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Wto intro

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GIVE YOU GENERAL IDEA ABOUT WTO

GIVE YOU GENERAL IDEA ABOUT WTO

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  • 1. Introduction to the World Trade Organization
  • 2. What Is the WTO? One Opinion:
  • 3. World Trade Organization: History
    • Mid-1940s:
      • Meeting in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, Created IMF and World Bank
      • US tried to create ITO = International Trade Organization
      • Interim agreement: GATT = General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
      • When ITO failed to be approved (by US!), GATT governed trade policy by default
  • 4. World Trade Organization: History
    • What GATT (and WTO) Does
      • Rules for trade policy
      • Forum for negotiation
        • Of both trade policies (tariffs) and rules
        • Negotiations take place in “Negotiating Rounds”
        • Decisions made at occasional meetings of trade ministers: “Ministerial Meetings”
          • (US trade minister is United States Trade Representative, Susan Schwab)
  • 5. World Trade Organization: Rounds Reduced tariffs 1947-61 1-5 Accomplishments Name Years No. Rounds of GATT Multilateral Trade Negotiations
  • 6. World Trade Organization: Rounds Tariffs + anti-dumping Kennedy 1964-67 6 Reduced tariffs 1947-61 1-5 Accomplishments Name Years No. Rounds of GATT Multilateral Trade Negotiations
  • 7. World Trade Organization: Rounds Tariffs + NTBs Tokyo 1973-79 7 Tariffs + anti-dumping Kennedy 1964-67 6 Reduced tariffs 1947-61 1-5 Accomplishments Name Years No. Rounds of GATT Multilateral Trade Negotiations
  • 8. World Trade Organization: Rounds Tariffs, NTBs, Services, Intellectual Property, Textiles, Ag., Dispute Settlement, Created WTO Uruguay 1986-94 8 Tariffs + NTBs Tokyo 1973-79 7 Tariffs + anti-dumping Kennedy 1964-67 6 Reduced tariffs 1947-61 1-5 Accomplishments Name Years No. Rounds of GATT Multilateral Trade Negotiations
  • 9. World Trade Organization: Rounds ? (Doha Development Agenda) Doha 2001-? 9 Tariffs, NTBs, Services, Intellectual Property, Textiles, Ag., Dispute Settlement, Created WTO Uruguay 1986-94 8 Tariffs + NTBs Tokyo 1973-79 7 Tariffs + anti-dumping Kennedy 1964-67 6 Reduced tariffs 1947-61 1-5 Accomplishments Name Years No. Rounds of GATT Multilateral Trade Negotiations
  • 10. World Trade Organization: History
    • What GATT (and WTO) Does NOT Do
      • Regulate international financial transactions and markets
        • Except in recent negotiations on trade in financial services (e.g., banking, insurance)
        • That’s left up to IMF
      • Assist developing countries
        • Even though current Round is “Doha Development Agenda”
        • That’s left up to World Bank
  • 11. World Trade Organization: Rounds
    • How negotiations take place
      • On Tariffs:
        • Tariff cuts are negotiated between “principal supplier” country and “principal demander” country
          • Cuts are extended to all other members
          • But large countries dominate this process
          • In recent rounds, negotiations start with a formula for tariff cuts, then negotiate exceptions
      • On Rules:
        • Groups of countries draft changes, then persuade others
        • Again, large countries dominate
  • 12. World Trade Organization: Rounds
    • Do small and poor countries lose?
      • They need not lose, if they participate in the process
        • They benefit from the “rule of law”: Otherwise the large countries would be even more powerful
        • By grouping together, they can also exert bargaining power
      • They may well lose if they do not participate: growth of trade may exclude them
  • 13. World Trade Organization: Today
    • WTO Today
      • Established Jan 1, 1995
      • Members: 149
        • Most recent: Saudi Arabia December 2005
        • Including: China (as of 2001)
        • Not including: Russia, Iran, Iraq, N. Korea
        • Vietnam in process of being admitted
      • Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland
      • (also home of ILO, WIPO, and others)
  • 14. World Trade Organization: Today
    • WTO’s Three Parts
      • GATT (Still exists, as largest part of WTO)
      • GATS = General Agreement on Trade in Services
      • TRIPs Agreement = Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
  • 15. World Trade Organization: Today
    • WTO’s Most Basic Principles
      • MFN = Most Favored Nation
        • Each member country should treat all members as well as it treats its “most favored nation” (i.e., the member that it treats the best)
      • National Treatment
        • Once a product or seller has entered a country, it should be treated the same as products or sellers that originated inside that country
      • (There are many exceptions to both of these principles)
  • 16. World Trade Organization: Today
    • WTO Decision Making
      • Decisions by consensus: all 149 countries must agree, at ministerial meetings
        • In contrast to IMF and World Bank
      • In practice, large and rich countries dominate this process
        • They first agree among themselves
        • (This done in “Green Room”)
        • Then seek consensus based on that
      • Is this “democratic”
        • Yes: Every country has one vote
        • No: Rich countries dominate decisions
  • 17. WTO Functions
    • See table in Deardorff
    Dispute Settlement Exceptions Constraints Communication Functional Outline of the World Trade Organization
  • 18. WTO Functions Trade Ministers (USTR, etc.) Meet Every Two Years Tariff Reductions; Changes in Rules Councils and Committees Trade Policy Review Mechanism Working Groups Negotiating Rounds Ministerials Communications
  • 19. WTO Functions Countries negotiate and commit to maximum tariffs National Treatment for Service Firms Enforce Patents, Copyrights, Trademarks Intellectual Property (TRIPs) Services (GATS) Foreign Direct Investment (TRIMS) Subsidies Quantitative Restrictions Product Regulations Customs Valuation Tariff Bindings Constraints
  • 20. WTO Functions Allows NAFTA, EU, etc. Permitted, not required Preferential Trade Agreements Balance of Payments Protection Safeguards Countervailing Duties Anti-Dumping Exceptions
  • 21. WTO Functions 3-person Panel Decides Case The Ultimate Remedy: Permit Tariffs Retaliation Remedy Appellate Body Panel Recommendation Consultation Compensation Implementation Dispute Settlement
  • 22. Bottom Line
    • WTO extends the Rule of Law to international commercial policies.
    • As such, it protects small and weak countries from abuse by larger, more powerful ones.