Unit 1 Intro to chemistry chapter 1

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Unit 1 Intro to chemistry chapter 1

  1. 1. Introduction to AP Chemistry Unit 1 Chapter 1 1
  2. 2. Overview of the Course  Expectations  Summary of each of the units  Need to have Binders  Formative and Summative Assessment  Quiz tomorrow on Tables 2.3, 2.4, and 2.5 2
  3. 3. 1.1 Chemistry  It deals with the essential question – “What is matter made of?” 3
  4. 4. Need to study matter at three levels  Macroscopic Level  Microscopic Level  Symbolic Level 4
  5. 5. The surface of a grain of salt 5
  6. 6. An Oxygen Atom 6
  7. 7. Sand Grains made up of atoms 7
  8. 8. Two Key Concepts  Matter is made of various kinds of atoms  Chemical changes occur when atoms rearrange 8
  9. 9. 1.2 Scientific Process  Observation  Ex. Pb(NO3)2 + NaI   Quantitative  Qualitative  Hypothesis- possible explanation for observation  Model/Theory- tested hypothesis; gives explanation to natural phenomenon.  Law- Observed behavior; summary of what happens  Law of conservation of mass 9
  10. 10. The Scientific Method 10
  11. 11. Lab Report  Title/ name/ date  Purpose:  Procedure  Important steps  Observations  Tables and graphs  Conclusions  Guided by questions  Explanation of error 11
  12. 12. 1.3 Units of Measurement  SI Unit System (Le Systeme International) 12
  13. 13. The Prefixes in the SI System 13
  14. 14. Volume – a derived unit 14
  15. 15. Apparatus to measure volume 15
  16. 16. 1.4 Uncertainty in Measurement 16
  17. 17. Precision and Accuracy 17
  18. 18. 1.5 Rules for Significant Figures  Non zero integers always count Zeros – there are three classes  Leading Zeros – these do not count  Captive Zeros – these always count  Trailing Zeros – They are only significant if the number has a decimal point. Exact Numbers  These do not limit the number of significant figures 18
  19. 19. Rules for Mathematical Operations  For multiplication and division the number of significant figures is the same as the least precise number  For addition and subtraction the result has the same number of decimal places as the least precise measurement. 19
  20. 20. Rules for Rounding  In a series of calculations carry the extra digits through to the final result, then round  If the digit is to be removed is less that 5 the preceding digit remains the same.  If the digit is equal to or greater than 5 the preceding digit is increased by one. 20
  21. 21. Round the following to 3 significant figures 21
  22. 22. 1.6 Dimensional Analysis  Line the various numbers up with their units and cancel out units. If the unit of the final answer is correct then you mathematical answer should be correct. 22
  23. 23. 1.7 Temperature 23
  24. 24. 1.8 Density – mass per unit volume 24
  25. 25. 1.9 States of Matter  Solid  Liquid  Gas 25
  26. 26. Three states of Water 26
  27. 27. Organization of Matter 27
  28. 28. Separation of Mixtures by Physical Means 28

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