What is biometrics?Generally, the study of measurable biologicalcharacteristics. In computer security OR informationtechnology, biometrics refers to authenticationtechniques that rely on measureable physicalcharacteristics that can be automatically checked.There are several types of biometric identification scheme: Face: the analysis of facial characteristics.Fingerprint: the analysis of an individual’s unique fingerprints.Hand geometry: the analysis of the shape of the hand and the lengthof the finger.Retina: the analysis of the capillary vessels located at the back of theeye.
Iris: the analysis of the colored ring that surrounds the eye.Signature: the analysis of the way a persons signs hisname.Vein: the analysis of pattern of veins in the back of the handand the wrist.Voice: the analysis of the tone,pitch,cadence and frequencyof a person’s voice.
Biometric characteristics – this can be divided in two mainclasses-Physiological are Behavioral are related to the shape of related to the behavior of the body. They include a person. They include- • Typing rhythm• Fingerprint • Gait• Face recognition • Voice.• DNA• Palm print• Iris recognition• Hand geometry
A biometric system can operate in thefollowing two modes: • VERIFICATION- a one to one comparison of a captured biometric with a stored template to verify that the individual is who he claims to be. Can be done in conjunction with a smartcard, username or id number. ?
• IDENTIFICATION-A one to many comparison of the captured biometric against a biometric database in attempt to identify an unknown individual. The identification only succeeds in identifying the individual if the comparison of the biometric sample to an template in the database falls within a previously set threshold. ?
HOW DOES BIOMETRICSYSTEM WORKS:- •The first time an individual uses a biometric system is called an enrollment. During an enrollment, biometric information from an individual is stored.• In subsequent uses, biometric information is detected and compared with the information stored at the time of enrollment.
• The first block (SENSOR) is the interface between the real world and the system; it has to acquire all the necessary data.• Most of the time it is an image acquisition system; but it can change according to the characteristics desired.• second block performs all the necessary pre-processing:it has to remove artifacts fromsensor, to enhance the input, to use some kind ofnormalisation.
• In the third block necessary features are extracted. This step is an important step as the correct features need to be extracted optimal way.• A vector of numbers of or an image with a particular properties is used to create a TEMPLATE.• A template is synthesis of the relevant characteristics extracted from the source.• If a matching phase is being performed, the obtained template is passed to a matcher that compares it with other existing templates,estimating the distance between them using any algorithm.• The matching program will analyze the template with the input. This will then be the output for any specified use or purpose.
Biometrics In Detail.
Finger-scan• A live acquisition of a person’s fingerprint.• Image Acquisition Image Processing Template Creation Template Matching• Acquisition Devices: – Glass plate – Electronic – Ultrasound
Fingerprint SWAD• Strengths: – Fingerprints don’t change over time – Widely believed fingerprints are unique• Weaknesses: – Scars• Attacks: – Surgery to alter or remove prints – Finger Decapitation – “Gummy fingers” – Corruption of the database• Defenses: – Measure physical properties of a live finger (pulse)
Iris Scan: SWAD • Strengths: – 300+ characteristics; 200 required for match • Weaknesses: – Fear – Discomfort – Proprietary acquisition device – Algorithms may not work on all individuals – No large databases • Attacks: – Surgery (Minority Report ) • Defenses:
Hand Scan• Typical systems measure 90 different features: – Overall hand and finger width – Distance between joints – Bone structure• Strengths: – No negative connotations – non-intrusive – Reasonably robust systems• Weaknesses: – Accuracy is limited; can only be used for 1-to-1 verification – Bulky scanner
Biometric applications I. Physical Access. II. Pc And Control Network. III. Time And Attendance. IV. Logical Access V. Financial Security. VI. Law Enforcement. VII. Immigrations And Airports.
CONCLUSION Technology is growing rapidly, but at the same time security breaches and transaction fraud are also in the increase in the world over .All agencies that are in need of security have adopted biometrics. “THE FUTURE DEPENDS UPON WHAT WE DO IN THE PRESENT” -MAHATMA GANDHI.Let us hope for better and safe future.