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Lecture2 (1)
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Lecture2 (1)

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  • 1. 1. Overview of Machining Technology2. Theory of Chip Formation in Metal Machining3. Force Relationships and the Merchant Equation4. Power and Energy Relationships in Machining5. Cutting Temperature ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
  • 2. A family of shaping operations, the common feature of which is removal of material from a starting workpart so the remaining part has the desired geometry Machining – material removal by a sharp cutting tool, e.g., turning, milling, drilling Abrasive processes – material removal by hard, abrasive particles, e.g., grinding Nontraditional processes - various energy forms other than sharp cutting tool to remove material ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
  • 3. Machining Cutting action involves shear deformation of work material to form a chip  As chip is removed, new surface is exposed(a) A cross-sectional view of the machining process, (b) tool with negative rake angle; compare with positive rake angle in (a). ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
  • 4.  Variety of work materials can be machined ◦ Most frequently used to cut metals  Variety of part shapes and special geometric features possible, such as: ◦ Screw threads ◦ Accurate round holes ◦ Very straight edges and surfaces  Good dimensional accuracy and surface finish  Generally performed after other manufacturing processes, such as casting, forging, and bar drawingDisadvantages • Wasteful of material and time consuming ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
  • 5.  Most important machining operations: ◦ Turning ◦ Drilling ◦ Milling Other machining operations: ◦ Shaping and planing ◦ Broaching ◦ Sawing ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
  • 6. TurningSingle point cutting tool removes material froma rotating workpiece to form a cylindrical shape ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
  • 7. DrillingUsed to create a round hole, usually by means of a rotating tool (drill bit) with two cutting edges ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
  • 8. Milling Rotating multiple-cutting-edge tool is moved across work to cut a plane or straight surface  Two forms: peripheral milling and face milling(c ) peripheral milling, and (d) face milling. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
  • 9. Cutting Tools (a) A single-point tool showing rake face, flank, and tool point; and(b) a helical milling cutter, representative of tools with multiple cuttingedges. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
  • 10.  Three dimensions of a machining process: ◦ Cutting speed v – primary motion ◦ Feed f – secondary motion ◦ Depth of cut d – penetration of tool below original work surface For certain operations, material removal rate can be computed as MRR = v f d where v = cutting speed; f = feed; d = depth of cut ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
  • 11.  Roughing - removes large amounts of material from starting workpart ◦ Creates shape close to desired geometry, but leaves some material for finish cutting ◦ High feeds and depths, low speeds Finishing - completes part geometry ◦ Final dimensions, tolerances, and finish ◦ Low feeds and depths, high cutting speeds ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
  • 12. A power-driven machine that performs a machining operation, including grinding Functions in machining: ◦ Holds workpart ◦ Positions tool relative to work ◦ Provides power at speed, feed, and depth that have been set The term is also applied to machines that perform metal forming operations ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
  • 13. Orthogonal Cutting Model Simplified 2-D model of machining that describes the mechanics of machining fairly accurately Orthogonal cutting: (a) as a three-dimensional process. to r = tc chip ratio always less than 1.0 Based on the geometric parameters of the orthogonal model, the shear plane angle φ can be determined as: r cos αtan φ = where r = chip ratio, & α = rake angle 1 − r sinα ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
  • 14. Shear Strain in Chip FormationShear strain during chip formation: (a) chip formation depicted as a series ofparallel plates sliding relative to each other, (b) one of the plates isolated toshow shear strain, and (c) shear strain triangle used to derive strain equation. γ = tan(φ - α) + cot φ where γ = shear strain, φ = shear plane angle, and α = rake angle of cutting tool ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
  • 15. Chip FormationMore realistic view of chip formation, showing shear zone ratherthan shear plane. Also shown is the secondary shear zone resultingfrom tool-chip friction. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
  • 16. 1. Discontinuous chip2. Continuous chip3. Continuous chip with Built-up Edge (BUE)4. Serrated chip ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
  • 17. Discontinuous ChipBrittle workmaterials Low cutting speeds Large feed and depth of cut High tool-chip frictionFour types of chip formation in metal cutting: (a) discontinuous ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
  • 18. Continuous Chip Ductile work materials High cutting speeds Small feeds and depths Sharp cutting edge Low tool-chip friction(b) continuous ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
  • 19. Continuous with BUE Ductile materials Low-to-medium cutting speeds Tool-chip friction causes portions of chip to adhere to rake face BUE forms, then breaks off, cyclically(c) continuous with built-upedge ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
  • 20. Serrated Chip Semicontinuous - saw-tooth appearance Cyclical chip forms with alternating high shear strain then low shear strain Associated with difficult-to- machine metals at high cutting speeds (d) serrated. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
  • 21. Forces Acting on Chip  Friction force F and Normal force to friction N  Shear force Fs and Normal force to shear FnForces in metal cutting: (a)forces acting on the chip inorthogonal cutting ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
  • 22.  Vector addition of F and N = resultant R Vector addition of Fs and Fn = resultant R Forces acting on the chip must be in balance: ◦ R must be equal in magnitude to R ◦ R’ must be opposite in direction to R ◦ R’ must be collinear with R ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
  • 23. Coefficient of friction between tool and chip: F µ= NFriction angle related to coefficient of frictionas follows: µ = tan β ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
  • 24. Shear stress acting along the shear plane: Fs S= Aswhere As = area of the shear plane t ow As = sin φShear stress = shear strength of work materialduring cutting ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
  • 25. Cutting Force and Thrust Force  F, N, Fs, and Fn cannot be directly measured  Forces acting on the tool that can be measured: ◦ Cutting force Fc and Thrust force FtForces in metalcutting: (b) forcesacting on the tool thatcan be measured ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
  • 26.  Equations can be derived to relate the forces that cannot be measured to the forces that can be measured: F = Fc sinα + Ft cosα N = Fc cosα - Ft sinα Fs = Fc cosφ - Ft sinφ Fn = Fc sinφ + Ft cosφ Based on these calculated force, shear stress and coefficient of friction can be determined ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
  • 27.  Of all the possible angles at which shear deformation can occur, the work material will select a shear plane angle φ that minimizes energy, given by α β φ = 45 + − 2 2 Derived by Eugene Merchant Based on orthogonal cutting, but validity extends to 3-D machining ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
  • 28. α β φ = 45 + − 2 2 To increase shear plane angle ◦ Increase the rake angle ◦ Reduce the friction angle (or coefficient of friction) ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
  • 29. Effect of Higher Shear Plane Angle  Higher shear plane angle means smaller shear plane which means lower shear force, cutting forces, power, and temperatureEffect of shear plane angle φ : (a) higher φ with a resulting lower shearplane area; (b) smaller φ with a corresponding larger shear planearea. Note that the rake angle is larger in (a), which tends to increaseshear angle according to the Merchant equation ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
  • 30.  A machining operation requires power The power to perform machining can be computed from: Pc = Fc v where Pc = cutting power; Fc = cutting force; and v = cutting speed ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
  • 31.  Useful to convert power into power per unit volume rate of metal cut  Called unit power, Pu Pc PU = MRRUnit power is also known as the specific energy U Pc Fc v U = Pu = = RMR vtow Units for specific energy are typically N-m/mm3 or J/mm3 ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
  • 32.  Approximately 98% of the energy in machining is converted into heat This can cause temperatures to be very high at the tool-chip The remaining energy (about 2%) is retained as elastic energy in the chip ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
  • 33. High cutting temperatures1. Reduce tool life2. Produce hot chips that pose safety hazards to the machine operator3. Can cause inaccuracies in part dimensions due to thermal expansion of work material ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
  • 34.  Analytical method derived by Nathan Cook from dimensional analysis using experimental data for various work materials 0.333 0.4U  vt o  T =   ρC  K  where T = temperature rise at tool-chip interface; U = specific energy; v = cutting speed; to = chip thickness before cut; ρC = volumetric specific heat of work material; K = thermal diffusivity of work material ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
  • 35.  Experimental methods can be used to measure temperatures in machining ◦ Most frequently used technique is the tool-chip thermocouple Using this method, Ken Trigger determined the speed-temperature relationship to be of the form: T = K vm where T = measured tool-chip interface temperature, and v = cutting speed ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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