eye Website of the Political Research Associates, www.publiceye.org/magazine/v09n1/eugenics.html. An online article about the political motivations of eugenics advocates. 14. Welling Savo, “The Master Race,” Boston Magazine, Dec. 2002, available on line at www.bostonmagazine.com/special1/eugenics_1202.shtml. 15. “Race and Membership in American History: The Eugenics Movement,” Facing History and Ourselves website, www.facing.org.