The web started the process of change, but even it took awhile to evolve. During the first decade of the web – which started to catch on around 1994, most people online were consumers of information, soaking in material served up by media companies Although there were some primitive socializing tools at the time, the net was still pretty much a top down affair. Most people online – whether children or adults – were consumers of information. Early adopting companies, government agencies, universities and – even a few K-12 schools – were using the web to disseminate information, but those of us online were mostly just consuming it.
Putting up a fence might keep a kid away from a specific swimming pool but teaching them to swim protects them around all water and helps them enjoy the water as well.
CompuServe 1981Me, in 1981 on my MosaicApple II with an browser, 1993acoustic MODEM
Media is now:• One to one• One to many• Many to manyWe are all publishers andyouth are leading the charge
Children as victims:1.0 (most of the 90’s) Pornography & predators: Protecting children from bad adults. Children as consumers of information, not as creators and based on assumptions of risk, not actual research2.0(around 2007) Protecting children from peers. Recognizing that kids can create content harm other kids and themselves. Cyberbullying & posting inappropriate or dangerous content
In the US:• 95% of 12-17 year olds use Internet• 70% go online daily• 46% several times a day• 80% of online teens use social networkingIn Europe• 9-16 year olds spend average of 88 minutes per day online*Source: Teens, Kindness and Cruelty on Social Network SitesHow American teens navigate the new world of "digital citizenshipPew Internet & American Life Project, November 2011* EU Kids Online / Sept 2011
Research-based, not fear-based, so relevant Flexible, layered – not one-size-fits-all Respectful of youth – stakeholders in positive outcomes, not just potential victims Positive: Not just safety from (bad outcomes) but safety for good outcomes Comprehensive = Incorporates safety, security, citizenship, and research/information literacy
Elements of Online Safety 3.0• View youth as participants and stakeholders in positive Internet use rather than potential victims, and empower them to protect themselves.• Promote good citizenship• Teach new media literacy• Understand the value of informal learning• Be accurate and honest about risks• Encourage industry to engage in best practices, including promoting good citizenship in the communities they run
For the most part,the online world is pretty much like the “real world,” but there are a few special things to think about It can be permanent Material can be copied and pasted Lots of people can see it You don’t know for sure who’s seeing it AND Disinhibition: Lack of visual cues reduces empathySource: adapted from danahboyd:Taken out of Context, 2008
Fences have their place but … To keep kids safe around all water, we teach kids to swim
Ultimately, the best filter runs between the child’s ears, not on a deviceProtection that lasts a lifetime Training wheels for young kids
•Predators•Posting/sending inappropriate content•Cyberbullying & harassment•Privacy and Reputation
•Online predator risk is extremely low •Only 2% of kids sent a “sext” •85% of US kids have not been harassed online in last 12 month •Across Europe, 6% of 9 to 16-year-old internet users have been bullied online. 3% confess to having bullied others. •81% of US teens use privacy controls •62% friends only •19% friends of friendsSource: Teens, Kindness and Cruelty on Social Network SitesHow American teens navigate the new world of "digital citizenshipPew Internet & American Life Project, November 2011* EU Kids Online, Sept 2011
Top 10 myths about children’s online risks1 Digital natives know it all: Only 36% 9- 7 Offline risks migrate online: It16-year-olds say it is very true that they cannot be assumed that those who areknow more about the internet than their low-risk offline are protected whileparents online.2 Everyone is creating their own content: 8 Putting the PC in the living roomOnly 20% recently used a file-sharing site or will help: Advice is out of datecreated an avatar, half that number wrote ablog. Most children use the internet for 9 Teaching digital skills reducesready-made content. online risk: The more digital skills a child has, the more risks they are likely3 Under 13s can’t use social networking: to encounter as they broaden their38% of 9-12-year-olds have a social online experience. What more skills cannetworking profile. do is reduce the potential harm that risks can bring.4 Everyone watches porn online: One inseven children saw sexual images online in 10 Children can get around safetythe past year software: Fewer than one in three 11- 16 year-olds say they can change filter5 Bullies are baddies: 60% who bully preferences. And most say their(online or offline) have been bullied only 1% parents’ actions to limit their internethad a bad experience. activity is helpful. Source: EU Kids Online / Sept 2011
How you treat others affects your risk “Among those who do not bully others, being bullied is relatively rare 8% offline only, and 4% online”* “Youth who engage in online aggressive behavior by making rude or nasty comments or frequently embarrassing others are more than twice as likely to report online interpersonal victimization.” +
We are not raising a generation of monsters • Most kids don’t bully • Most kids (69%) say people their age are mostly kind to each other on social networking sites • 20% have been bullied in past year • 12% have been bullied in person • 15% have been victims of “online meanness.”Source: Teens, Kindness and Cruelty on Social Network SitesHow American teens navigate the new world of "digital citizenshipPew Internet & American Life Project, November 2011
Social norms approach • People emulate how they think their peers behave • If people think their friends don’t smoke, they’re less likely to smoke. • Same is true with over-eating, excessive alcohol use and other negative behaviors, including bullying**Assessing Bullying in New Jersey Secondary Schools: Applying theSocial Norms Model to Adolescent Violence: Craig, Perkins 2008
Source: Assessing Bullying in New Jersey Secondary Schools: Applying the SocialNorms Model to Adolescent Violence: Craig, Perkins 2008
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