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Site and Sustainable Design

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Dave Petersen of Outside-In Design Build discussing how site considerations impact sustainable development strategies.

Dave Petersen of Outside-In Design Build discussing how site considerations impact sustainable development strategies.

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  • 1. Balanced BuildingsThe Building SiteSite AnalysisRegulatory FactorsSoilsTopographyFlora/FaunaSolar OrientationWindLIDThe Neighborhood
  • 2. IntroductionDave Petersen
  • 3. Basic Site AnalysisThe Thought Process:Review site plan as defined by legalboundaries, setbacks and rights-of-wayDevelop area and volume design required by thebuilding, amenities and future expansion/deconstructionGround Slopes/Subsoil Conditions re:suitability of building placementDrainage Patterns - LIDFlora/FaunaMap Climatic Conditions (Sun, Wind,Precipitation)Public access points/Utility availabilityViews/Adjacencies/Noise/Scale re: character ofneighborhood/Car vs. no carhttp:www.walkscore.com
  • 4. Site TypologiesBrownfield – site has been builton before, typically in urbansettingsGreenfield – No prior buildingcomponent (rural orcountryside areas)Brownfield sites ease pressureon Greenfield sites – typicallymore sustainableGreenfield sites are typicallyless congested, may havebetter views and expansioncapabilitiesNew housing in core areas maylead to gentrification – areasbecome trendy = areaimproves, crime rate may drop,etc.Easier to provide public transitwhen redeveloping existingurban areas
  • 5. Phase I and II EnvironmentalEnvironmental Assessment ofa Brownfield Site:• Address contaminatedproperty issues re:development and construction• Determine what remediation isneeded, if anyPhase I – Review site history andgather information on past usesSite inspectionReview environmental filesReport prepared identifying existingand potential sources ofcontaminationPhase II – Surface and sub-surfacesoil samples takenStorage tank review, if applicableAsbestos and PCB samplingMeasure noise levels and radiationUse environmental models toevaluate migration potential ofcontaminants
  • 6. PlanningZoning Ordinances:Manage growthRegulate land use patternsControl building densityProtect environmentallysensitive areasConserve open spacesRegulate type of activity on property andlocation of building(s)Set-backs from property linesDefine any easements/right-of-waysDefine maximum width, depth and height ofstructureRatehub.ca
  • 7. PlanningExceptions/Allowances:Normal Setback RequirementsProjections of architecturalfeatures such as roofs, cornicesand balconiesDecks, fences or garagesNeighborhood precedentsExceptions are often made forsloping sites/public spaceadjacencieswww.umbc.org
  • 8. The Site PlanIllustrates the Natural and Builtfeatures of the property anddescribes proposedconstruction, relative to thesefeaturesLoft401.com
  • 9. Impacting the SiteRemove existing trees or work around flora?Extensive grading or excavation required?Change natural drainage or work within siteconstraints?Building footprint and heightAK Design
  • 10. Toronto Green Standard3 versions of TGS:1. Low-rise Non-Residential2. Low-rise Residential3. Mid to High-riseTier 1 standard is compulsoryTier 2 standard is voluntaryIf both are met a 20% refund ofdevelopment charges isprovided
  • 11. Toronto Green StandardBreakdown:Air QualityGHG/EnergyWater QualityEcologySolid WasteRequirements:1. TGS Checklist2. TGS Statistics Template3. Energy ReportBuildipedia.com
  • 12. Slopes and SoilsSlope:<5% - useable for mostactivities, easy to buildon5-10% - suitable for mostinformal activities,relatively easy to buildon>10% - challenging to buildon>25% - subject to erosion,difficult to build onCubeme.com
  • 13. SoilsWikipediaVery useful in preliminaryplanning stages (footings,foundations, plantings etc.)Specifically diminished weightbearing capacities are ofconcern along with the thepossibility of winter heaving(frost heave)Drainage (percolation factors)4”/H=good, 2-4”/H=mediumand <2”/H=poorDirectly linked with Stormwatermanagement (LID)
  • 14. LIDDefinitions:Common – a removable or hingedcover for a containerAn eyelidUrban – common terminology(1960’s-70’s) to describe approx. 1 oz.of MarijuanaSustainable – site designapproaches to manage, capture and infiltratestorm water for beneficial use, as close to itssource as possibleLowimpactdevelopment.org
  • 15. Water-Wise DesignPlan for water conservation(native plant species)Hydrozone (native plantsgrouped to water-need)Water efficientlyImproved soilsMulchingMaintenance + healthyplants = greater tolerance Colorado State University
  • 16. Rainfall AnalysisMetEdToronto average: 840mm annuallyImportant when designing a stormwatermanagement system or implementingrainwater harvest design1000 s.f. of roof area captures approx. 600gallons of water per inch of rainfallReview annual rainfall in terms of seasonalmodels –extended rainy season or dryseason statistics will impact building andlandscape design considerationsamazingworldpictures
  • 17. StormwaterCity of Sandy, UTInhabitatKeep stormwater on propertyUtilize bio swales or on-sitesequestration to avoid runoffCistern-based capture ofrainwater for landscapewatering, flushing of toilets, carwashing etc.Permeable pavers on patioand driveway surfaces to aid inpercolation
  • 18. StormwaterSscrcd.orgIdeal: mimic pre-development hydrologyLID (low intensity design)results in increasedretention of stormwaterand pollutants on sitePositive impacts relatedto infrastructure (watertreatment facilities) andfish populations in localstreams and lakes
  • 19. Flora and FaunaPlants Provide:Energy ConservationFraming (or Screening) ViewsNoise AbatementRetard ErosionConnect the Buildings to SitePreserve existing and nativeplant species, where possibleGrass and Ground CoverReduce air temperature by absorbingsolar radiation and throughevaporative coolingStabilize SoilsMake soils more permeable to air andwaterLandscapingyourparadise.com
  • 20. Flora and FaunaPartial List of LocallyEndangered Species:Jefferson SalamanderMonarch ButterflyChimney SwiftBarn OwlRedside DaceCanada WarblerDoes the site containhabitat? What type?Is the species presentseasonally? Year Round?MNR.gov.on.ca
  • 21. The Elements (Sun and Wind)Toronto – 44 Deg. N LatitudeSuns Altitude @ Noon:December 22nd = 22 degreesMarch/September 21st = 46 degrees(spring/autumnal equinox)Siting: Cool RegionsMinimize building surface area = lessexposure in low temp’s, maximizesolar absorption, reduce heat loss(radiant, convective and conductive),provide wind protectionSeattlepi.com
  • 22. Solar OrientationCanada.gc.caHeating degree daycalculations provide areflected demand forenergy needed to heatbuildingsBase temperature is 18degrees COne HDD day = thetemperature conditionsoutside building arebelow the thresholdcomfort temperatureinside the building by 1degree – heat is requiredto maintain thermalcomfortToronto: 3650 HDD
  • 23. Solar OrientationDennis Holloway, ArchitectsDifference in pole locations causescompass to point either east or westof true northFind local variation and pointcompass in the opposite direction todetermine true N-S lineSun’s path varies seasonally – highin summer, low in winter – height insky referred to as altitude, horizontalangle relative to north is its AzimuthInformation is key in designing, sitingand operating a passive buildingAutodesk™
  • 24. Solar OrientationAutodesk, M V.RoosmalenPassive heating vs. coolingOverhangs and shadedevices assist in summercooling yet let low winter sunin to augment heating600mm shade provides anaverage reduction in solarheat gain of 33% in summer(30 degrees N)South facing glazingpercentage of < 9% of floorarea beneficial in passiveheating if thermal mass hasbeen optimized
  • 25. Solar OrientationMcGraw HillDaylight capture key inpassive designsWindow height must be min.40% of room depth tooptimize light penetrationNorth light diffuse andefficientS, E and West light can beharsh – light shelves andreflected light can assist inbalancing this
  • 26. MicroclimateOlesondresen.comMicroclimate influenced by:Elevation (ground)Type and Orientation of Land FormsBodies of WaterPrinciples:Warm air rises, cold air settlesTemperature decreases by altitude (0.56 C/122m inelevation)Water acts as a thermal mass reservoir –evaporative cooling, land and sea-breeze affectBreezes – updrafts and downdrafts may causecooling by up to 10 CFlora absorbs solar radiation, hard-scapes absorband re-radiate (heat Island)
  • 27. MicroclimateArchdaily.comIdeal building siting: south facingslope1 s.f. of south-sloping groundreceives same intensity of solarradiation as 1 s.f of ground 10degrees to the southCold Ponding effect – chilled air incontact with the ground (densitycauses a flow downhill) – buildinghigher can increase ambient temp’sby 5 to 10 degrees CHomeAway
  • 28. Wind DirectionE Mangubat, ArchitectEvergreens protect dwellingby tempering prevailingwinter windsPrevailing summerwinds enter dwellingand through stack-effect are carriedupward, replacingwarm stale air withcooler fresh airgreenapplepie
  • 29. Vegetative ShadingShelter belt: winter windsdeflectedsummerwinds funneled to aid in coolingRighthouse.nzYourHome.gov.auDeciduoustreeshadingaids incooling –leaf lossallowswinter sunaccess withproperdesign
  • 30. NeighborhoodReview:Vernacular building style andmaterialsPublic transit vs. carGreen spaceNoiseAmenitiesSchoolsCrime rateUtilitiesLocal servicesNytimes.com
  • 31. NeighborhoodThis or That?Trendir.com Archrecord.construction.com
  • 32. (Intelligent) ExpansionRockingFundasOldworldgardenfarms.orgDeconstruction and Re-useAdaptive Re-use (Redneck style)
  • 33. ResourcesToronto Green Standardhttp://www.toronto.ca/planning/environment/greendevelopment.htmRainfall Statisticshttp://www.climate.weatheroffice.gc.ca/climateData/dailydata_e.html?StationID=5097&Month=6&Day=11&Year=2013&timeframe=2Xeriscapinghttp://www.toronto.ca/trees/ravines.htmSolar Potentialhttp://pv.nrcan.gc.ca/http://www.waterfrontoronto.ca/dbdocs/4561b1d6ec542.pdfWind Energyhttp://www.windatlas.ca/en/index.phpReference List: Building Construction Illustrated, 4th Edition. Francis DK Ching, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.