Presenter: – Jason Boyd, LEED APMarketing Manager, Dobbin Sales Ltd.Presentation: Restroom Design, the waterefficient factor.Adapted from the American Institute of Architects,Continuing Education Series, developed by Sloan.
Presentation Outline• Water: what the numbers say• LEED – Leadership in energy and environmental design• Effective product selection• Questions and Answers
How much water do we use?• Canadians rank second only to the United Statesin terms of highest per capita water use in thedeveloped world.• A “general lack of awareness” about thepressures placed on Canadian water supplies,combined with a “lack of strong waterconservation ethic, which is encouraged by themyth of water abundance” helps to explain thispoor standing.• 44% of water users in Canada are not metered.• Average Canadian water cost is .86 cents/ 1000litres.Source: Dan Shrubsole and Dianne Draper “On Guard for Thee? Water (Ab)uses and Management inCanada” in Eau Canada, Ed. Karen Bakker, UBC Press: 2007.
Canada’s Abundant Supply?• Growing pressure on Canada to export its fresh water in bulk (asopposed to via bottled water) as populations balloon in increasinglyarid areas. According to U.S. Drought Monitor, 54.25% of thecontinental U.S. Was in moderate drought condition in Sept. 2012.(http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/)• Global Warming – A temperature increase of two to four per centcould lower the average flow from Lake Ontario by 24 per cent,because of higher rates of evaporation and drier soils reducingrunoff. A decrease of that magnitude in Lake Ontario, the majorsource for the St. Lawrence could result in a one-metre drop inwater levels in some areas of the river. (Environment Canada)• Twenty Canadian and U.S. cities flush about 90 billion litres ofuntreated sewage into the Great Lakes each year. (Ecojustice)
Rising Costs To Canadians• Canada’s aging water and wastewater infrastructure is inneed of serious investment to upgrade it to continuemeeting the water use needs of Canadians.• In 1996 Canada’s water infrastructure deficit wasestimated at between $38 and $49 billion, and theprojected cost to meet futures needs until 2016 was $70 to$90 billion.• Water is going to become more expensive and an evenlarger focus of conservation efforts in all sectors of theCanadian economy.Source: Dan Shrubsole and Dianne Draper “On Guard for Thee? Water (Ab)uses andManagement in Canada” in Eau Canada, Ed. Karen Bakker, UBC Press: 2007.
Commercial Water Use2.44%17.07%60.98%14.63%4.88%LeaksLaundryToilets/FaucetsWashing/SanitationKitchenDenver Water Administration Building1600 W. 12th Ave.Denver, CO 80204-3412Typical Indoor CommercialWater Use
Indoor Domestic Water UseSource: AWWA Research “ResidentialEnd Uses of Water”
Water Use ConclusionIn summary: Whether it is a commercial or domesticbuilding, restrooms use the highest percentage of water!
LEED® Rating SystemsNew Construction• LEED-NC (LEED 2009)• LEED-CI (commercialinteriors)• LEED-CS (core and shell)• LEED for Schools• LEED for Retail• LEED for Healthcare• LEED for Homes• LEED for NeighborhoodDevelopmentWe will focus on LEED 2009.Existing BuildingLEED-EB: O&M (existingbuildings)
LEED®v2.2 vs. LEED 2009Focusing on the WaterEfficiency section only:LEED-NC v2.2- No prerequisite- 5 possible points- Indoor water usereduction can account forup to 4 pointsLEED 2009- Prerequisite- 10 possible points- Indoor water usereduction can account forup to 7 points
LEED®2009: Water EfficiencyWE Credit 3: Water Use Reduction (2-4 points)Intent: “Further increase water efficiency within buildingsto reduce the burden on municipal water supply andwastewater systems. ”Use 30%, 35%, or 40% less water than the wateruse baseline calculated for the building (not includingirrigation).Innovation in Design CreditA possible additional point can be earned for every milestonereached above and beyond WE Credit 3. For example, reducingindoor water use by 45% could qualify for an additional point.
Creating the BaselineLEED National Efficiency Baseline is a combination of the:1. 1992 Energy Act and subsequent rulings by the Department ofEnergy, requirements of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.2. Plumbing code requirements as stated in the 2006 editions ofthe Uniform Plumbing Code or International Plumbing Code.Note: The lowest criteria of the combination would be used.
National Efficiency BASELINESCommercial Fixtures, Fittingsand AppliancesFlow RequirementCommercial Toilets 1.6 gpf, except blow-out fixtures: 3.5-gpfCommercial Urinals 1.0 gpfCommercial Lavatory (restroom)Faucets2.2-gpm at 60 psi - Private applicationsonly (hotel-motel guest rooms, hospitalpatient rooms)0.5 gpm at 60 psi, all others exceptprivate applications 0.25 gallons percycle for metering faucetsCommercial prerinse spray valves(for food service applications)Flow rate less than or equal to 1.6 gpm(no pressure specified, no performancerequirement)LEED®2009: Water Efficiency
National Efficiency BASELINESResidential Fixtures, Fittingsand AppliancesFlow RequirementResidential Toilets 1.6 gpfResidential Lavatory (restroom)Faucets2.2 gpm at 60 psiResidential Kitchen Faucets 2.2 gpm at 60 psiResidential Showerheads 2.5 gpm at 80 psi per shower stallLEED®2009: Water Efficiency
Baseline CalculationExample:One-story building with two restrooms. There are 500 peoplewho occupy the building during office hours: 250 men and250 women.1. Men’s restroom Two urinals Two closets Two sinks with manual faucets2. Women’s restroom Four closets Two sinks with manual faucetsAssumption: Males uses urinals twice per day; closets once perday; females use closets three times per day. Both males andfemales use faucets three times per day.
Design CalculationExample (cont.):In calculating the Design Case, do NOT change the number ofbuilding occupants, the number of work days or thefrequency data.Assume the following:1. Waterfree urinals will be used2. 1.0 gpf pressure-assist water closets will be used3. Electronic faucets with low-flow aerators (0.5 gpm) willbe used. The electronics have been factored as reducingsink duration by 20% (to 12 seconds).
Daily uses FixturetypeDuration(flushes);faucets (min.)Flow rate (gpf);faucets (gpm)Water use (gal)250 Men’s Water Closet 1 1.6 400.00750 Women’s Water Closet 1 1.6 1200.00500 Men’s Urinal 1 1.0 500.001500 Conventional Metering Faucet 0.25 0.5 187.50Daily Total 2,287.50Annual Work Days 260Total Annual Volume (gal) 594,750CalculationsBaseline CalculationDaily uses FixturetypeDuration(flushes);faucets (min.)Flow rate (gpf);faucets (gpm)Water use (gal)250 Men’s Water Closet (ultra low flow) 1 1.0 250.00750 Women’s Water Closet (ultra lowflow)1 1.0 750.00500 Men’s Urinal (waterfree) 1 0 01500 Electronic Faucet 0.20 0.5 150.00Daily Total 1,150.00Annual Work Days 260Total Annual Volume (gal) 299,000Design Calculation295,750 galAnnualSavings
CalculationsThat’s a 50% reduction in annual water use for the building– greater than the 30%, 35%, or 40% reductionbenchmarks required for this LEED-NC (2009) credit!This puts you well on your way to achieving up to 6 points!
An HET is a fixture with an average flush volume of1.28 gpf or less, and must meet the performancerequirements of ASME 19.2/CSA B45.1 and pass the 350grams MaP. Dual-flush devices (1.6/1.1 gpf) are consideredHET.That’s 20% less than most toilets on the market today.The current toilet standard is 1.6 gpf.
Pressure Assist Toilets• Air compressed as innertank refills• Compressed air increasesflush velocity• 1.6 gpf, 1.28 gpf and1.0 gpf productsHigh Efficiency Toilets
An HEU is a urinal with a maximum flush volume of 0.5 gpfor less, and must meet the performance requirements ofASME 19.2/CSA B45.1.That’s 50% less than today’s standard! The current urinalstandard is 1.0 gpf.
High Efficiency UrinalsManual Battery Powered HardwiredRetrofit Note: If you already have a wash down type urinal,you may just need to replace the diaphragm kit with lower gpf.
Real World Examples: Hard Costs VS.Environmental Cost• Purdue University initially installed dual flush products in2004• Study of one campus building showed a 30% reduction inwater use. Straight meter readings –only the flush valves werechanged.• Water cost = 91.7 cents per 1000 gallons and waste watercost of 5.34 per 1000 gallons meant that the fixture changewas paid for in less than a year.• Cost concerns? Often over exaggerated and not trulymeasured against actual utility readings and potential savings.
• Meets the needs of the facility– Hygiene– Water Conserving– Sensor– Approved by Local Code• Easy to maintain• Low cost of ownership• Easily available parts and service• Saves water but does NOT sacrificeperformance!!What to Consider